The Middle Ages. Name Period

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "The Middle Ages. Name Period"

Transcription

1 The Middle Ages Period

2 The Early Middle Ages SLMS/09 The Dark Ages The term the Middle Ages was coined by historians who did not know what to call the time period between the classical era (Rome) and the rebirth of the classical era, (ie. the Renaissance), in Europe. The concept of The Dark Ages, was introduced by Petrarch (an Italian scholar of the 1300s), and refers to the time period directly after the Fall of Rome until the rise of feudalism roughly from CE. It is also called the early Middle Ages. The Dark Ages were initially characterized by waves of tribal invasions and migrations (from ). In general this time period yielded few artistic, architectural or technological innovations or accomplishments. A Muslim Europe? By 700, Europeans faced a new threat this time, from the Middle East. Muslim Arabs had rapidly conquered northern and eastern Africa, and had pushed into Spain as well. They were making their way into the rest of the continent, and spreading Islam in their wake. In 732, Charles Martel was the ruler of the Franks a Germanic people with a Kingdom in Central & Western Europe. Martel fought the Muslims at the Battle of Tours in France, and was able to stop their advance into the rest of Western Europe. Historians often consider this battle to be one of the most influential because of the historic implications for Europe. The Fall of Rome Rome fell in 476 as a result of many factors, but ultimately because of the invasions of the Huns. As Rome fell, Western Europe experienced a power vacuum, since there was no state or tribe powerful enough to succeed the Empire. Without Rome as a centralizing and unifying factor, various tribes, such as the Lombards, Goths, Visigoths, Vandals, Ostrogoths, Huns, Franks, Angles & Saxons swarmed Europe. It was a chaotic and violent time. Charlemagne Charlemagne was the grandson of Charles Martel, and his name means Charles the Great. He is known for expanding the Frankish Kingdom into an Empire, and creating the Carolingian Dynasty. Charlemagne worked to bring culture and learning to his kingdom. He opened Churches and palace schools, and encouraged the development of literacy. The font Carolingian was developed at this time. Charlemagne was crowned the First Holy Roman Emperor in 800, loosely reviving the power of Ancient Rome. It was really the first large centralized state Europe had seen since Rome, but it was not to last. According to Frankish custom, the father s possessions were divided among the sons, and Charlemagne s kingdom was divided among his heirs.

3 Early Middle Ages 1. What did the term Middle Ages refer to? 5. What threat did Europe face in the 700s? 2. Who coined the term Dark Ages? 6. Who was Charles Martel? What did it refer to? What did he do? 3. What was the Dark Ages characterized by? 7. Why might the Battle of Tours be considered a turning point in world history? 8. Who was Charlemagne? Why do you think it was named a Dark age? What is he known for? (At least 3 things ) 4. When did Rome fall? What happened to Western Europe as a result? (2 things ) 9. What was the Holy Roman Empire? What was its significance? 10. What happened to Charlemagne s kingdom?

4 Early Middle Ages Key 1. What did the term Middle Ages refer to? The time period between the classical era (Rome) and the rebirth of the classical era, (ie. the Renaissance), in Europe. 2. Who coined the term Dark Ages? Petrarch (an Italian scholar of the 1300s) What did it refer to? It refers to the time period directly after the Fall of Rome until the rise of feudalism roughly from CE. 3. What were the Dark Ages characterized by? By waves of tribal invasions and migrations (from ). In general this time period yielded few artistic, architectural or technological innovations or accomplishments. Why do you think it was named a Dark age? Because it yielded few artistic, architectural or technological innovations or accomplishments, it was a period of darkness or ignorance. 4. When did Rome fall? 476 CE What happened to Western Europe as a result? (2 things ) 1) Europe experienced a power vacuum as a result of the fall of Rome, and had no centralized authority. 2) Various tribes, such as the Lombards, Goths, Visigoths, Vandals, Ostrogoths, Huns, Franks, Angles & Saxons swarmed Europe. It was a chaotic and violent time. 5. What threat did Europe face in the 700s? Muslim Arabs had rapidly conquered northern and eastern Africa, and had pushed into Spain as well. They were making their way into the rest of the continent, and spreading Islam in their wake. 6. Who was Charles Martel? Ruler of the Franks What did he do? In 732, Martel fought the Muslims at the Battle of Tours in France, and was able to stop their advance into the rest of Western Europe. 7. Why might the Battle of Tours be considered a turning point in world history? Had Muslim Armies conquered, ruled and converted Europe to Islam, the history of the world might have altered greatly. 8. Who was Charlemagne? The grandson of Charles Martel What is he known for? (At least 3 things ) 1) Expanded the Frankish Empire, formed the Carolingian Dynasty. 2) Emphasized culture and learning. Opened churches & schools, promoted literacy. 3) Crowned the 1st Holy Roman Emperor. 9. What was the Holy Roman Empire? What was its significance? A political empire of central Europe. It was really the first large centralized state Europe had seen since Rome. 10. What happened to Charlemagne s kingdom? It was divided among his heirs.

5 Feudalism SLMS/09 What is Feudalism? Feudalism is an all-in-one system it includes a political, economic and a social structure. Officially, it is a system in which land or services are exchanged for protection or loyalty. Politically, Politically feudalism tends to be a decentralized system. Although there is a king or ruler who in theory has the most power, the authority wielded by the king is not overwhelming, and is generally limited somewhat by the power of local lords. Economically, Economically feudalism is grounded in the possession of land. In general, land = power and money. Therefore, the economy tends to be agrarian. In fact, often feudal economies operate on the barter system, without currency, much trade, or a sophisticated economic construct. Socially, Socially feudalism yields a fairly rigid and stratified social structure. Social position is generally determined by the quantity of land owned, and that is generally determined by birth. European Feudal Social Structure The upper classes comprised, perhaps, 5% of the general population in Medieval Europe. In order, the classes were made up of the King, lords, lesser lords and knights. Knights were the warrior class, and generally were the younger sons of lords or lesser lords. The lower classes were the other 95% of the population and were made up of merchants & artisans, peasants and serfs. How does it work? In theory, the King owns all of the land in the kingdom. He cannot possibly oversee the administration of it all, so he divides the land and delegates administration of that land to his friends. Each of his friends is called a lord, and is put in charge of an enormous tract of land. (The King also has his own tract of land.) In reality, these tracts are too much for one lord to administrate, so each lord will further sub-divide the land into smaller tracts which he will contract with lesser lords to administrate. These lesser lords owe loyalty and perhaps military service to the lord, just as the lord owes it to the king. It seems all neat and clear in terms of loyalties until some enterprising lesser lord signs a feudal contract with two different lords. He gains land and perhaps favors in return for service. It becomes messy when his two lords go to war with each other. As a lesser lord who has signed a feudal contract with each, he owes EACH military service and loyalty. Which one does he support in the conflict? Feudalism tended to create a web of confusing and conflicting loyalties. Feudal Contracts Feudal contracts were signed ONLY by members of the upper classes. In a feudal contract, a lesser lord received a fief (estate) from a lord, and promised certain specified services in return. Such services might include military service, days of labor, or percentage of crops harvested.

6 Feudalism 1. What is feudalism? 4. In theory, how does feudalism work? a. How is land divided? 2. Describe feudalism s impact b. Who is put in charge of it? c. What is owed? d. Why could this system become a complicated web of loyalties? 5. What is a feudal contract? Political Social Economic 6. Who are the parties in a feudal contract? 3. Describe feudalism s social structure. 7. What was exchanged?

7 Feudalism Key 1. What is feudalism? Feudalism is an all-in-one system it includes a political, economic and a social structure. Officially, it is a system in which land or services are exchanged for protection or loyalty. 2. Describe feudalism s impact 4. In theory, how does feudalism work? a. How is land divided? The King owns all of the land in the kingdom, and since he cannot possibly oversee the administration of it all, he divides it and delegates administration of that land to his friends. Feudalism tends to be a de-centralized system. Although there is a king or ruler who in theory has the most power, the authority wielded by the king is not overwhelming, and is generally limited somewhat by the power of local lords. Feudalism yields a fairly rigid and stratified social structure. Social position is generally determined by the quantity of land owned, and that is generally determined by birth. Feudalism is grounded in the possession of land. In general, land = power and money. Therefore, the economy tends to be agrarian. In fact, often feudal economies operate on the barter system, without currency, much trade, or a sophisticated economic construct. b. Who is put in charge of it? Each of his friends is called a lord, and is put in charge of an enormous tract of land. These tracts are too much for one lord to administrate, so each lord will further sub-divide the land into smaller tracts which he will contract with lesser lords to administrate. c. What is owed? The lesser lords owe loyalty and perhaps military service to the lord, just as the lord owes it to the king. d. Why could this system become a complicated web of loyalties? When lesser lords sign multiple feudal contracts and have multiple lords, this can become complicated especially when it comes to conflict and warfare. Political Social Economic 5. What is a feudal contract? Upper class agreement involving land & loyalty. 3. Describe feudalism s social structure. The upper classes were about 5% of the general population, and included King, lords, lesser lords and knights. The lower classes were the other 95% of the population and were made up of merchants & artisans, peasants and serfs. 6. Who are the parties in a feudal contract? Lords and Lesser Lords (or Lords and King). 7. What was exchanged? A fief (estate) was given in exchange for service (military, labor or % of crops).

8 The Church SLMS/09 The Roman Catholic Church In the absence of a unified, centralized, powerful government (ie. Rome), the Catholic Church played an important role in Western Europe. Eventually, the Catholic Church became the only commonality in Europe. As tribes filtered through, and eventually converted, the only thing that all Europeans had in common was the Christian Church. The Church, in essence, became the centralizing factor in Europe. Role of the Church The Church played many roles for many years in Western Europe. First of all it was the only source of literacy and education in Western Europe for centuries. Priests, monks, nuns and bishops needed to be literate in Latin (the language of the Church and most Bibles at the time). They also tended to be literate in their own language. This made clergy invaluable to the nobility and in royal courts during the early and middle Middle Ages, because most people (including the upper classes) were illiterate. The nobles needed the clergy to write and authenticate contracts of all sorts. Along the same lines, monks spent years painstakingly copying all kinds of manuscripts. As such, the Church became important in the preservation of the Western cultural heritage. Finally, it was the job of the Church to administer the sacraments special rites and rituals important to Christianity. The Church s Power Because of the roles the Church played in Medieval life, it wielded a lot of power. In fact, the Catholic Church s power peaked during the Middle Ages in Europe. First power: Royal Favor. Because the Church clergy were the only literate ones in society, they were often called upon by nobles or the king, to write, translate or witness contracts. These acts curried favor with important and powerful people, and as a result, clergy often received gifts or favors for these services. Second power: Monopoly. The Catholic Church was the only game in town. That is to say, the Church was the only source of Christianity in Western Europe. This yielded tremendous power. Third power: Control of the Sacraments. Since the Church dispensed the sacraments, they had control over who received them. To be denied the sacraments was to be denied entrance to Heaven. The sacraments included things like baptism, confirmation, communion, confession, and the last rites. Without the sacraments, a person was in danger of eternal damnation. Denial of the sacraments was known as excommunication. Popes sometimes excommunicated kings who crossed them. They could also excommunicate an entire region this was known as an Interdict. Fourth power: Land. The Church became one of the largest landowners in Europe. Much of this land was given as favors for services rendered to powerful people. As such, Church bishops often became powerful feudal lords.

9 The Church 1. What kind of force was the Catholic Church in Europe during the Middle Ages? 5. Describe the powers of the Church. a. 2. Why was it such a powerful force? b. 3. Explain the role the Church played in: a. Education > c. b. Literature > d. c. Sacraments > 6. Define: Excommunication 4. When did the Church s power reach its peak? 7. Define: Interdict

10 The Church Key 1. What kind of force was the Catholic Church in Europe during the Middle Ages? It was a centralizing and unifying force in Europe. 2. Why was it such a powerful force? The Catholic Church became the only commonality in Europe, and in the absence of a powerful central government, the Church became that centralizing force. 3. Explain the role the Church played in: a. Education > It was the only source of literacy and education in Western Europe for centuries. Priests, monks, nuns and bishops needed to be literate in Latin (the language of the Church and most Bibles at the time). They also tended to be literate in their own language. b. Literature > Monks spent years painstakingly copying all kinds of manuscripts. As such, the Church became important in the preservation of the Western cultural heritage. c. Sacraments > The Church controlled and administered the sacraments special rites and rituals important to Christianity. 4. When did the Church s power reach its peak? The Catholic Church s power peaked during the Middle Ages in Europe. 5. Describe the powers of the Church. a. Royal Favor: Because the Church clergy were the only literate ones in society, they were often called upon by nobles or the king, to write, translate or witness contracts. These acts curried favor with important and powerful people, and as a result, clergy often received gifts or favors for these services. b. Monopoly: The Catholic Church was the only game in town. That is to say, the Church was the only source of Christianity in Western Europe. c. Control of the Sacraments: Since the Church dispensed the sacraments, they had control over who received them. To be denied the sacraments was to be denied entrance to Heaven. The sacraments included things like baptism, confirmation, communion, confession, and the last rites. Without the sacraments, a person was in danger of eternal damnation. d. Land: The Church became one of the largest landowners in Europe. Much of this land was given as favors for services rendered to powerful people. As such, Church bishops often became powerful feudal lords. 6. Define: Excommunication Denial of the sacraments, an expulsion from the Church 7. Define: Interdict the excommunication of an entire region

11 The High Middle Ages SLMS/09 The High Middle Ages The High Middle Ages refers to the period near the end of the Middle Ages from Many believe that the roots of the Renaissance were planted during this time. This time was characterized by a revival of education. Many major European Universities were established during the High Middle Ages, including the Universities at Bologna, Oxford, Cambridge, Paris, Salamanca and Padua. These schools were originally established under the auspices of the Church, and by the end of the era, they were accepting lay students the sons of wealthy lords. This time period was also characterized by a decline in Barbarian invasions, and an increase in political organization & centralization. Decentralized feudalism reached its peak in the 1000s, and steadily increased its centralization in the person of the king. A Revival of Trade The High Middle Ages was also characterized by a revival in trade. This revival was largely a result of the Crusades the series of Holy Wars fought in the Middle East. Much trade came through the Middle East to traders in the Italian city states especially in Venice. In Northern Europe, several cities formed an alliance of trading states known as the Hanseatic League. Cities like Lübeck, Hanover, Cologne, and Amsterdam maintained a trade monopoly along the coast of Northern Europe. New Styles of Architecture Most notable about the High Middle Age period was the new style of Church architecture that was developed. Until this time, the principal style of Church architecture was Romanesque, and was reminiscent of Ancient Rome. Churches of this style had heavy domes, pillars and vaulted arches. The problem with this architectural design was that as the walls got higher, or the domes got bigger, the pillars and walls supporting the weight became thicker and thicker. Windows were openings in the walls, and they cut the supportive nature of the wall. Thus, windows in Romanesque churches tended to be small, or located in the dome area. A new architectural innovation, the Flying Buttress, was utilized in the period and became common in the new Church architecture known as Gothic. This buttress was a support that existed outside the walls of the cathedral. Stone arms connected the buttress to the wall, and the Flying Arm weight of the roof, the spire (tall pointed tower), and the wall was channeled down the arm into the outside support. Buttress Wall Thus the walls of a Gothic cathedral could be thin, and cut with huge windows. One of the characteristics of Gothic cathedrals are the huge stained glass windows. These windows typically illustrate Biblical stories, as a method of education. Since most common people of this time were illiterate, the stories served educational purposes on the Christian faith.

12 High Middle Ages 1. What does the High Middle Ages refer to? 6. What were windows like in this style of church? Why? 2. Describe 2 things that characterized this time period. a. 7. What was the new architectural innovation of this period? How did it work? b. 8. Sketch the Flying Buttress. 3. What helped to revive trade? 4. What was the Hanseatic League? What did it do? 9. What did the buttress allow, architecturally, in the Gothic Cathedral? 5. Describe Romanesque architecture. 10. How were stained glass windows used in Cathedrals? What was the problem with this style?

13 High Middle Ages Key 1. What does the High Middle Ages refer to? The High Middle Ages refers to the period near the end of the Middle Ages from Describe 2 things that characterized this time period. a. A revival of education. Many major European Universities were established during the High Middle Ages, including the Universities at Bologna, Oxford, Cambridge, Paris, Salamanca and Padua. b. A decline in Barbarian invasions, and an increase in political organization & centralization. 3. What helped to revive trade? The Crusades. Crusaders brought back Middle Eastern goods, and revived interest in trade. 4. What was the Hanseatic League? An alliance of trading states. What did it do? Regulated and monopolized trade in northern Europe. 5. Describe Romanesque architecture. Churches of this style had heavy domes, pillars and vaulted arches. What was the problem with this style? The problem with this architectural design was that as the walls got higher, or the domes got bigger, the pillars and walls supporting the weight became thicker and thicker. 6. What were windows like in this style of church? Why? Windows were openings in the walls, and they cut the supportive nature of the wall. Thus, windows in Romanesque churches tended to be small, or located in the dome area. 7. What was the new architectural innovation of this period? The Flying Buttress. How did it work? The buttress was a support that existed outside the walls of the cathedral. Stone arms connected the buttress to the wall, and the weight of the roof, the spire (tall pointed tower), and the wall was channeled down the arm into the outside support. 8. Sketch the Flying Buttress. Sketches will vary, but should resemble 9. What did the buttress allow, architecturally, in the Gothic Cathedral? The walls of a Gothic cathedral could be thin, and cut with huge windows. One of the characteristics of Gothic cathedrals are the huge stained glass windows. 10. How were stained glass windows used in Cathedrals? The windows typically illustrate Biblical stories, as a method of education. Since most people of this time were illiterate, the stories served to educate on the Christian faith.

14 The Crusades SLMS/09 The Crusades The term Crusades generally refers to a series of Holy Wars that lasted nearly 200 years between Christian Europeans and the Muslim Turks of the Middle East. The first Crusade was initiated by Pope Urban II in 1095 at the Council of Clermont. The Byzantine Emperor Alexius I asked the Pope for help in defending his Empire against the expansion of the Seljuk Turks. The Turks had recently conquered the Holy Land of Jerusalem. The Byzantine Emperor sought help from the west, and the Pope saw an opportunity to extend his influence. Keeping in mind that the East-West Schism occurred in 1054, the Pope saw this as an opportunity to reconcile the two churches. The Pope also saw this as a way to channel the energies of the military segment of society. In other words, knights and warriors were creating a significant amount of violence in European society violence that was better aimed at the Middle East. Course of the Crusades Overall, there were nearly a dozen crusades over the course of 200 years. Some were more successful than others (some were dismal failures). In each crusade, a military effort was mounted to regain the Holy Land of Jerusalem, and in some cases, they were met with success. In general however, the Byzantine Empire, or the Crusader states that were set up in the Holy Land, were too weak to hold the territory, and they reverted back to Muslim possession Results of the Crusades The results of the Crusades cannot be evaluated simply on the basis of their military success or failure. Clearly, they were considered military failures for Western Europe, however, they yielded important social, political and economic effects. Economic Effects: One of the largest and most important impacts of the Crusades was the increase of trade that was stimulated within Europe and between Europe and the Middle East. Goods from the Middle and Far East flowed into Europe en masse for the first time since the fall of Rome. Roman roads, long unused in Medieval Europe, were bustling with trade and travel by the end of the Crusades. More than just goods flowed into Europe. Technology and innovation like the astrolabe and compass also arrived, and began to stimulate European interest in exploration. Political Effects: The increase in trade would help bring about the end of feudalism. Trade necessitated the growth of towns, and towns lay outside the manor system and outside the control of lords. Towns were under the control of kings, and kings gained substantial power over lords as a result. The Church also lost power during this time, and national monarchies began to take shape with the rise of powerful kings. Social Effects: The split between the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church was solidified in this time period. Western crusaders sacked Constantinople, and killed fellow Christians there. Bad feelings following this would persist.

15 The Crusades 1. What were the Crusades? 6. Describe the effects of the Crusades. Economic 2. Who called for the first crusade? When? Where? 3. Who asked the Pope for help? Why? Political 4. Describe 2 motivations for the Pope to call for the Crusades. a. Social b. 5. How many crusades were there? What were the military results? 7. Why do you think some historians refer to the Crusades as the most successful failures in history?

16 The Crusades Key 1. What were the Crusades? The term Crusades generally refers to a series of Holy Wars that lasted nearly 200 years between Christian Europeans and the Muslim Turks of the Middle East. 2. Who called for the first crusade? When? Where? The first Crusade was initiated by Pope Urban II in 1095 at the Council of Clermont. 3. Who asked the Pope for help? Why? The Byzantine Emperor Alexius I asked the Pope for help in defending his Empire against the expansion of the Seljuk Turks. 4. Describe 2 motivations for the Pope to call for the Crusades. a. The Pope saw an opportunity to extend his influence. Keeping in mind that the East- West Schism occurred in 1054, the Pope saw this as an opportunity to reconcile the two churches. b. The Pope also saw this as a way to channel the energies of the military segment of society. In other words, knights and warriors were creating a significant amount of violence in European society violence that was better aimed at the Middle East. 5. How many crusades were there? What were the military results? Overall, there were nearly a dozen crusades over the course of 200 years. Some were more successful than others (some were dismal failures). Ultimately, even when military gains were made, the territory was not held, and it reverted to Turkish possession. 6. Describe the effects of the Crusades. Economic An increase of trade was stimulated between Europe and the Middle East. Goods from the Middle and Far East flowed into Europe en masse for the first time since the fall of Rome. Technology and innovation like the astrolabe and compass also arrived, and began to stimulate European interest in exploration. Political The increase in trade would help bring about the end of feudalism. Trade necessitated the growth of towns, and towns lay outside the manor system and outside the control of lords. Towns were under the control of kings, and kings gained substantial power over lords as a result. The Church also lost power during this time. Social The split between the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church was solidified in this time period. Western crusaders sacked Constantinople, and killed fellow Christians there. Bad feelings following this would persist. 7. Why do you think some historians refer to the Crusades as the most successful failures in history? Answers should probably reflect that although the Crusades failed militarily, they stimulated trade, helped end feudalism, and began to propel Europe toward the Renaissance.

17 The Development of Medieval Towns SLMS/09 The Revival of Trade The revival of Medieval trade occurred slowly over the centuries. As the impact of barbarian invasions lessened in the 10th century, travel became a bit safer. The pace of trade really picked up by the 1200s as a result of the Crusades. Armies of crusaders trekked to the Middle East and there encountered goods and luxuries not found in Europe. These goods and luxuries were brought back home, and a huge demand was created. Simultaneously, most of Eurasia was falling under Mongol rule. The Pax Mongolica (Mongol peace) created an increase in trade volume moving along the Silk Roads. Town Charters Towns often grew out of small villages in Manor systems. Eventually, most towns desired independence from the local lord, and sought a Charter of Liberation or a Charter of Rights from the king. With a Charter, towns could govern themselves, collect their own taxes and make their own rules. They owed nothing to the local lord. The town was independent. Town Charters were expensive to buy, however. As such, the issuing of town Charters became a major money-maker for many kings. It also hastened the decline of politically decentralized feudalism. Local lords lost revenue and power as towns became independent. Kings gained revenue (through the Charters), and power, beginning the centralizing process. The Growth of Towns As trade began to increase, towns began to grow in size and in number, because merchants and traders looked for an urban setting in which to exchange their goods. During the Early Middle Ages, towns had languished because travel was dangerous and trade had ground to a halt. In the late Middle Ages, town populations swelled not only with merchants, but with bankers, artisans, businessmen, laborers, and runaway serfs. These townspeople were often called burghers, after the town itself, the burg, burgh, or bourg. (It is why many towns or cities end with that suffix.) Serfs often tried to escape to independent Chartered towns. If a serf could live for a year and a day in a town without being caught, they were considered free. But it was difficult for serfs to do this. They usually had no money and few skills (aside from farming). Most turned to a life of crime to make a living. Many were caught and punished or returned to the manor. Conditions in towns were dangerous and filthy. Most buildings were constructed with wood and heated or lit with open flames creating a significant fire hazard. Crime was everywhere. There was no plumbing or sewers. Waste and garbage were tossed into the streets where stray dogs, cats or rats cleaned it up. This led to a large population of vermin, and contributed greatly to the rapid and deadly spread of the Black Plague in Europe in the 1300s.

18 Medieval Towns 1. What factors led to the revival of trade in Europe? 8. What types of people were found in Medieval towns? 2. What increased the volume of trade in Eurasia during this time? 9. What were these townspeople called? Where did that name come from? 3. How did towns obtain independence from lords and manors? 10. Why did serfs run to towns? 4. Why did towns want their independence? 11. What happened to them there? Why? 5. Why were kings eager to issue town charters? 12. Why was it dangerous to live in towns? 6. How did the increase in independent towns change the feudal balance of power and lead to a decline of feudalism? 13. What were the sanitary conditions (or lack thereof) like? 7. Why did towns begin to grow in the late Middle Ages? (& why not earlier?) 14. How did unsanitary conditions lead to the spread of plague?

19 Medieval Towns Key 1. What factors led to the revival of trade in Europe? Barbarian invasions lessened making travel safer, and trade picked up as a result of the Crusades. 2. What increased the volume of trade in Eurasia during this time? Most of Eurasia was falling under Mongol rule. The Pax Mongolica (Mongol peace) created an increase in trade volume moving along the Silk Roads. 3. How did towns obtain independence from lords and manors? Most towns received a Charter of Liberation or a Charter of Rights from the king. 4. Why did towns want their independence? Towns could govern themselves, collect their own taxes and make their own rules. They owed nothing to the local lord. 5. Why were kings eager to issue town charters? The issuing of town Charters became a major money-maker for many kings. 6. How did the increase in independent towns change the feudal balance of power and lead to a decline of feudalism? Local lords lost revenue and power as towns became independent, whereas Kings gained revenue and power, beginning the centralizing process. 7. Why did towns begin to grow in the late Middle Ages? (& why not earlier?) The revival of trade led to town development (an urban center of exchange), and it had become safer to travel. 8. What types of people were found in Medieval towns? Merchants, bankers, artisans, businessmen, laborers, and runaway serfs. 9. What were these townspeople called? Where did that name come from? Burghers, after the town itself, the burg, burgh, or bourg. 10. Why did serfs run to towns? If serfs could live a year and a day in a town without being caught, they were declared free. 11. What happened to them there? Why? Serfs usually had no money and few skills (aside from farming). Most turned to a life of crime to make a living. Many were caught and punished or returned to the manor. 12. Why was it dangerous to live in towns? Conditions in towns were dangerous and filthy. Most buildings were constructed with wood and heated or lit with open flames creating a significant fire hazard. Crime was everywhere. 13. What were the sanitary conditions (or lack thereof) like? There was no plumbing or sewers. Waste and garbage were tossed into the streets where stray dogs, cats or rats cleaned it up. 14. How did unsanitary conditions lead to the spread of plague? Garbage in the streets led to a large population of vermin (mice, rats), which carried plague via infected fleas.

20 The Decline of Feudalism SLMS/09 The Decline of Feudalism Feudalism was the functional system of the Middle Ages, and it worked well for many years. But slowly, things changed, and as such, the system began to decline. The Black Death The Black Plague was one of the worst pandemics in history. The outbreak peaked in Europe in the mid 1300s, and claimed more than 25 million victims, or 40% of Europe s population. The plague was spread by infected fleas that lived on rats. The filthy condition of European cities allowed for the rapid spread of this disease. The plague had many impacts on Europe, but one was that it hastened the decline of feudalism. Because so many people died in the pandemic, there was a scarcity of laborers. As such, serfs could demand their freedom from lords and peasants could demand greater plots of land in exchange for their labor. The feudal system began to fall apart. Military Factors The nature of warfare began to change in Europe in the 1300s. The first change came with the development of the English longbow. Suddenly, infantry who specialized in the bow were more important than mounted knights. More important, however, was the introduction of gunpowder from Asia. This would dramatically change Medieval warfare, since cannons could blow holes in castle walls. Economic Factors Feudalism had a land based economy and was predicated on the exchange of loyalties and services in relation to that land. As the Crusades helped foster a revival of trade, the economy of Europe began to shift away from land and toward commerce. In Feudalism, the Manor system was a self-sufficient unit. Middle Eastern trade offered products that a manor could not produce or provide. As towns developed in the wake of increased trade, they became independent of manors, further weakening the feudal system. Political Factors Feudalism tended to exist as a decentralized political system, but over time, there were factors that helped Kings to centralize their power, and thus, move away from the feudal system. Kings also gained power through the establishment of towns, even as lords lost power. The disaster of the Crusades and subsequent decline in power of the Catholic Church was one factor that led to the rise of powerful national monarchies. Kings were eager to hasten the decline of the Church since the Church was a major land-owner in Europe. Finally, as the economy became more commercial, lords and knights preferred to pay for their military obligation, rather than serve it themselves. Kings began to develop professional standing armies, ending the military aspect of feudalism.

21 Decline of Feudalism 1. What was the basis of the feudal economy? 2. Why did that economic basis begin to change after the Crusades? 8. Describe 2 ways warfare changed in the 1300s in Europe & how it helped the decline of feudalism. a. 3. What was the self-sufficient economic unit of feudalism? b. 4. Why did the economy shift away from the Manor system? 9. How did kings gain power over lords? 5. What was the Black Plague? 10. How did kings gain power at the expense of the Church? When did it hit Europe? How many fell victim? 6. How was it spread? 11. Why were kings eager to see the Church decline? 7. How did the plague hasten the decline of feudalism? 12. What brought about the end of the military aspect of feudalism?

22 Decline of Feudalism Key 1. What was the basis of the feudal economy? Land. 2. Why did that economic basis begin to change after the Crusades? As the Crusades helped foster a revival of trade, the economy of Europe began to shift away from land and toward commerce. 3. What was the self-sufficient economic unit of feudalism? The Manor System. 4. Why did the economy shift away from the Manor system? Middle Eastern trade offered products that a manor could not produce or provide. As towns developed in the wake of increased trade, they became independent of manors, further weakening the feudal system. 5. What was the Black Plague? The Black Plague was one of the worst pandemics in history. When did it hit Europe? Mid-1300s. How many fell victim? 25 million, or 40% of Europe s population. 6. How was it spread? The plague was spread by infected fleas that lived on rats. 7. How did the plague hasten the decline of feudalism? Because so many people died in the pandemic, there was a scarcity of laborers. As such, serfs could demand their freedom from lords and peasants could demand greater plots of land in exchange for their labor. 8. Describe 2 ways warfare changed in the 1300s in Europe & how it helped the decline of feudalism. a. The development of the English longbow. Suddenly, infantry who specialized in the bow were more important than mounted knights. b. the introduction of gunpowder from Asia. This would dramatically change Medieval warfare, since cannons could blow holes in castle walls. 9. How did kings gain power over lords? Through the establishment of towns. Towns operated independently of manor systems, and served to empower (and enrich) kings. 10. How did kings gain power at the expense of the Church? The Crusades were a disaster for the Church, and led to a loss of power. Kings were happy to usurp it. 11. Why were kings eager to see the Church decline? As a major land-owner, the King wanted to see the Church weaken in power and influence. 12. What brought about the end of the military aspect of feudalism? Kings began to develop independent, professional armies of their own. Thus they didn t need to rely on their lords.

23 Legal Disclaimers Thank you for your purchase. If you found this work useful, please consider rating this work and purchasing other readings by the same author. Also, please consider recommending this author s work to your colleagues Lauri Secker: The Lady Lion. All rights reserved. Reproduction of this work in another form, in part or in whole, is prohibited. Purchase of this unit entitles the purchaser the right to reproduce the pages in limited quantities for classroom use only. Duplication for an entire school, an entire school system or commercial purposes is strictly forbidden without written permission from the publisher. Electronic distribution limited to classroom use only. All images are property of Jupiterimages and are licensed for use in this work only. Any other use of these images without proper license is unauthorized and prohibited. For licensing information, see

24 Uses for Readings SLMS/10 Assignments using just the Readings & Questions: 1. Readings may be used as homework assignments. a. Assignments may be collected and graded. b. They may be used as the basis of large group class discussion. c. Students may be divided into small groups for discussion of the reading. Teacher may assess this any number of ways, and may choose to have the groups present key aspects of their discussion. d. Different readings may also be assigned to different groups of students, and used as a jigsaw activity the next day in class. Each group should discuss and then present key information from the reading while other groups make notes on their presentation (or fill in the question sheets). 2. Readings may be used as classwork assignments. a. Each reading may be used individually as part of the day s lesson to help present or solidify the day s material. The reading may be completed individually, or in groups, and may be used for large class or small group discussions. b. The readings may be used as a stations activity. The question sheets may be photocopied into a packet which students carry from station to station as they complete the different readings. Stations may take one minute block or two minute periods. c. In the interest of saving time, different readings may be completed by different groups for a jigsaw activity in which each group completes one reading, discusses it, and presents it to the class. Students should fill out the question sheets for other readings while groups are presenting. Project springboard Assignments: 3. Students (individually or in a group) may be asked to create a poster reflecting the important points of the reading. This may also be done as a jigsaw activity and used as a visual presentation aid when sharing the reading information. 4. The reading may be distributed to different groups (or individuals) as background information for a Powerpoint presentation. Each group should present the information in their reading to the class through a powerpoint. 5. Students (individually or in a group) should be asked to assume the persona of an historical figure during the time period of the reading (gender, social status and occupation should be chosen by the student or assigned by the teacher). The students should create journal or diary entries written by the figure during the time frame of the reading.

25 Project springboard Assignments, cont 4. Students may be asked (individually or in groups) to create a Travel Brochure advertising the civilization or event chronicled in the reading. Brochures might include any number of things (depending on the reading), but some suggestions are: Geography and climate, major cities, geographic sites to see; Cultural aspects (ie. Language, clothing, customs, theater, sporting events; Transportation; Cuisine (ie. Recommended restaurants, local specialties, etc); Recommended Tourist sites and Shopping Centers; Religious Venues (churches, temples, festivals, traditions); Famous products available (souveneirs); Literary, Scientific, Mathematical, or Technological achievements; Lodging (hotels, motels, B&B s) and Night Life. 5. Students may be asked (individually or in groups) to create a Newspaper based on the civilization or event chronicled in the reading. Newspapers might include sections on World & International News, Local News (weather, events, play & book reviews, local happenings), Sports, Living Section (Cultural fashion, religious events, cuisine, horoscopes, Dear Abby ), Classifieds, Editorials & Letters to the Editor, and Political Cartoons. 6. Similar to the Newspaper, students may instead elect to deliver the information as a News Broadcast. This newscast might be presented live in class, or may be filmed elsewhere and presented in class as video. 7. Students may be asked (individually or in groups) to create a Chart or Graphic Organizer of the information contained in the reading. This may be used to help present the information to other groups as part of a jigsaw activity, and/or it may be used as a study guide. 8. The reading may be used as a springboard for further research on the topic leading to a short Research Paper, or an Oral Report on the topic. 9. Students (individually or in groups) may also be asked to create a Website of information based on the reading. This may be done group by group, or it may be done in jigsaw fashion in which each group creates one or two pages of the larger website dedicated to the overall topic or civilization. Free web hosting services can be found at (at the bottom, free webhosting), among others! 10. Students (individually or in groups) may be asked to create an easy Digital Movie about the information in the reading. This does not need to involve video cameras or complex video editing (although it certainly can!). This can be accomplished simply with Windows Movie Maker (standard on all PCs). It yields a simple moving powerpoint with music. Pictures and video clips may be easily incorporated into the presentation.

The Early Middle Ages

The Early Middle Ages The Early Middle Ages The Dark Ages The term the Middle Ages was coined by historians who did not know what to call the time period between the classical era (Rome) and the rebirth of the classical era,

More information

Study Guide: The Middle Ages

Study Guide: The Middle Ages Name Study Guide: The Middle Ages ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE: The European Middle Ages occur chronologically between the Roman Empire and the modern age that we live in. The Middle Ages are divided into three

More information

Dark Ages High Middle Ages

Dark Ages High Middle Ages Medieval Europe 500-1350 Dark Ages 500 800 High Middle Ages 800 1350 The German Kingdoms Romans loyal to Rome vs. Germans loyal to local war chiefs Romans speak Latin Germans speak German. German law based

More information

SSWH 7. Analyze European medieval society with regard to culture, politics, society, and economics.

SSWH 7. Analyze European medieval society with regard to culture, politics, society, and economics. SSWH 7 Analyze European medieval society with regard to culture, politics, society, and economics. SSWH 7 A Explain the manorial system and feudal relationships, include: the status of peasants and feudal

More information

Medieval Europe 800 Years Without the Light of Knowledge

Medieval Europe 800 Years Without the Light of Knowledge Medieval Europe 800 Years Without the Light of Knowledge Dark Ages - the Age of Feudalism Medieval Europe began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD. With the destruction of Roman civilization,

More information

Chapter 8: The Rise of Europe ( )

Chapter 8: The Rise of Europe ( ) Chapter 8: The Rise of Europe (500-1300) 1 The Early Middle Ages Why was Western Europe a frontier land during the early Middle Ages? How did Germanic kingdoms gain power in the early Middle Ages? How

More information

World History: Connection to Today. Chapter 8. The Rise of Europe ( )

World History: Connection to Today. Chapter 8. The Rise of Europe ( ) Chapter 8, Section World History: Connection to Today Chapter 8 The Rise of Europe (500 1300) Copyright 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights

More information

Middle Ages: Feudalism

Middle Ages: Feudalism Middle Ages: Feudalism - Study Guide - -Franks and Charlemagne - 1. List all names for the Middle Ages. 2. What did Charles The Hammer Martel do? 3. Explain Charlemagne s accomplishments. 4. Explain the

More information

Early Middle Ages = C.E. High Middle Ages = C.E. Late Middle Ages = C.E.

Early Middle Ages = C.E. High Middle Ages = C.E. Late Middle Ages = C.E. Middle Ages = European history between the fall of the Roman Empire (476) and the Modern Era (1450) Also called the Medieval Period ( Medium is Latin for Middle; aevum is Latin for age) Early Middle Ages

More information

The Worlds of European Christendom. Chapter 9

The Worlds of European Christendom. Chapter 9 The Worlds of European Christendom Chapter 9 After the Roman Empire By the 4 th Century the Roman Empire gets divided Christian Europe is two parts: 1. Eastern half = The Byzantine Empire 2. Western half

More information

Capital = Constantinople Continued as the New ROME Kings saw themselves to still be considered ROMAN emperors

Capital = Constantinople Continued as the New ROME Kings saw themselves to still be considered ROMAN emperors Capital = Constantinople Continued as the New ROME Kings saw themselves to still be considered ROMAN emperors Constantinople Survived because it was far away from the Germanic tribe invasions It was the

More information

Essential Question: What was the Renaissance? What factors led to the rise of the Renaissance?

Essential Question: What was the Renaissance? What factors led to the rise of the Renaissance? Essential Question: What was the Renaissance? What factors led to the rise of the Renaissance? Western Europe The emerged Renaissance from the Middle Ages during an era known as the Renaissance From 1300

More information

Section Quiz Chapter 9. Name ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo Date ooooooooooooooooooooooooo Class ooooooooooooooo

Section Quiz Chapter 9. Name ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo Date ooooooooooooooooooooooooo Class ooooooooooooooo Section Quiz 9-1 DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in with an item in. 1. lived in convents 2. fine paid by a wrongdoer 3. religious pratice of monks 4. bishop of Rome 5. Charles the Great A. wergild

More information

Justinian. Byzantine Emperor Reconquered much of the old Roman Empire Code of Justinian

Justinian. Byzantine Emperor Reconquered much of the old Roman Empire Code of Justinian Byzantine Empire Constantine moved the capital of the Roman Empire from Rome to Byzantium, a Greek city in the eastern part of the empire. Ruled over the Balkan Peninsula, the Middle East and parts of

More information

Chapter 8 Lesson Reviews

Chapter 8 Lesson Reviews Chapter 8 Lesson Reviews Question 1. How do you think the division of the Christian church into clergy and laity in response to Roman persecution helped them spread their beliefs? 2. Use your notes to

More information

Feudalism and the manor system created divisions among people. Shared beliefs in the teachings of the Church bonded people together.

Feudalism and the manor system created divisions among people. Shared beliefs in the teachings of the Church bonded people together. A crown from the Holy Roman Empire. Feudalism and the manor system created divisions among people. Shared beliefs in the teachings of the Church bonded people together. Priests and other religious officials

More information

EARLY MIDDLE AGES TIMELINE - NOTES HANDOUTS - TEMPLATES GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS

EARLY MIDDLE AGES TIMELINE - NOTES HANDOUTS - TEMPLATES GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS EARLY MIDDLE AGES TIMELINE - NOTES HANDOUTS - TEMPLATES GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS FUN AND CREATIVE LESSONS ON THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES This package provides students with everything they need to complete an in-

More information

Medieval Europe & Crusades. Snapshots of two representative periods: Charlemagne And The Crusades

Medieval Europe & Crusades. Snapshots of two representative periods: Charlemagne And The Crusades Medieval Europe & Crusades Snapshots of two representative periods: Charlemagne And The Crusades The Big Picture 4th-5th centuries Roman Empire Allies with Barbarians To watch over regions In name of

More information

The Early. Middle Ages. The Rise of Christianity Charlemagne Feudalism The Vikings

The Early. Middle Ages. The Rise of Christianity Charlemagne Feudalism The Vikings The Early Middle Ages The Rise of Christianity Charlemagne Feudalism The Vikings Section Focus After Rome fell the world entered into chaos. Time of warfare, violence, and religion. Time period known as

More information

The Fall of Rome: The Darkness Begins

The Fall of Rome: The Darkness Begins The Fall of Rome: The Darkness Begins 1. What happened to Rome in 410 AD? 2. Why would this sack of Rome be physiologically crushing to the Romans? 3. Who is Alaric? 4. What are Alaric and his Visigoths

More information

Assessment: The Roman Catholic Church in Medieval Europe

Assessment: The Roman Catholic Church in Medieval Europe Name Date Assessment: The Roman Catholic Church in Medieval Europe Mastering the Content Circle the letter next to the best answer. 1. Historians sometimes call the Middle Ages in western Europe the A.

More information

CHAPTER 12 - THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES IN THE WEST TO 1000: THE BIRTH OF EUROPE

CHAPTER 12 - THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES IN THE WEST TO 1000: THE BIRTH OF EUROPE CHAPTER 12 - THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES IN THE WEST TO 1000: THE BIRTH OF EUROPE CHAPTER SUMMARY This chapter begins the account of the western Middle Ages, the period in which a distinctive European culture

More information

Trade, Towns and Financial Revolution

Trade, Towns and Financial Revolution Trade, Towns and Financial Revolution Growing food supply-3 field system farming Fairs and trade-the guilds. Urban splendor reborn -medieval towns flourished, despite their unsanitary conditions. Revival

More information

The Middle Ages. A Very Dark Time

The Middle Ages. A Very Dark Time The Middle Ages A Very Dark Time Barbarian invaders swept out of north eastern Europe They invaded the Western Roman and caused it to fall apart (See maps) Large cities were abandoned by people seeking

More information

Student Handouts, Inc.

Student Handouts, Inc. Slide 1 The Barbarian Invasions: The Migration Period in Europe, 300-700 C.E. Student Handouts, Inc. www.studenthandouts.com Slide 2 End of the Roman Empire 476 C.E. Traditional date for the end of the

More information

Feudal Europe From the Atlantic ocean until Russia, from the North and Baltic seas until the Mediterranean.

Feudal Europe From the Atlantic ocean until Russia, from the North and Baltic seas until the Mediterranean. FEUDALISM Definition: Political, social and economic system (WHAT) that predominated in Western Europe (WHERE) between the 9 th and 13 th centuries (WHEN). Feudal Europe From the Atlantic ocean until Russia,

More information

Ganado Unified School District (Social Studies/6 th Grade)

Ganado Unified School District (Social Studies/6 th Grade) Ganado Unified School District (Social Studies/6 th Grade) PACING Guide SY 2015-2016 Timeline & 4th Quarter Middle Ages 2 3 Weeks S2 C3 PO6 Describe the trade routes that established the exchange of goods

More information

Decline in Morals and Values

Decline in Morals and Values Barbarian Invasions The Rhine and Danube Rivers marked the border of the empire. Large numbers of German tribes lived on this border to the Roman Empire. The Romans allowed peaceful tribes to settle along

More information

DBQ: The European Middle Ages

DBQ: The European Middle Ages 9/30/13 10:45 AM Name Date Period DBQ: The European Middle Ages Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying documents in Part A. As you analyze the documents, take into account both

More information

Part I: The Byzantine Empire - A Quick Overview

Part I: The Byzantine Empire - A Quick Overview Part I: The Byzantine Empire - A Quick Overview The Roman Empire Divided Constantine s City-- Constantinople The Byzantine Empire I. Origins of the Empire A. Started as eastern part of Roman Empire 1.

More information

The High Middle Ages ( )

The High Middle Ages ( ) Chapter 9, Section World History: Connection to Today Chapter 9 The High Middle Ages (1050 1450) Copyright 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights

More information

Social Studies High School TEKS at School Days Texas Renaissance Festival

Social Studies High School TEKS at School Days Texas Renaissance Festival World History 1.d Identify major causes and describe the major effects of the following important turning points in world history from 1450 to 1750: the rise of the Ottoman Empire, the influence of the

More information

2 Main Points: 1) Foreign invasions and political/social/economic problems led to the collapse of the western 1/2 of the Roman Empire.

2 Main Points: 1) Foreign invasions and political/social/economic problems led to the collapse of the western 1/2 of the Roman Empire. 2 Main Points: 1) Foreign invasions and political/social/economic problems led to the collapse of the western 1/2 of the Roman Empire. 2) As the Western Roman Empire began to fall apart, the Christian

More information

CHAPTER 9: Christian Societies Emerge in Europe, Following the Sasanids, the Muslim Arabs took the wealthy provinces of Syria,

CHAPTER 9: Christian Societies Emerge in Europe, Following the Sasanids, the Muslim Arabs took the wealthy provinces of Syria, I. The Byzantine Empire, 600-1200 A. An Empire Beleaguered 1. Following the Sasanids, the Muslim Arabs took the wealthy provinces of Syria, Egypt, and Tunisia from the Byzantine Empire and converted their

More information

THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE. The Empire in the East survived for another thousand years

THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE. The Empire in the East survived for another thousand years Constantine, the Roman Emperor who recognized Christianity as the legal religion, moved the capital to the Eastern Mediterranean (330 A.D.), rebuilt the city of Byzantium & later renamed it after himself.

More information

The Byzantine Empire and Russia ( )

The Byzantine Empire and Russia ( ) Chapter 10, Section World History: Connection to Today Chapter 10 The Byzantine Empire and Russia (330 1613) Copyright 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River,

More information

Chapter 10. Byzantine & Muslim Civilizations

Chapter 10. Byzantine & Muslim Civilizations Chapter 10 Byzantine & Muslim Civilizations Section 1 The Byzantine Empire Capital of Byzantine Empire Constantinople Protected by Greek Fire Constantinople Controlled by: Roman Empire Christians Byzantines

More information

Medieval Europe. Timeline Cards

Medieval Europe. Timeline Cards Medieval Europe Timeline Cards ISBN: 978-1-68380-006-4 Subject Matter Expert Bradley Mollmann Illustration and Photo Credits Title Martin Hargreaves Chapter 1 Martin Jung/imageBROKER / imagebroker Chapter

More information

+ To Jesus Through Mary. Name: Per. Date: Eighth Grade Religion ID s

+ To Jesus Through Mary. Name: Per. Date: Eighth Grade Religion ID s + To Jesus Through Mary Name: Per. Date: Eighth Grade Religion ID s Chapter Five: A Remarkable Age of Renewal (1046 1305) 1. Emperor Henry III He was the Holy Roman Emperor who in the early 1000 s (1046)

More information

Emperor of the Byzantine Empire to the HRE (1093)

Emperor of the Byzantine Empire to the HRE (1093) Emperor of the Byzantine Empire to the HRE (1093) Come then, with all your people and give battle with all your strength, so that all this treasure shall not fall into the hands of the [Muslim] Turks Therefore

More information

The Renaissance. The Rebirth of European Progress

The Renaissance. The Rebirth of European Progress The Renaissance The Rebirth of European Progress The Collapse of Rome and the Middle Ages When the western portion of the Roman Empire collapsed, much of the European continent entered a period of disunity

More information

LESSON WATCH Key Ideas Factual

LESSON WATCH Key Ideas Factual LESSON 3.2 THE FOUNDATION AND EXPANSION OF ISLAM LESSON 3.2.4 WATCH Key Ideas Factual Use these questions and prompts at the appropriate stopping points to check in with students and ensure they are getting

More information

Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe

Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe Chapter 14 Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe OUTLINE I. Introduction Two civilizations survived in postclassical Europe: the Byzantine Empire and its culturally related cultures

More information

Chapter 13. The Commonwealth of Byzantium. Copyright 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.

Chapter 13. The Commonwealth of Byzantium. Copyright 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Chapter 13 The Commonwealth of Byzantium 1 The Early Byzantine Empire n Capital: Byzantium n On the Bosporus n Commercial, strategic value of location n Constantine names capital after himself (Constantinople),

More information

Information for Emperor Cards

Information for Emperor Cards Information for Emperor Cards AUGUSTUS CAESAR (27 B.C. - 14 A.D.) has been called the greatest emperor in all of Roman history. After the assassination of Julius Caesar, war broke out among the many groups

More information

World History Grade: 8

World History Grade: 8 World History Grade: 8 SOC 220 World History I No graduation credit 5 days per week; 1 school year Taught in English This is a required course for 8th grade students in the Mexican/U.S. Programs. This

More information

Cultural Achievements of Western Europe During the Middle Ages

Cultural Achievements of Western Europe During the Middle Ages Cultural Achievements of Western Europe During the Middle Ages Intro. In the Early Middle Ages, western European culture retrogressed as a result of barbarian invasions, feudalism, and people s concern

More information

BYZANTINE EMPIRE. Pg

BYZANTINE EMPIRE. Pg BYZANTINE EMPIRE Pg.289-294 BYZANTINE EMPIRE IN 5 MINUTES OR LESS Bulgaria Turkey (Constantinople) Constantine I built a "new Rome" where the ancient Greek colony of Byzantium used to be. (combination

More information

Medieval Europe. Medieval Europe The Catholic Church

Medieval Europe. Medieval Europe The Catholic Church What It Wasn t Life in is often depicted with knights in shining armor, kings, queens, and glorious pageantry, but in truth it was often harsh, uncertain, and dangerous. What It Was Also called the Middle

More information

Global History Islam 1. What do the terms Islam and Muslim mean?

Global History Islam 1. What do the terms Islam and Muslim mean? Islam SLMS/09 Islam is the third of the three major monotheistic religions. It is descended from both Judaism and Christianity. People who practice the religion of Islam are known as Muslims, not Islams.

More information

Fall of the Roman Empire

Fall of the Roman Empire Fall of the Roman Empire Fall of the Roman Empire The fall of the Roman Empire has been romanticized in history for the last 1500 years In our imagination it was a single event: The barbarians sacked Rome

More information

The Holy Roman Empire ( ) By: Aubrey Feyrer Amanda Peng Ian Scribner

The Holy Roman Empire ( ) By: Aubrey Feyrer Amanda Peng Ian Scribner The Holy Roman Empire (946-1437) By: Aubrey Feyrer Amanda Peng Ian Scribner Growth of the Holy Roman Empire Intellectual and Cultural History Included present-day Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg,

More information

Muslim Empires Chapter 19

Muslim Empires Chapter 19 Muslim Empires 1450-1800 Chapter 19 AGE OF GUNPOWDER EMPIRES 1450 1800 CHANGED THE BALANCE OF POWER This term applies to a number of states, all of which rapidly expanded during the late 15th and over

More information

World History Unit 3 Contd. Post Classical Asia and Beyond

World History Unit 3 Contd. Post Classical Asia and Beyond World History Unit 3 Contd. Post Classical Asia and Beyond Essential Questions What were the major civilizations of Asia in the post-classical era? What were the effects of the Mongol invasions? What were

More information

Period 3 Review Packet

Period 3 Review Packet Period 3 Review Packet Key Concept 3.1 Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks I. Improved transportation technologies and commercial practices led to an increased volume of

More information

The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire

The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Rome became so big that it was difficult for Rome to handle all of the issues of Rome There was a split in the Empire: East and West Late Emperors Over the 3 rd

More information

Monarchs, nobles, and the Church all struggled for power. As monarchs amassed power, the foundations for modern law were laid.

Monarchs, nobles, and the Church all struggled for power. As monarchs amassed power, the foundations for modern law were laid. Chapter Review Chapter Summary Section 1: Royal Power Grows Monarchs, nobles, and the Church all struggled for power. As monarchs amassed power, the foundations for modern law were laid. Section 2: The

More information

Fall of the Roman Empire

Fall of the Roman Empire Fall of the Roman Empire Fall of the Roman Empire The fall of the Roman Empire has been romanticized in history for the last 1500 years In our imagination it was a single event: The barbarians sacked Rome

More information

The Decline of Rome. I. Marcus Aurelius, the last of the five good emperors, died in 180, and a series of civil wars followed.

The Decline of Rome. I. Marcus Aurelius, the last of the five good emperors, died in 180, and a series of civil wars followed. The Fall of Rome I. Marcus Aurelius, the last of the five good emperors, died in 180, and a series of civil wars followed. II. The Decline of Rome From 196 to 284, the throne was occupied by whoever had

More information

Alabama Course of Study Social Studies

Alabama Course of Study Social Studies Alabama Course of Study Social Studies Joseph B. Morton State Superintendent of Education ALABAMA DEPARTME T OF EDUCATIO Bulletin 2004, o. 18 EIGHTH GRADE World History to 1500 Students in the eighth grade

More information

b. a) Turkey Incorrect. The answer is c. Christianity was the majority religion in Egypt by the time of the conquest.

b. a) Turkey Incorrect. The answer is c. Christianity was the majority religion in Egypt by the time of the conquest. 1. This Muslim holy building was constructed on the site of the Jewish Temple. a. b) Dome of the Rock Correct. The answer is b. The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem was built on the site of the Jewish Temple

More information

Nomads of the Asian Steppe

Nomads of the Asian Steppe THE MONGOLS Nomads of the Asian Steppe Steppe = a vast belt of dry grassland across Eurasia Provided a land trade route Home to nomads who swept into cities to plunder, loot & conquer Pastoralists = herded

More information

Charlemagne. Describe Charlemagne's Army: The Pope and Lombards: Charlemagne and the Saxons: Charlemagne and Spain: Made by Liesl at homeschoolden.

Charlemagne. Describe Charlemagne's Army: The Pope and Lombards: Charlemagne and the Saxons: Charlemagne and Spain: Made by Liesl at homeschoolden. Charlemagne Describe Charlemagne's Army: The Pope and Lombards: Charlemagne and the Saxons: Charlemagne and Spain: What happened on Christmas day, 800? Charlemagne and Education: Abul-Abbas: What happened

More information

The Gupta Dynasty ( )

The Gupta Dynasty ( ) The Gupta Dynasty (300-700) Known as India s Golden Age After being invaded and defeated India needed a new leader The Gupta family came to rule, and managed to defeat the foreigners The Gupta's reign

More information

Society, Religion and Arts

Society, Religion and Arts Society, Religion and Arts Despite the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, the Eastern Empire continued to thrive in Constantinople. It would endure for nearly 1,000 years after the Fall of Rome, largely

More information

Europe in the Middle Ages. Unit 6

Europe in the Middle Ages. Unit 6 Europe in the Middle Ages Unit 6 Unit Standards Part 1 Europe in the Middle Ages 7.32 Identify the physical location and features of Europe including the Alps, the Ural Mountains, the North European Plain

More information

Chapter 14 Section 4. Chapter 14 Section 4

Chapter 14 Section 4. Chapter 14 Section 4 Chapter 14 Section 4 The Church Divided The Bubonic Plague The Hundred Years War Chapter 14 Section 4 Innocent III 1198-1216 Height of Church Power Weakens Power shifting of Kings and Strong government

More information

Byzantine Empire ( )

Byzantine Empire ( ) Byzantine Empire (330-1453) Definition Byzantine: this term is a modern invention. The Byzantines called themselves either Romans or Greeks. It was used for the medieval Greekspeaking, Christian empire

More information

AP WORLD HISTORY SUMMER READING GUIDE

AP WORLD HISTORY SUMMER READING GUIDE AP WORLD HISTORY SUMMER READING GUIDE To My 2014-2015 AP World History Students, In the field of history as traditionally taught in the United States, the term World History has often applied to history

More information

Section 2. Objectives

Section 2. Objectives Objectives Understand how geography influenced the rise of Russia. Describe the growth of Kiev. Explain how Mongol rule affected Russia. Describe how Moscow took the lead in Russia and how its rulers developed

More information

History and Geography. Medieval Europe. Reader. Joan of Arc. Charlemagne. Saint Benedict of Nursia. Battle of Hastings

History and Geography. Medieval Europe. Reader. Joan of Arc. Charlemagne. Saint Benedict of Nursia. Battle of Hastings History and Geography Medieval Europe Reader Joan of Arc Charlemagne Saint Benedict of Nursia Battle of Hastings THIS BOOK IS THE PROPERTY OF: STATE PROVINCE COUNTY PARISH SCHOOL DISTRICT OTHER Book No.

More information

Name: Date: Period: THE ISLAMIC HEARTLANDS IN THE MIDDLE AND LATE ABBASID ERAS p What symptoms of Abbasid decline were there?

Name: Date: Period: THE ISLAMIC HEARTLANDS IN THE MIDDLE AND LATE ABBASID ERAS p What symptoms of Abbasid decline were there? Name: Date: Period: Chapter 7 Reading Guide Abbasid Decline and the Spread of Islamic Civilization to South and Southeast Asia, p.162-182 1. What are some of the reasons for Abbasid decline listed in the

More information

The Byzantine Empire ( ) One God, One Empire, One Religion

The Byzantine Empire ( ) One God, One Empire, One Religion The Byzantine Empire (330-1453) One God, One Empire, One Religion The Eastern Empire As Western Europe succumbed to the Germanic invasions, imperial power shifted to the Byzantine Empire (the eastern part

More information

6a: Factors Contributing to Tolerance and Intolerance in the History of Al-Andalus

6a: Factors Contributing to Tolerance and Intolerance in the History of Al-Andalus 6a: Factors Contributing to Tolerance and Intolerance in the History of Al-Andalus Author: Ernest O Roark Overview and Purpose of the Lesson: The purpose of this lesson is to provide students with an understanding

More information

The Electronic Passport to the Middle Ages

The Electronic Passport to the Middle Ages The Electronic Passport to the Middle Ages Between Ancient and Modern In AD 476, warriors attacked the city of Rome and ended more than 800 years of glory for the eternal city. Historians mark the fall

More information

Defining the Medieval Period

Defining the Medieval Period Defining the Medieval Period Classical Civilization (Beginning of Western Civilization Roman Empire) Medieval Europe (Fall of Rome before the Renaissance) Modern Era (Renaissance today) The era in European

More information

Rome (509 B.C.E. 476 C.E.)

Rome (509 B.C.E. 476 C.E.) Ancient Rome Rome (509 B.C.E. 476 C.E.) Geographically Rome was well-situated The Alps to the north provided protection The sea surrounding the Italian peninsula limited the possibility of a naval attack

More information

Vikings, Slavs, Byzantines and the Development of Russia. Who are the Vikings? Who are the Slavs? NOTES ON RUSSIA. Kiev. Who are the Byzantines?

Vikings, Slavs, Byzantines and the Development of Russia. Who are the Vikings? Who are the Slavs? NOTES ON RUSSIA. Kiev. Who are the Byzantines? Who are the Vikings? Vikings, Slavs, Byzantines and the Development of Russia Who are the Slavs? VIKINGS NOTES ON RUSSIA SLAVS Kiev BYZANTINE EMPIRE Who are the Byzantines? THE SLAVS Who are the Slavs?

More information

The Normans Viking Settlers Rollo and Normandy Norsemen become Normans William of Normandy

The Normans Viking Settlers Rollo and Normandy Norsemen become Normans William of Normandy The Normans Viking Settlers The Viking Age spanned the late 8 th to the late 11 th century During this time, Vikings from Scandinavia explored Europe by its oceans and rivers for trade and plunder By the

More information

UNIT 2 EXPANDING ZONES OF EXCHANGE ( ) The Gupta Empire in India Tang and Song Dynasties in China The Byzantine Empire and Russia

UNIT 2 EXPANDING ZONES OF EXCHANGE ( ) The Gupta Empire in India Tang and Song Dynasties in China The Byzantine Empire and Russia UNIT 2 EXPANDING ZONES OF EXCHANGE (500-1200) Resources & materials for Unit 2: Section 1: Section 2: Section 3: Section 4: The Gupta Empire in India Tang and Song Dynasties in China The Byzantine Empire

More information

Middle Ages DBQ. What s a QBD? Silly, English-types! It s called a DBQ!

Middle Ages DBQ. What s a QBD? Silly, English-types! It s called a DBQ! Middle Ages DBQ What s a QBD? Silly, English-types! It s called a DBQ! Your quest is to write an essay using the documents provided, answering the following question: Which is the best title for the time

More information

Name Date Period. Mr. Melia Social Studies Unit 9 Ancient Rome Chapter 7 Section 5

Name Date Period. Mr. Melia Social Studies Unit 9 Ancient Rome Chapter 7 Section 5 Name Date Period Mr. Melia Social Studies Unit 9 Ancient Rome Chapter 7 Section 5 The Fall of Rome One day in the year a.d. 312, the emperor Constantine (kahn stuhn teen) stood with his troops under a

More information

AP World History SCORING GUIDELINES

AP World History SCORING GUIDELINES SCORING GUIDELINES Long Essay Question 1 In the period circa 400 1450 C.E., the decline and reconstitution of empires in regions such as the Mediterranean, Middle-East, and East Asia, affected the expansion

More information

Middle Ages. The Early A.D. 500 A.D

Middle Ages. The Early A.D. 500 A.D The Early Middle Ages What s the Connection? After the fall of came a period called the Middle Ages, or medieval times. It is a fitting name for the period that lies between ancient and modern times. Focusing

More information

Reformation, Renaissance, and Exploration. Unit Test

Reformation, Renaissance, and Exploration. Unit Test Reformation, Renaissance, and Exploration Read the questions below and select the best choice. Unit Test WRITE YOUR ANSWERS IN THE SPACES PROVDED ON YOUR ANSWER SHEET. DO NOT WRITE ON THIS TEST!! 1. Which

More information

Honors Global Studies I Syllabus Academic Magnet High School

Honors Global Studies I Syllabus Academic Magnet High School Honors Global Studies I Syllabus Academic Magnet High School COURSE DESIGN: The Honors Global Studies course is designed to be a general survey in a variety of ancient cultures all over the world. It is

More information

Subject Area: World History

Subject Area: World History DESCRIPTION #3623 KNIGHTS TEMPLAR Grade Levels: 8-13+ 26 minutes AMBROSE VIDEO PUBLISHING 1998 In 1118 A.D., the Pope called for a holy army to retake Jerusalem, and the Knights Templar were formed. "Warrior

More information

Assessment: The Legacy of Rome in the Modern World

Assessment: The Legacy of Rome in the Modern World Name Date Assessment: The Legacy of Rome in the Modern World Mastering the Content Circle the letter next to the best answer. 1. Why was the Roman Empire hard to defend? A. It had a very long border. B.

More information

Ancient Rome and the Rise of Christianity (509 B.C. A.D. 476)

Ancient Rome and the Rise of Christianity (509 B.C. A.D. 476) Chapter 6, Section World History: Connection to Today Chapter 6 Ancient Rome and the Rise of Christianity (509 B.C. A.D. 476) Copyright 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper

More information

The Umayyads and Abbasids

The Umayyads and Abbasids The Umayyads and Abbasids The Umayyad Caliphate was founded in 661 by Mu awiya the governor or the Syrian province during Ali s reign. Mu awiya contested Ali s right to rule, arguing that Ali was elected

More information

Chapter 13 Test. Part 1: Multiple Choice. Choose the letter of the best answer. (4 points each) CHAPTER 13. CHAPTER 13 The Renaissance Form B

Chapter 13 Test. Part 1: Multiple Choice. Choose the letter of the best answer. (4 points each) CHAPTER 13. CHAPTER 13 The Renaissance Form B The Renaissance Form B Chapter 13 Test Part 1: Multiple Choice Choose the letter of the best answer. (4 points each) 1. Which Renaissance-era invention had the greatest impact? a. the long-bow b. the plow

More information

English Literature. The Medieval Period. (Old English to Middle English)

English Literature. The Medieval Period. (Old English to Middle English) English Literature The Medieval Period (Old English to Middle English) England before the English When the Romans arrived, they found the land inhabited by Britons. known as the Celts Stonehenge no written

More information

UNIT 3 -CHAPTER 9: THE ISLAMIC WORLD AND AFRICA

UNIT 3 -CHAPTER 9: THE ISLAMIC WORLD AND AFRICA UNIT 3 -CHAPTER 9: THE ISLAMIC WORLD AND AFRICA INTRODUCTION In this chapter you will learn about developments in the Middle East and Africa during the post-classical era. ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS What are

More information

Section 2. Objectives

Section 2. Objectives Objectives Understand why Holy Roman emperors failed to build a unified nation-state in Germany. Describe the conflict between Pope Gregory VII and Emperor Henry IV and summarize the struggle to control

More information

NAME DATE CLASS. Black Sea. Constantinople ASIA MINOR GREECE Tarsus Sicily. Antioch Aegean Sea. Mediterranean Sea. Jerusalem. Alexandria JUDAEA EGYPT

NAME DATE CLASS. Black Sea. Constantinople ASIA MINOR GREECE Tarsus Sicily. Antioch Aegean Sea. Mediterranean Sea. Jerusalem. Alexandria JUDAEA EGYPT Lesson 1 Early Christianity ESSENTIAL QUESTION What are the characteristics of a leader? GUIDING QUESTIONS 1. How did the Jews respond to Roman rule? 2. Why were the life and death of Jesus of Nazareth

More information

Emerging Europe and the Byzantine Empire,

Emerging Europe and the Byzantine Empire, 4 Chapter 9 Test, Form A Emerging Europe and the Byzantine Empire, 400 1300 DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with an item in Column B. Write the correct letters in the blanks. (3 points

More information

Reasons for the Decline of the Roman Empire

Reasons for the Decline of the Roman Empire Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire After 200 years of Pax Romana, Rome fell into a long slow period of decline. Invaders were able to enter Rome, and cause great destruction. These included: Visigoths,

More information