What We Be WALTER PICCARROLL, D.D. Outline Studies of Scripture Doctrines. PRICE TWENTY-FIVE CENTS Five Copies One Dollar Ten Copies $1.

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1 What We Be BY WALTER PICCARROLL, D.D. Outline Studies of Scripture Doctrines PRICE TWENTY-FIVE CENTS Five Copies One Dollar Ten Copies $1.50 Published By THE SERVICE PRINT SHOP 1515 Lane Street TOPEKA, KANSAS

2 These Outli~?e Studies of Christinw Doctrilles 7oer.e p?*epcrred?reek bjj loeel; foi. 71se in (i, class in j) ~.epcr?.ntio7z.for clt?ircil 71ze1nbe7.sllip. Tl~ey are i1ozo ~~~iblishecl ns a Na7rdDook fo~. Irse iit tlte clcrt~.clz at /((?-ye. It tvcis fo?t?ld I~~ll>f7il to I1~(ve tlte cli~ss?ne?)lbers 7c.,-ite out tl~e Sc~-fpt?n,e?.efere?tces ci?zcl tl~e a7;s7ue~.s to tlce p7.i.iztetl ipresti07ts in CL?totebook. Tl~ey sl~o?rltl 710t be ctsl;etl to?u?.ite o7~t?~zo?.e tlca71 tsvo?.ejere)lces 7r71rler enclc l~encl. Everytl~ing thnt cc. 11, ospective clez~?.ci~ we))zber shozilcl lozo7u is I~e7.c in owtliwe fomn. Tl~ese stsrdies r0.e cctlaptnble to n long 01. sho?.l co?n.se as the pasto?. 07. tencl~e?.?nay be able to seczire. One chnpte?. I)LCL~?.egui?'e two lessons, 09. two chapters?ua?j be coz~e?.ed in axe lesso7z. These studies sl~oz~ld be mettil also in Scsbbrrth Sclcools and in Yozing People's Societies. Tice "Szr?nsna?y of Doct?.i?lul Testi?n.olz?~" pz~blished by tl~e Refo7~)ted P~esbyte?in?z Ciczi~~cit of Scotln?zd itns been a?z i?zvnlzcccble gz~ide. It is n?z ndmirnble co~zde7zsation of the cloct?.ivzes of the Ch?-istina faith. This little book is sent fo~tlt zuitlt the pra?je? timt it may p~ove cc zisefic.1 n?td helpfill ntea?zs f o ~ the iwstm~ction of the yozstlc of the chzc.?'cl~.

3 TABLE OF CONTENTS THE APOSTLES' CREED I believe in God the Father Almighty, maker of' heaven and earth; and in Jesus Christ His only Son, our Lord ; who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead and buried ; He descended into the grave; the third day He rose again from the dead ; He ascended into heaven and sitteth on the right hand of God the Father Almighty; f'ronl thence He shall come to judge the living and the dead. I believe in the Holy Spirit, the Holy Catholic Church (the Church Universal), the communion of saints, the forgiveness of sins, the I-esuwection of the body, and the Life Everlasting. Amen. CH-\PTER I THE BIBLE OUR GUIDE... 5 CHAPTER I1 Gow-Tn~x~~u IN UNITY CHAPTER I11 MAN THE IRSACE OF GOD THE SIN OF MAN CHAPTER IV... CHAPTER V GOD'S SOVEREIGNTY AND PROI'IDENCE CHAPTER VI CHRIST OUR SAVIOUR CHAPTER VII THE HOLY SPIRIT CHAPTER VIII FAITH IN JESUS CHRIST. ; CHAPTER 1X... ELECTION AND THE GOSPEL OFPER...30 CHAPTER X THE LAST THINGS CHAPTER XI THE CHRISTIAN LIFE CHAPTER XI1 THE CHURCH OF CI~RIST...40 THE WORSHLP OF... CHAPTER XI11 GOD... CHAPTER XIV THE SACRAMENTS CHAPTER XV MARRIAGE AND THE HOME CHAPTER XVI CIVIL GOVERNMENT AND THE HOME

4 CHAPTER ONE THE BlBLE OUR GUlDE We betieve that the Sciipt,tl,res of the 01(1, cr.llt~ New Testn7nents (we the lvo7~l of Go([, C('jl(l. tlle o?zly i?tfctllible?.?lie of ftritlt, and li je. 1-Since man's chief end is to glorify God needs a guide or rule to direct hiin. Catechism 1 and 2. (Vl7estminster Shorter Catecllism) a. This guide \vc hil\le in the Scri1)tures of the Old and Neu- Testaments. These Scriptures or nrritii1gs are called The Bible from the Greek nrord Biblia \vhicfl means "the 13001<s." b. The Bible then is the ultimate souyce of authority in matters of faith and life. There aye two othcr clai~nants to this seat of supreme authority. Recrson, though it has certain inalienable rights, cannot be the ultimate authority. If we say Reason, then to \\.hat 11umal-i being or beings shall we look*? Tlre Chli:i.~l~, though it too has certain inalienable rights as an interp1.eter of truth, cannot Ise acceptecl as the final authority. or if so, ~111at Chu~ch? Botll fieason anci tl~c: Clrlii*ch rcsj.e ilel~endent on Re\~elation for the tl-uth ~vhich they u11- clertalie to interpret or esplain. Tlle Bible alone has the right to that =supreme place, for it is the yecold of God's I-e\realed \\rill, and its purpose is to tell man how to ~1o~if-y God and live in union with Him. 2-The Gible is made up of turo pal-ts, the Old 3

5 and New Testaments, or the Old and Ne1~- Covenants. The Old centers around the Chosen People Israel, the Ne\v around Jesus Christ and His kingdom. b. The Old Testament was written in Hebrew, and the New Testament in Greek. The original manuscripts are lost but we have very old copies of the same, especially the three great mai~uscripts, the Vatican, the Sinaitic, and the Alesandrian. 3--These Scriptures ivere illspired by C~od in their original writings and so are the %'ol-d of God to man. I1 Pet. 221; TI Tim. 3: a. Ey "inspired" we meall that 1101~- men of God spalce or wrote as they were moved by the Holy Spirit. b. This inspiration is attested by the testimony oc the Church, the "nature of the contents, and the \vitiness of the Spirit. 4--The Scriptures principally teach ~trhat Itre are to believe concerning God, and the duty God requires.of man. Catechism 3. a. Wllat we are to believe concerning God is set forth in Questions 4-38 of the Shorter Catechisln. b. The duty that God requires of man, moral and e\~angelical duty, is set forth in Questions The Eible, though containing sisty-six books, \vritten by forty different writers living in different countries and in a period e~nbracing years, is one book. Marlrs of this unity : a. Throughout, the Eible bears witness to om God. b. It forms one continuous story, the story of manlcind in relation to God. 6 c. From beginning to end the Bible testifies to one Redemption. The scarlet thread of atonement runs thl~ouglnout. The cross is the center of that unii\? L I., - d. The Bible has oile great theme, the person and work of the Christ. Ch1-ist is the liey to the unity of the Bible. e. Predictions concerliing the Suture, which appeared l~ost unlikely \\rhe~l innde, 2ll.e recorded as fulfilled in the Bible. "The Bible 1.ecords t\vo basic Co\,enants. a. The Covenant 01' IVorks made \\-it11 man ill his estate of innocency. Life \vas proin~ised on condition of perfect obeclience. b. The Covenant of Grace lnade Sol. man in his fallen estate. The Co\~ei~a~~t of Grace was made with Christ as the sccozrl man and in Him with all the elect as His seed. Larger Catechism The Bible sets forth t\vo great Disl>ens a t' 1011s. a. The \trord "dispensation" rerers to the dilferent nlodes of the admillistration of the Covenant of Grace, that in preparation for the coming of the Alloillted One called the Old Testament, and that which records the corning and worlr of the Anointed One called the Ne\4? Testament. b. How the Covenant 01 Grace was aclministered under the t\vo dispensations. The Covenant of Grace \vas administered unde~ the Old Testament by promises, prophecies, sacrifices, circumcision, the passover, and other types and ordinances, which did all foresigilify Christ then to come. Under the New Testament, when Christ the substance was eshibited, the same Covenant of Grace was still is to be administered in the preaching of the Word, and the administration of the sacraments of baptism and the 7

6 Lord's Supper. tions 34, 35. Larger Catechisln Ques- CHAPTER TWO 1. Wlw,t is.r~tan's chief end'? T4'i~ut ~ule or gzl.ide IULT God giz'e?~ to lil~t.il.'? T;lrl~~at is the 712eam ing of the wo?-ds "Scs.ipt lci.es" cti2.d "Bible"? 2. VVhnt u9.e othel cl4~i?~u.?~ts to the seat of CLZL~JLOT~~?J in 711.(~tte'i.s of fn.it h ancl life? 3. Whnt c ~ the ~ c two pc1.i.t~ of the Bible cci.lbed? TYIL?J? -1. Wl~r~1- is ~ L ~ C L Sby L ~ s((yi?l.g thlt the Eible is i.nspi~ed? 5. ItVhnt do the Sc,~.ipt.li re.$ p.~i,~zdpci.lly teach? 6. Whcct we tl~e?nc~?,lis of the 7lnitl~ of the Bible? 8. Hozu lous tl~e Cove?lu7tt of g?-ace acl.mi?tiste~erl?i?2de~ tl~e Old Testn?ne?zt, a?zd ILOZC?{.?~.cie~ the New Testnnzent? GOD-TRINITY IN UNITY lit7e believe ill o~le Gorl a7ld tlmt He ete?-~lail~ exists iw Ilwec pe?.so?zs. Futher, Son, and Holy Spi~it. 1-God is. Heb. I1 :G. a. This belief is opposed to Atheis~n, Agnosticism, and Pantheism. Covenant of 1871, Section two. b. Evidences in ihe universe \vliich confirm this belief. Thc presence of mind indicates an intel- 1 igent cause. Design in nature indicates a purposive cause. Indications of will reveal an efficient cause. Conscience with a sense of accountability to a lawgiver indicates a mom1 cause. 2-God is spirit or personal. Catechism 4. a. God is spirit so does not have body, parts, or passions as Inen have. John 4:29. b. The foregoing evidences might form the proof for a personal being as Creator, Governor, and Preserver of all things. But Revelation assures us beyond doubt that He linows, thinks, plans, loves, and acts, therefore is a person. Ex. 3:14; I John 4: 8, 9, God is but one. There is but one only, the living and true God. Catechism 6. EX. 20 :3; Deu. 1 :3?5; Jer. 10 :lo, 12. a. This is a witness against polytheism and idolatiy. Israel was set in the midst of the nations to bear witness to this one great 9

7 fundamental truth. Deu. 4 : The witness to the oneness and unity of God is especially needed today. b. This is a witness against the deificatio~l of mortals who have gone to their reward; against living Inen \vho dare assume the l~rerogatives of God; and against the gods of the cults which flourish in our days, Morinonism, Christian Science, and Spiiitism. In the first, God is a Super-man; in the second, a principle and not personal; and in the third, a non-moral God. &God is Triune. Matt. 28:19, Catechism 6. a. Trinity in unity. There are three persons in the Godhead, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost ; and these three are one God. This, thougl~ a mystery and largely incoinp~ehensible by the 1;luman mind, is a reality. i\lany mysteries in nature which Isre cannot understand but nrllich we accept and use, for example the radio and electricity. Illustrations of di\rersity in unity: the human body, the flower; man as body, soul, and spirit; the sun as invisible energy, visible ball of fire, and rays which coine to earth to give light, heat, and energy. b. The use of the word person a difficulty but we have no adequate substitute. This is due to the Iirnitations of language. MTe must insist therefore with the Moha~n- ~nedans upon the unity of God; with the I3antheists upon the inz7na?zence of God, Acts 17 :28; and wit11 the Deists upon the t~n71sce7lde11ce of God. c. The doctrine of the Trinity is basic to Ule Christian Faith. The whole program of redemption and 01 life in Christ depends on that truth as the underlying reality. 5-God eternally exists in three persons, Fathei-, Son, and Holy Spirit. a. The names in the order given is the order in \vhich they are presented historically in the Script~ires. In the Old Testament the primary cmphasis is upon the Father; in the Gospels upon the Son ; and in the Epistles upon the Holy Spirit. Memorize the Apostle's Creed, and note ~vhat is said of each of the three persons. 1. We come to this beliei by a study of the many passages relating to each person in turn. We find that each in turn is presented as having all the attributes and doing the \\rorlis of God. Yet we hold fast to the unity and oneness of God. Larger Catechism 11. God is presented as the eternal Father, the fountai~l of life, light, and love. I Chr. 29: I, 10 ; Is. 64 :8; 1 Pet. 1 :17 ; as the eternal Son who became flesh and tabernacled among I us, John 1:14; Phil. 2:6-11; and, as the! eternal Spirit, Heb. 9 :14, John I i 6-God is to be worshiped by all His creatures. I Psalm 148 ; Isaiah 40 ; John 4 : Whnt evirleizce iniyl~t be offel-ecl fo?. the state?nent "God isjy? 2. M'hnt is God? Cr~techisnz AgaiTlst what does the witness to the t?ritl~ that the?.e is b?it o?ze GocL testify? 4. HOW 71zany pe?.sons in the Godkead? Cntechisnz. 6. Shotu that this does not?nea?t three gods, and thai the myste?y of t?-istitg in unitu is I not grente?. tl~a?z n7a)ty wzystoies in s~cctu1.e. 5. What is tl~e Sc?'il~t~i?'e evicle?zce for believing I tl~nt God etewzallg exists i?z tlzree pe~soqzs, Fntke~,! SOIL, C C? Z ~ HoL?J Slli)"jt?

8 CHAPTER THREE THE I-MAGE OF GOD We believe tint nucn ~ c created ~ s perfect, male and fenzccle, in the image of God; endowed with knowledge,?-ighteozcs?~ess, ctnd tme itoliness; and, with the la70 of God?u?-itte?z in their hen?-ts. 1-Man's Origin and Nature. a. The question of man's origin and nature is basic to an understanding of reden~ption through Christ. There are only two available sources : the Word of God and the speculations of men. For the believer in Christ the Word of God is the sole source of autl~~ority. # b. According to the s~eculations of men, rnan nras not created upright; by an act of God but was evolved through countless ages by impersonal forces resident within the life cell. This is the evolutionary hypothesis. God, apparently, had little if anything to do with that age-long process. c. According to the Bible nlan was created perfect in the image of God. He was created, not evolved. (Gen. I and 11, Catechism 10.) On his physical side he has a co~uillu~litjr of nature with the higher animals. On his spiritual side he has a con~munity of nature wit11 God. On his spiritual side nlail was created in the image of God. This likeness was in k~lowl edge, righteousness, and holiness, with power or authority over the lower creation. I-Ie differs fl.om the higher animals then in two important respects : First, in his ca- pacity for Ianr. (Morris.) This is his intuitive ability to distinguish between right and wrong; the ability ~vhich he possesses of weighing actions. Second, in his capacity for spiritual life. (Morris.) This is the intuitive ability to I~IIOW God ilnmediately and directly and to have the whole inner life inbreathed with the life of God. d. Man Ivas created free or a free agent. It was however freedom within strictly defined limits. This freedom was accompanied wit11 respo~~sibility and accountability. e. Man nras created double, 111ale and female, and this first pair formed tl-ie l'ountain head ol' the human race. For good or ill they stood in a rcprcsentalive capacity. The race stood or fell by the First Adal-il. A 11c11~ race is being created by the Second Adam. 2-Man is God's greatest work. Psalm S :5, "'rhou hast made him but little lo~vcr than God. and cro~vnest him wit11 glory and honor. (R. V.) a. I-Iis chief end lhcrefore is to glorisy God and enjoy him Iorever. Q. 1. I Cor. 6: I-Ie uras nlade to live in union with God. Tlle intended life of u~lion with God may be described as "personal fello~irshil) which is I~oliness of character" and, "cool~erati\~e activity which is I-ighteousness of conduct" (Campbell Morgan). c. Man however has not glorilied God as intended. Rom. 3 :23; Catecllisln Ri\~11 j~hilosophies ~rllich arise when the EibIe account of the origin and nature of man is rejected. In our day t~vo great rival philosophies :

9 a. Jlai-ain71 Sociulism. This was embraced by the Eolshevists in Russia. Its Bible is the "Manif'esto of Karl Marx." This is based an the denial of illan's spiritual nature, consequeiltly of the reality of the esistence of God. It is atheistic. It is also based on the "econonlic jilt-erl~retation of histoi-y." Since man has no spiritual nature the primary motivation of inaldiincl is the struggle for thc control of the ranr mateiiais of earth. b. CO);I );i?i 1ti Whc~t is IIIU?Z's origin u7zd?-ecll??utli?.e? 2. TTfh(~2 is wze((nt 01~ Deiwg created in the i~izage of God? 3. Ho?il does 7?z<in dif f e f1'071z ~ the a?zin~nl,s? 4. In zuhcct two ~especis 7ua; He c~ecttecl to live i~ 71177'07~ witl~ God? 5. T/T'hn t is ~)ICLIL'S cl~ie f end? Catechis?n T+'t'hat tzu ~ I L theojr'es, in oppositio?~ to il~e Bible nc ave fo?u?(i SO?IL~ acceptn?zce in ti] e zoo~ld to he?.efo?.e sial~e?.,s i?z thougl~t, zvord, a?zd deed; mid, in o?.der to be resto~ed to fello~o,shiu with GOO. l-ho\~ sin entered the world (Genesis Chapter 3.) a. By one man sill entered the urorld, aild death by sin (Ronl. 5:12). That one was Adam, the head of the human race. b. The tempter of nlarl is callecl "that old serpent, called the devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world" (Rev. 12 :9). c. Satan is the evil one, the chief 01 the evil spirits or bad angels (I1 Peter 2 :4). 2-What is sin? Catechism 14. a. Sin is not an entity \chic11 has an independent existence, yet it is a reality just as love, goodness, justice, and righteousness are realities. b. Sin is doing what God forbids, or not being and doing what God requires. It is an attitude of the soul issuing in disobedience. It js unbelief. It is turning to one's own way instead of God's way (Is. 53 :6). Its beginning and growth are described in Janles 1 : All unrighteousness is sin (I John 5 :17). 3-Effects of sin. Catechism Questions 17, 18, 19. a. Sin sets up self as an independent center, thus placing the sinner in the position of a

10 rebel, making him guilty and liable to punish ment. 1). Sin defaces and mars the inlage of God imprinted on the soul of man. Like poison in the blood strean1 it corrupts and pollutes thc imagination, the tulderstanding, the affections, the conscience, and the will. By sin man is "distanced from God, made ignorant of God, and unlilte God." (Campbe11 Xlorgan) c. Death both physical and spiritual is the result of sin. Rom. 6:'23, The wages of sin is death. See also Janles 1 :15. Spiritual death is eternal separation fro111 the 1112sence of God. 4-Sin is universal. All human beings possess an inherently sinful nature a~nd are therefore sine1.s in thougl~t, word and deed. a. Sin is universal because of the unity of the human race with a common origin. This too is the testimony of the Bible. Rom. 3: 10, 23, There is none rigl~teous; no not one... Tor a11 have sinned and fall short of the glory of God. b. Sin is universal in that it extends to the thoughts, words, and deeds $of eve17 individual (Mark 7 :15-23). NOTE: Bible Christians believe that "all human beings possess an ii~hereiltly sinful nature," i.e. that every child born into thc world is born with a bias toward evil, therefore illust be "born again" by the Spirit of God in order to see or enter the lringdonl of God. So called "liberal Christians" believe that men are born inately good so need oniy education and the right kind of surroundings. 5-Because of the perverted image of God in the soul, man creates false deities. According to 16 I I Campbell Morgan all false deities may be summed up under three names, Baal, Moloch, and lfanimo~l. a. Eaal. "The worship of Baal nras essentially the deification of nature, and the warship of the reproductive faculty." b. Molocll. "The worship of Moloch expressed itself in all cl-uelty, its chief espression being the sacrifice of little children. Illis is the ~rostitution of the emotional nature." c. Mailunon. ''The worship of Maninmoi~ is the reildering to wealth, Tor the sake of its power, of all that Inan oi~gllt to render to God." See any good Bible Dictionary for the meaning of these terms. 1. How did si7) e7tter flte?uo~lcl'? 2. What is silt'! Catecllisv~ TVhnt (ire the effects of si~z? what 7.e.specfs is sin?~wivel*sc~l? 5. Wlry does every o ~?1eecL e to be bol-72 again? (See Note,zrnder 4). 6. Wlmt false deitic~s does sixflil T)L~IZ c~eate?

11 CHAPTER FIVE GOD'S SOVEREIGNTY AND PROVIDENCE We believe thut God *is absolute sovereig?z; that he quo,-lceth all thi?zgs c~ftei. the counsel of his OIU72 will,; that He Izcrs fo~.eo~dui?led w1ntsoeve.r. conzes to puss; CL?UL that He prese.1-ves n?zd gove.r.7~~ all, His c7.ecrtures axd all thei~ nctio?zs. l-god is absolutely sovereign. a. God is the judge: he putteth down one, and lifteth up another. Ps. 75:7 "I will have mercy on whom I have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion." Rom. 9 : 15 b. Sovereign means sziprc?;te i7z power, inde pendmlt of and '~(?tli??tited by any other. 2-God 3-God Isa. 45:7, "I foml the light and, create darkness; I make peace and create evil. I am the Lord that doeth all these things... Woe unto him that striveth with his Maker." worlteth all things after the counsel of His own will. Eph. 1 :11; Dan. 4:35, "He doeth according to his will in the army of heaveii, and among the inhabitants of the earth; and none can stay his hand, or say unto him, What doest thou?" Read also Rom. 9 :17, 18 and Catechism 7. in His good pleasure hat11 foreordained whatsoever comes to pass. Rom. 8 :29, 30; John 6 :44; Rom. 9 :18-24; Ps. 33:ll a. The doctrine of foreordination, while a reality, is easily peiverted into fatalism, and we are not fatalists. God's foreordination and man's responsibility are both true, and both must be accepted. God will not allonr feated. His purpose of redemption to be de- b. God's sovereignty is the source of the believer's confidence and strength. "If God be for us who can be against us?'' Ram. S : God's supel*intending Providence is universal. Catechism 11 a. Providence means to foresee and make ready for everything that comes to pass. Nothing is too big to be bejroncl His power, and nothing too small to be beneath His notice. Isa. 40 :12, "Who comprehended the dust of the earth in a measure, and weighed the moi~ntains in scales." Matt. 10 :29, 30, 31, "Are not two sparrows sold for a penny? and not one of them sllall fall on the ground without yoiir Father." b. God's p~ovidence is most holy as well as most mighty. He makes "all things work together for good to them that love God, to them that are called according to his purpose." Rorn. 8 :28. 5-A special act of providence in the case of man. Catechism 12 a. God made a covenailt with man. Life was promised on condition of pei-fect obedience. This was called the Covenant of Works because conditioiled on mall's efforts. b. Man was placed in surroundings exactly adapted to his needs. Genesis 11. He was given freedom, assigned duties, and entrusted with responsibilities. The tree of life was to have been a source of strength in wallting in uiliol~ with God. The tree of the knowledge of good and evil was the red light warming of danger and of death. c. This special act of God's providence endowed man with the power of choice, or 19

12 freedom of will. Confession of Faith, Chapter IX. Before he sinned man had freedom and power to wih and to do what is good and pleasing to God. But by his sin man lost his ability to will and do what is good and pleasing to God. 1. 1YIzcit is??zen?~t by snying tlrclt God is soveyeign? 2. What c1l.e the decrees of God? Catechis?)~ What is meant by fo~~eo~dinution? 4. WIltrl is God's p~ovidence c~n.d Izolu fay does it extend? 5. Whcrt special act of proz:ide?zce in the cast: 0 f ? CHAPTER SIX CHRIST OUR SAVIOUR We believe that God i?~ His 711e7.cy p?-ovided n Savio?i~, the Lord Jes.zcs Chist, the eternal Sou of God, to deliz~e?. His people from the gltilt, po?uey, and stai?~ of SZU, ant! to ~estore them to the place of fellowslzip. I-This Saviour was pro\.ided under a second covenant callecl the Covenani of Grace. Catechisn~ 20. a. Thc Covenant of Grace was made with Christ as the Second Man, and in I-Iim with all the elect as I-lis seed. b. The only Mediator of this covenant is the Lord Jesus Christ, the eternal Son of God, who became man. Catechism 21. John 1: 14; Gal. ft :4; Phil. 2 :6, 7. Our Saviour therefore is both God and man, one person \\.it11 two distinct natures. 2-How did Christ, being the SOIT of God, become nl all?. a. He becanle inan by taltillg to Himself true human nature, eilterillg human life through tile womb of the Virgin Mary, begotten by the I-Ioly Spirit, and born of her, yet without sin. Catechism 22. Luke 1 : b. Mary, His mother, gave Him I-lis true hunlan nature. Begotten by the Holy Spirit, His human natul-e was sinless. I-Ieb. 7 :26. 3-Why was it necessary that He be God, man and God-and-man, in one person? Larger Catechism Questioils , 40. a. It was necessary that He be God in order to malre His \vork and sufferings effective for His people. Acts 2 :24; Rom. 1 :4. 2 1

13 b. It uras necessary that He be man in order to render full obedience to God in man's nature, and to be able to sympathize \!.it11 His people in illeir temgtalions and afflictions. I-Ieb. 2 :14 ; 4 :15. c. It nras necessary tlzat He be both God and man in one 1)erson in order Illat His reconciling \\70rIi be acceptable 11ot11 to God and His people. 4-IV1711y was it necessary tllat He be sinless? Eecause, bci~lg sinftll, I-Ie co~ild not be a bondsman and a deliverer for others, but would I-Eimself be under condemnation. 5-This ou~. Saviour is called tlle Lord Jesus Chrisl. ;I. I-Ie is called Jesus because He saves His ~~eople i'rom their sins. Matt. 1 :12. b. He is called Clwist, or The Ch?-ist, because He was anoi~lted \\.it11 the I-Ioly Spirit for His \vork of redemption. Messialt is the I-Iebrew word, and Christ the Greek word fol. the diloi)?ted One. Lulie 4:18, 21; Acts 3 :22. c. I-Ie is called Lorcl because He is the One \\rho has tlle supreme right to rule over His people. Matt. 28 :l8. 6-The Purl~ose of His Coming. a. To reveal to us by His Word and Spirit the will of God for our salvation. He is therefore a prophet, a Teacher, a Revealer. Catechism 24. J.ohn 1 :IS. b. To offel- Himself a sacrifice to satisfy divine justice and reconcile us to God. He is therefore a Priest, an Intercessor, a Reconciler. Catechism 25. I-Ieb. 9 :14, 25. c. To reign over His people and lead them on to victory over sin and Satan. Catechism 26. Acts 5:31. He is therefore a. King-, Lord and Master, Ruler. 22 F r-summaur of terms setting forth Hiss.(\ live mission. Note: One 1s salted simp,,, \A, accepting Christ as His divine Sa~iiour'L - doing His will, not by u~ldersta~ldi~lg a list oidefinitions, yet the definitions are important - too. 3. The inca?.?trttioi~. This means the eternal Son of God taking to Himself true 111u11an nature. b. Tkc nto,lr)~? er~ f. This means the reconciliation of parties alienated, the satisfying of divine justice, and the vindication of an outraged 1nora1 order. God could not forgive the sinner unless the penalty for sin weye paid. Christ became our substitute and the strolie due to us fell on I-Iim. c. The?*esl~?'~.ectio~t of Ch~ist. This \\.as the triumphant conclusion of His great work of redemption. His atoning death was given meaning and power by I-Iis resurrection. I COY. 15 :14, TVho,runs the S(tzjio?~?,???.oviilecl 7rnt.ler the Coue?za??t of Gjnce '! 2. How did the eteuztrl Son of God beco??ze??zcc?l? 3. Whl~ qocis it?~ece.s,scl?-y that the Ret.leenzer be God, II?~?L, m~cl God-n?zcl-n~ctl~, in one ge~son? 4. tt?hat is the?,tenni?7g of the wol-(7s "J~s~Ls," "CI~?-ist," n1zd "Lo7Y.Y? 5. What tuns the pzrlpose of His con.litzgl! 6. What is??zeci?zt by the terms "Inca~nutio?z," "4 tow e??ze?zt," u?zd "Res7a-rection of CIt?.ist"?

14 I. Show tlzat the Hal?] Sphdt is a pe?-so7z. 2. Shozu that the Holy Spil-it is r~ Divine peyso.iz. 3. Disti.rzgz~ish between the.zuo~k of the Son n.rlce 4 ZUOTIC of the Holy Spirit. 'l"4. What is the wo~k of the Holy Spiqit ili the dd? Section Wbot is the wo~li of the Holg Spi7it in the F e ~ of believers? ~ t ~ Sections 5, 6, '7. CHAPTER EIGHT FAITH IN JESUS CIfRIST 1;l'e believe that "Chqist died for OILY sills ncco~diq~g to the Scril~t?!?.es," and that all?jho have faith in Him Iz.cc.ve fo?.give?zess of si?ls ever- Znsti?jg?.ighteo~tsness, solely tl~rowgh the 71te7its of Jeszs Ch?-ist on the g?-oz~nd of His slced blood. 1-Saving faith is accepting Jesus Christ as our Saviour froin sin, and trusting Him day by day for keeping and guidance. This faith is accompanied by : a. Conviction. This is the work of God's Spirit. The sinner thereby is brought to a sense of his guilt before God, and of his inability to save himself, Jol~n 16 : 8. 1 b. IZepentalzce. Cathechism 87. Repentance is a cllange of mind and of at- I titude. The sinner convicted of sin begins to b hate what once he loved. Repentance and faith are inseparable, two aspects of one thing. If the face is turned toward the cross the siilner has turned his back on the world, the flesh, and the devil! Ezek. 36:31; Acts 8:21, 22. c. Co?zve?.sio?z. Matt. 18 :3; Acts 3 :19: This is the coilscious commitment of life to Jesus Christ as Saviour and Lord. 2-Saving Faith is the gift of God: Eph. 2 :8, 9. a. This faith is wrought in the heart by the Holy Spirit. Catechism 31. The Spirit enlightens the mind in the k~~owledge of Christ, renews the will, and persuades and enables us to embrace Jesus Christ. This is Regeneration. 27

15 b. Saving faith then is not mere assent to certain statements about God and Christ and sin. It is also trust and the committing of one's life to God in Christ. c. The principal acts of saving faith are accepting, receiving, and resting upon Christ alone for salvation. Catechism 86. Jesus Christ is God's offer to man, and faith is the acceptance of that offer. 3-The Xature and Object of Saving Faith: a. The nature of faith illustrated. It is the eye by which we see and understand what God in Christ has done for us. It is the hand by which we receive God's gil't. It is the estension cord by which we are connected with the source of light and power. It is in exercise when nre 100li away from self to the living Christ "who was delivered for our offences and raised fog our justification." Rom. 4:25. b. God in Christ is the object of faith. It is the object of faith that counts. It is the engine that is the source of power, not the coupling, though the coupling is both important and necessary. Faith then is only an instrument, but a God-appointed and a God-given instrument. &The BeneIits which come to us through Saving Faith. a. J7tstification. Catechism 33. We receive the forgiveness of sins, and are accepted as righteous in God's sight, not because of our faith and repentance, and not because God decides to wipe the slate clean, but only for the righteousness of Christ imputed to us and received by faith alone. (1) How does it come thab Chcist has a 28 righteousness ta spare? See ansnrer of Greatheart to Christians. (Bunyan) (2) Imputation means to place to the accolr9z.t of. Our sills are placed to the account of Christ and His righteousness to our account. 1s that just? This transaction is based on the covenant union between Christ and Ilis people. b. rldoption. Catechism 3.1. Thus receiving Christ by faith nre become children of God. Joh11 1 :12; I John 3 :I, 2. c. Snnctificatiolz. Catechism 35. The worli of renewal is begun in our heal-1s ancf continued throughout lil'e though with many ups and donrns: Eph. 4:23, 24 ; Col. 1 :lo, 11 ; Rom. G :4, 6, 14. d. -4ss?cl-ance. Catecllism 36. Through faith in Christ nre may have assurance of God's love, peace of conscience, and joy in the I-Ioly Spirit. e. Fruitf uhzess : Joll~l 15 :1-8. Througll faith we are brought into spiritual union with Christ and thus become fruitful. 1. l47lzict is saving f~ith tr7zte by whict is it ctccompct nietl? 2. Wknt is the sozryce of siiving faith aqzcl what aye its priq~cipnb cccts? 3. Give illz~stratiolls of fnitr ( L I Z ~ stilte its t?.?re object. 4. What are the benefits that come th~ough saving faith? 5. Esplcti?z what is ntecrlzt by jzlstificntiol-r, throzcgh faith alone?

16 "And whosoever will, let him take the water of life freely." Rev. 22:17. b. E17ei-y hearer is put under solenln obiigation to accept Christ as his Saviour. The door is open to "whosoe~~e~- ~vill." 1. Who be saved cc~.tl 1uh.o wili not be lost'! 2. Wl~at is?rzecl?tt by the "pe?.seve~cr?zce of the sai?zts," ti~d. to ~uhctt is it dzce'! 3..nila?j one 1;uo~ tlzcct i~e is saved? 0.,z what g?.otl,ld i! -1. To who?tt is fl~e gospel to be otfered? Ox whit is this foli?~ded? 5. Whmt i, every hecil.ei. ~tntle?. obligtriio7z to do? CHAPTER TEN THE LAST THINGS I4'e believe that it is a.ppoin.ter1 7c7~t0 all?11,e7t oxce to die; tlmt ccfte?. death. the SOILLS of the redeenzed do i??s??zedintelv pass into gloly, a7zd the so7~l-s of the?in?-edeenzed into the abode of the lost. We belie.ue in the Seco?zcl Canting of Ch~ist, is1 the Resu.~:~.ectio?~. of the d.etrd, in tlre ii?zc~b Jlbdume~tt, c~qtd i?~ the Life Eve~lcrsti?zg. I-Death is the lot of all both great and small. It is certain, inescapable, and universal. a. Death is tile result and penalty of sin. Rom. 5:12; The sting of death is sin but; the atoning death of Christ has robbed deatll of its sting for every believer: 1 Cor. 15 : b. Pllysical death is the separation of the soul from the body. Spiritual death is the separation of the soul from God. Though separated fr,onl the body the soul does not lose coilscious existence. The souls of believers enter at once into a state of unending happiness. The souls of the wicked shall be pilnished with everlasting desti-uction from the preseilce of the Lord. Larger Cat+ cllism 86. Matt. 25:46; Luke 16 23, 21; 23 :43; Jude 6, 7. 2-The Second Coming of Christ. a. The Second. Coming of Christ is sure, personal; and,. visible. Acts 1 :11; I Thess. 4 : ; I1 Thess. b:7-10. b. He will come again at the- last day in great. power, and! in the. full manifestahion of His own glory, and of His Father's, with, all His 33

17 holy angels, and nrith the trulllpet of God. Larger Catechism 56. The "last day" will marl; the end of the lwesent age of grace and the inauguration of the kingdom of glory. The work of the I-edemption in its entirety will then have been completed. I Cor. 15 : There will be therefore only one Second Corning, not two or three as some teach. c. The purpose of the Second Coming is to judge the world in righteousness. "He llath appointed a day in the which he will judge the world in rigl~teousness by that man whom he hath ordained." Acts 17:31. 3-The Resurrectiorl of the Dead. a. At tlle '%st day" there will be a genera! resurrectio~l of the dead. "The hour is coming in the which all that are in the graves shall hear hissvoice, and shall come forth.'' John 5:28, 29. "There shall be a resurrection of the dead both of the just and unjust." Acts 24:15. b. The bodies of the just shall be raised ir. power, spiritual, and incoi-ruptible, and made like ullto Christ's resurrection body; while the bodies of the licked shall be raised up in dishonor. I Cor. 15:51-53; Dan The Final Judgment. a. This is the Day of Account, when "eve1-y one of us shall give account of himself to God." Ronl. 14 :12. "God shall bring every work into judgment whether it be good or whether it be evil." Eccl. 12 :14. See also I1 Cor. 5 :lo. b. It is a sifting process by which the wheat is separated from the chaff. 4t the day of judgment the wicked shall be set on Christ's left hand, and up011 clear 3 4 evidence and full conviction af t.heir on-n consciences, shall have the fearful but just sentence of condemnation pronounced against thenl. JIatt. '25 :41, 42. Larger Catechism 89. At the day of judgment, the righteous being caught ill:, to Christ in the clouds, shall be set on His right hand, and there openly aclino~ledgcd and acquitted... and fully and forever freed from alf: sin 2nd 1nise1.y. Matt. 25:33, 34, 46. Larger Catecllisln Whctt (lye tll e fo?tr last fhi??ys )~teutiol~ed? 3. T4'hy is clenth ~i?tiverstil'! 3. What becomes of tl~e so?ils depn~ated? 4. IVheiz will tlte Scco??d Con?i??y of CIt?.ist be, (l~d wlrcrt is the 2xr7.pose of His co711i?ty? 3. TVhc~t is?)zecc?zt by the general ~-es~~.?.ectio? of the derrd c~17tl?olcen will it be '! 6. f hat ttrlces place trt tl~e fiml j?(dg~?ze?~t?

18 CHAPTER ELEVEN THE CHRISTI.4N LIFE TTre believe tlrcrt in all t1rii~y.s we silo?~ld live a life of obediettce to tile L0.l.d Jeszi.s CGI~7.ist as fri.s.ter"; tnking the Te7~ C07i1tti~,ldt)le%ts, alzd tjte e.s:un,ple and teacl~ings of Jesz~s as oq~r 7-ule of 7-ighteoqrs.r?ess; and, love to God and man ns the clo)izi.rt~tti?~g g?.inciple of life. 1-T"1is means that Jesus Christ is to be the Master and Guide of our life in the home, in the school, in business, in social relationships, and in civil and political affairs. a. We are under ob1igati.on to confess Christ in all these areas of life: Matt. 10 :32, 33. b. This inay prove costl?: I Peter 2 :11-16; 3: '--This calls for practice of the Christian graces. a. FAITH. This is daily trust in God. Sinful worry and anxious care are the denial of trusting faith : Matt. 6 : b. HOPE. Hope is the expectation of good to come. Christian hope is based on the promise of God's Word. Despair is the opposite of hope. Moods of despondency and depression tend to destroy hope: Rom. 8: c. LOVE. This grace is not a sentimental affection for others, but a desire that others should have the same fair treatment that I ask for myself. Because God so loved us we are bound to love one another; and, even to love our enemies ; I John 3 :13-16 ; 4 :7 11 ; Rom. 13 : This calls for the practice of some homely virtues. 3 6 a. TRUTHFULNESS. No lie is of the truth. The old nature is fruitful of lies. The neur natui-e does not lie. The true Christian does liot indulge in "white lies" and "grey lies." I John 2 21; John 8:44; Acts 5 :1-11. Can T be depended on to tell the truth no matter what the cost'! b. HONESTY. This nleails being tri~st~rorth in money matters, in examinations, in \1~0~1i and in business. The Christian docs not cheat. I-Ic is not dishonest. Hc does not steal. I Cor. 6 :S-11; II Cor. S 20, 21. c. PURITY. This has a broad application but often has specific reference to ses relations. Sex desire is perfectly normal. It is in its perversion that the Sevcnth Commandment is violated: Matt. 5:27, 28; I Cor. 6 :l5-20. "As a se~vant of the higher purposes in lisc it is a n~ondel*ful ser\~ant, giving drive and beauty to the rest of life. As a master-it is hell!" (Jones) d. UNSELFISI-INESS. Either sell' is on the throne of my heart or Christ is. Either self or Christ has the ultimate say ill iny life. TVhich is it? I Tim. 6 :6-10; II Tim. 4 :9, 10; Phil. 2:4, 5. "What an1 I living formyself, my own position, money, place, power? Myself or others?" (Jones) 4-Talring Christ as Master it becoilles our duty to witness against public evils. a. The Traffic in Intoxicating Liquors. The use of alcoholic beverages is injurious to the Iife and witness of the Christian. The law of love leads Christ's disciples lo abstain from their use: I Cor.. 8 :13; Eph. 5 :18; Prov. 20 :l; 23 :29-32 ; Rom. 14 :13. Church membership is refused to those engaged in the manufacture or sale of aicoholic beverages : Habalrlruk 2 :15. 37

19 b. The Vice of Gambling. This is a widespread and popular evil which ruins the moral character and is destructive of the spiritiial Iife. It is an attempt to get something for nothing, to gain through a neighbor's loss. It is quite unworthy of one who Ioves his neighbor as himself. This rules out all forms of betting, lotteries, and s\veepstakcs. c. Secret Oath-bound Societies. Here we have the evil of secrecy, and of unlawful oaths in many secret lodges, and of false worship in others : I Thess. 5 :5; Matt. 15; John 320, 21. The Christian swears away his freedom and manhood when he binds himself by dreadfui oaths ever to conceal and never reveal what he may learn in the lodge. The oath cannot be lawfully administered in these, secret organizations, and oftc~ltirnes it is of such a nature that. a true disciple of Christ could not take it under any circumstances. 5-Talting the example and teaching of Jesus as our rule of righteousness we will indulge only ill those amusenlents and recreations of which Christ can approve. These then will be clean and uplifting, not irreverent 01. indccent, and not tending to create a distaste for the things that are true, honorable, just, pure, lovely, and of good report: Phil. 4 :8. Companionships affect for good or ill the Christian life: I Cor. 15:33. 6-The Christian life can be nlaiiltained only by the constant feeding of the inner springs of Me. a. This calls for the prayer-habit. Without prayer the spiritual life becomes foi-n~al and 38 ]~o\verless : Lnke 11 :1-13; Eph. ti :IS; Col. 4 :2. b. For- this it is necessary to feed on the Word : Col. 3 :16 ; John 15 :7 ; I Peter 2 :2 ; 11 Tim. 3 :1G; Ps. 119 : ~i~hcit cl;t.eczs is tl~e CIr1.%~ti(z7~ life to be Ii'ued? 2. TYhy cc9.e Faith,, Hops, cct~d Love?1.ecessa?.?! to the Ch?.istici.n life? 3. Nnnle fo7.17. I~o?xeLy vi?-t?les cutd S~LOZU WILY tlccp ewe ~ecessa~~?~ to Chl'istZu..)t. cl~nrcbcte~).. 4. Agaitlst what p71b1.1:~ evils 7~tist IUC beu.)' witlzess? I.T/If,y? 5. TV1u1,t p.).1:riciple is to gzr,icle the Che~istinn ilt his n?~z?rse?nents a77.d ~~~ec~eu~tio?zs'? 6. No,w 1:sthe q.l~nlity of the CI~?.istin:lz life to be?,rni?ztni.ned?

20 CHAPTER TWELVE THE CHURCH OF CHRIST We believe that the Church is the Body of Christ, brought into being by the Holy Spirit; that it consists of all who accept the Lord Jesus Christ as their Saviour, together with their child?*en; that its 09-ganization is determined by Christ its Hec~d; ad, that its terms of fellozuship sho?ild be only what the Scriptzlres enjoin. I-The Church llefined. a. It is the Eody 01 Christ brought into being by the Holy Spirit: Eph. 1 :23: 4:12. It is an organism formed by an inner principle of life rather than by external authority: Eph. 2 :IS. Christ t11ere~ol.e is the only Icing and Head of the Church, and He alone has authority to determine its life and ~vitness: Epll. 1: 22 ; Col. 1 :18. b. It was brought into being by the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost: Acts 2 :1-4, 41, 47. Its life was sustained and constantly renewed by the indwelling Spirit: Acts 4 :4 ; 5 :1-14; 10 : c. It is built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the chief corner stone: Eph. 2: d. It consists of all who accept the Lord Jesus Christ as their Saviour, together with their children: Acts 2 :38-41; Matt. 19:14. The Church is one among all nations. We should pray and labor therefore for the visible oneness of the Church of God, in our own land and throughout the world, on the basis 4 0 of truth and of Scriptural order: I Cor. 12 : 12, 13 ; Psa. 122 :6-9; Eph. 4: The Governnlent of the Church. a. Its government is determined bj. Christ its Head. Government is necessaly to organization, and organization is izecessary in order to obey the commands of Christ given to His disciples in their collective capacity. For example: "This do in remembrance of me," and "Go ye into all the ~rrorld." I Cor. 11 :23 26 ; Matt. 28 : The guiding 1)rinciple for its organization is the will of Christ as revealed in His Word : Isa. 9 :G ; Heb. 8 :5. b. The Government of the Church, as revealed in the New Testament, is Presbyterian or repl.esel~tative go\re~-nment. Those set to rille are cliosen by the members themselves. This means government by elders, or by Presbyters, I\-hich elders urei,e also called bishops or overseers : Acts 14 :23; 20 :17, 18, 28; I Tim. 3:1, 2. Some of the elders thus chosen to rule are called teaching elders, or ministers, but all have equal authority and are solemnly ordained lo office: I Tim. 5 :17, 19 ; 4 :14. The tern1 of office nlay Ise for life or for a limited period. c. Deacons, or Managers, are office-bearers chosen by the congregation to care for its telnporal and financial interests. This is an administrative office. Its nlelnbers may be both men and women. The term of office may be for a limited time or f01- life. 3-The Courts of the Church. a. Presbyterian Order provides for a graduation of Coui-ts : congregational sessions, presbyteries, and synods, in regular subordination the one to the other.

21 SESSION. This is the governing body of the local congregation, composed of elders chosen by the congregation, and accountable to the Presbytery. The elected minister is Moderator of the Session. PRESBYTERY. This is com~osed of an elder and minister from each congregation in a definite geographical area. The Presbytery is responsible for the supervision of the congregations under its care. There may be many presbyteries nfhicli are accoulltable to the nest higher coui-t. SYNOD. This is composed of a minister and an elder i'r0~1-1 each of the congi-egations in all of the Presbyteries. This is the highest ruling body in the Covenanter Church. b. Eenefits of the Presbyterian Order: It preserves the rights of the people, provides for representative gove;nment, secures equaiity among those who rule, and permits appeal from one court to another. -I--'I'erms of Fellowship in the Chiurch. a. Telms of fellowship are necessary: To exhibit a system of sound principles concerning the way of salvation, the Christian life, the Christian Church, and the Christian witness, etc. Amos 3 :3; Col. 2 :2. To maintain the ordinances of worship in their purity : Acts 2 :42. To promote holiness of life, and prepare the saints for heaven: Col. 1 :12. b. Terms of fellowship should require only what the Scriptures enjoin, and should reject no Scriptural truth; yet the distinction between essentials and non-essentials is a just and proper one. The only thing essential to salvation is to be in Christ: Rom. 8:l. But full obedience to Christ requires us to observe all things whatsoever He has commanded us: Matt. 28 :19, H7hnt is tl~e Ch?~ci~ n?ld oj quhnt does it' COILsist? 2. Wh.nt is the guiidi?zg principle for the o~gn?liza,tio~t. of the Cl~?c-.rch'! 3. IThat is tlze fomz of govm.?~?~tent set fortlz. ilz tlze Script.lc?.es, CL?LC). 2uI~n.t are its office?.^'? 3. TYl~nt nl-e the ous.io~r.s CO~L.I.~S of tl1.e CI~~r.s.ch, a71d 7uI~nt is tl~e rr?itho,i.ity of each'? 5. Wl~y c1.9.e te?.?~ls of jello~uship?tecessnl.?j, a?rrl,?&hat shozild the3 ~et/.tti7-e'!

22 CHAPTER THIRTEEN THE WORSHIP OF GOD We believe tkcrt fhe 7uo1-sllip of tlre ow livi7l.g uxd tr71e God is (L 7inive~sal obligation; tlmt His?uo?..shi11 n~w.st be accoi.di?tg f o His o'lfl72 nppoi?zt- 7ilertt; ll~at He l~rrs designated ant. dny in seve?~ f o ~ q-esl ccnd zt;o?.ship; a?tcl, lhnt giving as the Lo7.d hcis p~orpe~ed z~s is a?!. i?ltegral part of the?co~.si~li) ci)zd senice of God. 1-Worship is comnlanded. Luke 4 :S ; I Thess. 5 :l7; Heb. 10 :25; Col. 3 :16. a. The princil~al parts of public worship are praise, prayer, the offering, the reading and preaching the word of God. This is the ~inited worship of the congregation in public assei~lbljr. This calls for reverence which should be cultivated carefully. The minister voices the adoration and confessioll of the congregation in prayel-, and speaks as the ambassador of God in reading and preaching the Word of God. Siilging God's praise is a part of public worship, in which the whole congregation should join. b. Worship is also private, fanliiy and social. Private. "Enter into thine inner chamber and... pray." Matt. 6:6. Family. This is ~vorship by the family as a unit. This is the recognition that the family as such belongs to God: Josh. 24:15; Job. 1 :5. Social. This is worship in more informal gatherings, assembled for prayer and Bible study The Way in which we are to \\-orship is that wllich God llas appointed in His MTord. Catechism 50, 51. a. This means that nre must have a "Thus saith the Lord" for what utc use iiz His \vorship. \.Trorship is to be given to God alone, and not to angels, saiizts, or any other creature. He is not to be worshiped according to the imaginations and devices of men: Deut. 12 :32; Matt. 4 :9, 10. True worship then is a matter of Ihe heart and voice, in spirit and in truth: Jolnl 4:24. b. Wc arc comi~~andcd to use the Psalnzs in worship, but we have no comniand to use instruments of music in the New Testalnelit Church. Instruments 01 I~IUS~C: formed a part of the typical and ceremonial ~vorship of the temple, which was fulfilled and abolished by the coming of Christ. The Bo01i of Psallns was provided by inspiration of the I-Ioly Spirit, as the book 01 praise best adapted to the ~vo~ship of God in a11 ages. They adequately express the holilless and majesty of God, and sound the depths of the human Ileait and of human experience. 3-God has appointed one day in seven for rest and worship. Catechism a. The day so appointed is the first day of the week ever since the resurrection of Christ. This is properly called the Lord's Day, or the Christian Sabbath. This embodies the essence of the Fourth Commandme~zt, and expresses the freedom of love rather than that of legal requirements : John 20 :19-27 ; Acts 20 :7 ; Rev. 1 :lo. b. Purpose of the Day: To keep in constant renlembranee the resurrection of our Lord. Our attitude to- 45

23 wards the Day expresses our attitude toward His resurrection. To keep in remembrance the t~vo great benefits, Creation and Redemption. Catechism 59. Ev it we acknowledge God's lordship over afi of our time. It prevents toil becoming a curse. and leaves men free to worship. To cultivate the spiritual life, and to engage in a ministry to the souls and bodies of men. I-Giving as the Lord has prospered us is an integral part of the worship and service of God: I Cor. 16 :2. a. Tllc offering is a part of worship, and is a symbol of the dedication of the body and of all nlaterial possessions to the Lord and His service: Rom. 12:1, 2. b. Our giving lo the Lord's work should be proportionate giving. ' The proportion can scarcely be less than under the Mosaic Law. The tithe then, or one-tenth of net income should be set apart as the Lord's portion, to be administered as in His sight, This is an aclalowledgment of the Lord's ownership, and of our stewardship of material possessions. 1. What we tl~e p1'%'7zcipcl,l pn.rts of '~liorship, a71d.ruhcrt tl~e cl.iffe?-ent g~o7l.p~ that wovship? 2. T4rhnt is the 2un.y i71 auhich we (we to zoo~ship, (L?z~?ohat songs (!;re to be zl.setl 1:?z pmise? 3. What day, by di7iille conzm.rtncl, is.set npa9.t for wo?.ship, (~97d, z ~kc~t is the especicrl pzwpose of the Da.y '? a ~1. lvl~y is gl:ving cc peaat of the 7uo?-slLip and se~vice of God?.j. I?ih(f.t is the p?'opo?'tio7?. of ilzco?~ze to be set c~pa?-t cc71cl how cid?n.i?tiste~ecl? CHAPTER FOURTEEN THE SACRA-MENTS We believe that the Lo?.cl Jeszts Christ I~ns appoi7ltecl sacl.a??~e?zts to be obse?.ved by His CIL~?-ch; tltat these sac~a?ne~zts are tzoo, ancl two only, Bccpiis~~z and tlze Lo7.dJs Sz~ppe~; and that the?/ becon~e channels of grace o~zly by the blessing of Cl~?-ist and people. il~e 2uorki1zg of His Spi~it in the I~ea~ts of His 1-The sacraments were appointed by God as signs and seals of the covenant of gracc: Rom. 4 :11; Catechism 92. a. The word sacrament meant originally an oath of fidelity and obedience talien by a Roman soldier to his commander. In a sense therefore a sacrament is a re~c~val of the promise 01 fidelity and obedience to Jesus Christ. b. An ordina~lcc to be a sacrament requires two things: a co~nmaild of Christ, and an element that will serve as a symbol or sign of divine gracc. By the wo~d of Christ therefore a spiritual relationship is established between the sign and the thing signified. Larger Catechism 163. By the same authority the sacrament is made a seal of the promises. The governor of a state, for example, affixes both his signature and seal to an official document. c. There are two sacraments authorized by Christ, Baptism and the Lord's Supper. Matt. 28 :19 ; I Cor. 1'1 :23 26 ; Catechism

24 These two sacraments fulfill and replace the two sacraments of the Old Testament, Circumcision and the Passover. Baptism, like Circumcision, is an initial rite to be observed but once, or to be administered to the same person but once. The Lord's Supper, like the Passover, is a memorial feast to be observed repeated- Iy. Larger Catechism The Sacrament of Baptism. a. Baptism is a sacrament of the Ne\v Testament \~hei-ein Christ has appointed the washing with water in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, to be a sign and seal of our union with Christ, of our cleansing from sin's guilt ancl stain, and of our commitment to Him. Matt. 25 :19: Catechisln 94. The element used is vate el., a symbol of the blood of Christ wrhii.h cleanses from the guilt of sin, and of the IVol-d of Christ which purifies the soul : I John 1 :7 ; John 15 :3. Tl~c sacrament is therefore a sip of the believer's regeneration by the blood and the Word applied by the Spirit: John 3 :5; Titus 3 :5. It is a solenln eormllitrnellt to Ihc Triwne Gocl, Father, Son and Spirit; and a renouncing of the world, the flesh, and the devil. b. I3al1tism is tn be adrniiiist~r~d ln :~di~lt.s 011 profession of their faith in Christ and obedience to Him, and to the illfants of believing parents. Infants are baptized on the basis of the faith of the parent or parents, and tlze vo\lrs which they take for the child. Acts 10 :47 ; Matt. 19 :14; Catechism 95. c. Baptism may be by sprinlcling, pouring 01. dipping. Since the element used, water, is 48 a sign of a spiritual reality, the significance of the sacrament does not depend upon the amount used. It is to be into the name of the Father. Son, and Spirit, the Triuile God: Matt. 28 :19. It is usually to be achninistered in the Church, in the presence of the congregation, by a minister of Christ lawfully called tllereunto. 3-The Lord's Supper. a. The Lord's Supper is a sacrament of the New Testament, ~rherein by giving and receiving bread and the cup according to the appointment of Christ, His death is sho\ved foisth : Luke 22 :l9, 20 ; Catechism 96. It is then to be a memorial feast appointed by Christ for the perpetual remembrance of the sacrifice of I-Iimself in His death. It is to be observed at regular intervals by the congregation assenlbled for public ~vorship, and administered only by a lawful minister of the Word. b. The Sacramental Elements. The elements to be used are bread and the cup. The "cup" stands for that which ii; contains, the Iruit of the vine. Whether this was fermented \vine is a matter of dispute: I Cor. 11 :23-26; Ifark 14:22, 23, 25. The bread and the cup are sjmmbols of Christ's body and blood. c. The Sacramental Acts. Tlzc-se are sis in number, four by the minister and two by the communicants. "Took bread." "This is my body." Mark 14:22; John 1:14. This means that the eternal Son of God became flesh, i.e. toolr to Himsell true human nature. It does not mean that the bread turned into flesh and blood in I-Iis hand. 49

25 "And blessed." Mark This signifies the solemn dedication of Jesus to His lnission as tile Christ in His public baptism in the Jordan, and the Father's blessing: Matt. 3 :I?. The blessing does not change the nature of the elements. "And brake.'?hlarli 14 :22. This signifies the sufferings and death of the Anointed One. He died as our substitute. His death was an atonement for the sins of Ilis people. "And ga~e." He gave the bread and gave the cup. He thus offers Himself in His sufferings and death to be our Saviour. Our salvation theyefore is all of grace. We are saved by grace. The disciples "take" or receive the bread and the cup. This indicates the faith and obedience of His disciples. They accept what God in Christ has done for them. They stand right ~vith God througl~ their faith alone. The disciples "eat" and "drinli" the fruit of the vine. This means that they receive ancl feed upon Christ and all the benefits of His death. Christ's mind becomes theirmind, and His spirit their spirit. Phil. 2 :2; Gal Christ then is present, not in the bread or in the cup, but in the heart of the believer. d. The Sacramental Observance. The nlanner of its obseivance is plainly 1.ecor.ded in the New Testament. The spiiit of its observance espresses itself in selfexamination, preparation (of mind and heart, and in high anticipation of blessing : I Cor. 11 :27-31; I1 Cor. 13:5. 4-Tlle sacrainents become channels of grace only 50 by the blessing of Christ and the ~vol-king of His Spirit in the hearts of His people: I Cor. 3:'i; 6:ll. 1. IT'hnt is n snc~.a?~te~it mtcl ~clhnt two tlt~17gs n re slecessrc1.y to n sno.it?ne?~t '! 2. Whnt two sncrame?zts in the hrezu Testanteat, crwd 7ul~rrt two scm-n??te?tts of the Old Testn?)~e?~t do the^?.epl(tce'! 3. TVhnt is birptis~~t n?rd.~crhnt is its mecotzny '! 4. To?ulioln is baptis~~l to be tidnzi7~istered a d hozo? 5. T/T'hnt is flte Lo~cl's Sz~pper '! 6. l?/lzc~t nrs the ele~lze?zts xsed and wlu~t clo they rep?.esent? 7. IYhilt prepnratio~~ is necessnly to its obse? vnltce?

26 CHAPTER FIFTEEN M.ARKIAGE AND THE HOME VlJe believe tknt?,m?.?-inge is CLIL honorable estate i?~.stit?~ted b?j God i)z the beginnilzg of 11117ncc7~ his- LOT?^; ikiit the jcc?)~iey 1's the tlue writ of society crnd essential to its stubilit?j; a?~d, that the Chl-istian h,onle is vitul to the well bei7lg of the CILSIYCJL. I--Marriage, instituted by the Creator, is honorable in all. Heb. 13:4; Matt. 19 :3-6. a. It is la\\rful therefor for all sorts of people who are able with judgment to give their consent. Gen. 211 :57, 58. Marriage is not a sacrament, nor peculiar to the Church of Christ, so it is right that the civil goveriunent make laws to regulate marriage. Marriage is of a public nature and must always be performed before a conlpetent number of witnesses. 19arriage was ordained for. the illutual good of husballd and wife; for the coiltinuance of society; for the increase and building up of the church; and to promote purity. Gen. 2:15; 1 28; Mal. 2 : ll; I Cor. '72. b. Marriage is a solenln covenant between one man and one woman, in which they vow to live together in loyalty to each other uiltil parted by death. Christians should marry only in the Lord. That is, a Christian should not marry an unbeliever. I Cor. 7 :39 ; I1 Cor. 6 :14. The marriage of Christians should be solemnized by a lawful minister. Scripture enjoins the husband to love his wife even 52 as Christ lo17ed the church, and the wife to respect her husband in the Lord. Eph. 5: Marriage is indissoluble except for tlle cause of adultery or ii~emediable desel-tion. Divorce is a last desperate resort permitted only for the foregoing reasons. Ex. 20: 14; Matt. 19:9; I Car. 7 :16. %-The Family is the true unit of society and essential to its stability. a. The family is the unit or cell which makes society organic. The fanlily is made up of parents and children : father, mother, child or children. Parents are responsible for their. childrcn until they come to years of maturity. Immature children are dependent on their parenls and owe obedience to thcm. Human society is strong and vigorous nrhen the marriage bond is held in hoiior, and when parents and children are bound together by mutual love and respect. 13. The family is a healthy unit of society only when based on the Fifth and Seventh Commandments. See Catechism Questions and The Christian I-Iome is vital to the \\re11 being of the Church. a. By and large the strength of the Church is dependent on its homes. The spiritual life of the church on the wltole will not rise higher than the quality of spiritual life in its homes. The home then must be Christian if the Church is to have power. On the other hand the Church has a responsibiiity for cultivating and developing Chiistian homes. b. A Christian home is one which is comrnitted to the worship and service of God in 53

27 Christ. Ps. 103 :l7, 18; Acts 2:39; Deut. 6 :6, 7; Matt. 19 : Here parents teach their children that they are Christ's and owre Him the love of their hearts and the service of their lives. They train them to trust and obey the Lord, and teach them the way of truth and goodness. liere children obey and honor their parents as in the Lord, and parents do not provoke their children to do wrong. Eph. 6:l-4. Here too is the family altar or family worship. This is the regular worship of Gad by the family, parents and children together. L4 n~iniillurn requirement is the reading aloud of a portion of the Word and some lnelllber of the family leading in prayer. 1. TTfhcit is??tccrv.icrge; for ~(;ILo?)L ~RZO~ZI~; by ~IJ~LOWZ instit?rted; for quhcrt plc?.pose; and quitl~? L ~ / L O sholtld ~ Cltsistic~?zs ma?-?-y? 2. T/T'hrtt is the inlgortalzce of the fa?nily to society, cind of the Fiftlz r~wd Seve?~th Col~?nzn?tdnlei?ts to the fanlily'? 3. Why is tl~e Chvistico~ h0111e 7:itcll to the zuellbei7l.g of the Chlc?.cl~? 4. TTThtrt is ri Chlisticrn home? CHAPTER SIXTEEN CIVIL GOVERNMENT AND THE KINGDOM OF GOD We believe that the Lord Jesus CIL?-ist is the Xde?. of ~mtio~zs; that?ur.tio?zs alld ~?ile~s owe obedieltce to Him CIS the King of kings; that civil gove~~~zwelzt, in addition to the Fan~ily tlw Chzt?.cl~, is a divine institution fo?. b?-i>rgi?tg i?t the ICi?tgdom of God; ancl, tlmt ~tatio?~ p?-ofessing the Ch?.istia?z?.eLigio?~ sl~ozilcl elzte?. i ~to cove?zn9~t 7-elntio?zs zuitk God in Cl~~ist. 1-The Lord Jesus Christ is the Rulel. of 11 a t' lons. a. To Ifiin has been colnnlitted all autllority in heaven and on earth. Matt. 22:18; Jno. 5:22, 23; Phil. 2 :9-11. b. Christ actually rules as King of nations by punishing those who violate His law, and by rewarding those who obey Kim as their Ruler. Ps. 2 :1-5, 9 ; 9 :l7 ; Rev. 2 :27; Deut. 28 :1-14 ; Ps. 2 :12. c. Sonqc day all nations shall aclinowledge and obey Christ as their Ruler. Ps. 72:8, 11, 17; Dan. 7 :13, 14, Nations and rulers owe obedience to Him as Icing of Icings. a. Znasmuch as their authol.ity is derived from God through Christ, the only Mediator, they are bound to acknowledge the source of their authority, and rule accoi-ding to the revealed will of God. Deut. 17: This acknowledgment should be made in the Constitution, the fundamental law of the land. b. In every nation that professes the Christian 5 5

28 religion it is the duty of civil rulers, including presidents, kings, governors, legislators and voters to honor the King of kings by shaping the laws and life of the nation according to the principles of the Word of God for nations. $--Civil government, in addition to the fanlily and the Church, is a divine institution for bringing in the Kingdom of God. a. Civil government in its nature is an ordinance of God, and as such is to be obeyed. Rom. 13 :1, 2 ; I Pet. 2 :13, 14. Civil go\~erlment in actual operation is composed of men, imperfect at the best, and sometimes bad, and so may be perverted lo evil ends. Civil rulers, in the ordinance of God, are to be ministers of God. They are set for the punishment of evii cloers, and for the protection of those \!rho do right. Rom. 13:3, 4; I Pet. 2 :13, 14. Citizens or subjects owe obedience to their rulers in all things la\~~fui, for conscience, salie. Rom. 13 :ti, 6. This obedience however is limited by the law of God. If rulers become the protectors of evil doers and a terror to the good, then Ch~istiarts lnust obey Gocl rather than men. Acts 529. b. The Icingclom 01 God is the great end for 1vhic11 the three divine institutions exist. So civii government as a divine institution has one great pul.pose, to bring in the Kingdon1 of God. The 1<1ngdom os God is Gocl's all inclusive program, in Christ, Por the world. It is the rule of' God in the hearts of men, and a divine order into which nlen must ente~. It 56 is both to be received and entered. Luke 18: 1% Jo :5. The Manifesto of the Iiingdom is found in Rlattheur chapters V, 171, VII. The qualifications of its citizens are set forth in Matt. 5:l-16. Many of the parables of Jesus illustrate phases of the I(ingd0n-t. Jesus taught His disciples to pray, Thy liingdom come. Catechism 102. The qualities of the lringdonl to be emphasized arc righteousness, joy, and peace in the Holy Spirit. Rom. 14 :17, Nations professing the Christian religion should enter into covenant relations \\:it11 God. 11 Chron. 15 :11-15; 23 : This exalts the ~\lill of God to the place of supremacy in the life of the nation. This, however, does not involve a ullion of Clnwch and State. Each is independent in its o\trll sphere, but both owe obedience to the Iiing of nations and the Head of the Chul-ch. b. The Christian as a citizen is called upon to dissent from ancl to refuse to incorporate urith a constit~ti~on of governlnent which denies our Lord's claim to the obedience of the body politic. See Coven~nt of 1871, Sectioil 111. I. SJLOW tl~cit the Loyd Jes?,rs Ch.?-ist is the 12,z/Le.1. of??tr.tio?ts. 2. I;T/ILIJ sho?~lcl.?lrrtio,tl.s c~ck~tozo~ecl'.ge the Lo?.d Jesus Ch>.ist n.s Icing oi Iti~zgs, ri..i~d?ohem sho7llcl this trck?zo?s.ledg~lze?zt be?l?.atle'? 3. I;l/'htrt is ci7til gozre7.?27tse7lt ciqzd *[.uhrit am the d?!.i:ies of civil,~.?rlers? 5 7

29 4. A1.e there (1777j limits to the obedience 70.2 owe to civil mle7.s? If so, ~lz.ut? 5. Iql~(~t is the Kiwgdom of God, ni~d what is t l ~e y yeat p7r1.11ose o j civil gove-?miz e.izt? 6. Ji7hu shozrld u, nution p~ofessiny the Ch1-i'~f inn?.eligio?c ei1te.l. into coz>e72c~nt 7uifl~ God? 7. What is ''polztic(11 clissent," cc ild lohen does z't become necessc17.y? SUMMARY I. We believe that the Scriptures of the old and New Testaments are the Word of God, and the ollly infallible rule of faith and life. 2. MTe believe in one God and that He eternally exists in three persons, Father, Son and Holy Spirit. 3. We believe that nlan was created perfect. Inale and female, in the inlage of God; elldowed wit11 knowledge, righteousness, and true holiness ; and, wit11 the law of God written on their 11eal.ts. 4. We believe that nlan sinned and brouglll.death ~lpoll himself and his posterity; that all human beings halle an inherently sinful nature, and are therefore sinners in thought, ~rord, and deed: and in order t:, be restored to fellowship with God must be born again by the Spirit of God. 6. RTe believe that God is absolutely sovereign ; that He worketll all things after tlle counsel of His own will, that He has foreordained whatsoever comes to pass; and that He preserves and governs all His creatures and all their actions. 6. We believe that God in His mercy provided a Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ, the eternal Son of God, to deliver His people fro111 the guilt, power, and stain of sin, and to restore them to the place of fellowship. 7. We believe that the Holy Spirit is the third persoll of the Trinity, proceeding fro111 the Father and the Son; and, that EIe is tlle divine agent for bringing men into saving relations with God in Christ. 8. M7e believe that "Christ died for our sins accordillg t~ the Scril3tures," and that all ~ *~ho 11alre 50

30 fait11 in Him 11ave forgi~reness of sins and ever lasting ~~igl~leousness, solely through the merits of Jesus Christ on the grounds of His shed blood le believe that a11 those ~vho111 God has c]losen unto life will be called by His Word and Spirit 011t of the state of sin and death ilnh sal- \,ation by Jesus Ch1-ist; that noile of tllose urhonl God has cllosell will be lost; that true believers lllay to the assurance of their salvation; and t]lat God commands all men to repent and believe on His Son. 10. We believe that it is appoiilted unto all inen once to die; that after death the souls of believers do immediately pass into glory, and the souls 01 the i~nredeerned into the abode of the lost; we believe in the Second Coming- of Christ, tlle resurrection of the dead, the final judgment, and the life everlasting. 11. We believe that insall things nre should live a life of obedience to the Lord Jesus Christ as our Master; taking the Ten Co~nn~and~llellts the esainpie and teachings of Jesus as rille of righteousness. 12. We believe that the Church is the body of Christ brought into being by the Moly Spirit; that it consists of all who accept the Lord Jesus Christ as their Saviour, together with their children ; that its organization is determined by Christ its Head; and that its terms of fellowship should be only what the Scriptures enjoin. 13. We believe that the worship of the one living and true God is a universal obligation; that His worship must be according to His own appointmeilt; that He has designated one day in seven fox- rest and ~rrorship; and, that giving as the Lord has pms],ered us is an integral part of tlte worship and service of God. 14. We believe that the Lord Jesus Chiist has 60 appointed sacraments to be observed by His Church; that ihese sacl.aments are two, and two only, Eaplisnl ancl the Lord's Supper; and, that they become channels of grace only by the blessing of Christ and the +vorking of His Spirit in the heal-ts of His people. 15. We believe that marriage is an honorable cstate instituted by God in the beginning of human history; tllat the i'arnily is the true unit of society and esseiltial to its stability; and, that the Christian home is vilal to the well being of the C1111rc We bclieve that the Lord Jesus Christ is the Ruler of nations; that ilatio~ls and rulers owe obedience to Hiin as the I(ing of kings; that civil government, in addition to the Family and the Church, is a divine institution for bringing in the I(ingdoln of God ; and, that nations professing the Christian religion slzould enter into covenant relations xrrith God in Christ.

31 has confessed Jesus Christ as Lord and Saviour and has been received into the full membership of the on this day of in the year of our Lord 19--