CONNECT THE THOUGHTS LOWER SCHOOL HISTORY/ STUDY GUIDE #9 EARLY EUROPEAN WARS HISTORY AND RELATED SUBJECTS

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1 2 CONNECT THE THOUGHTS LOWER SCHOOL HISTORY/ STUDY GUIDE #9 EARLY EUROPEAN WARS HISTORY AND RELATED SUBJECTS The student will need: Several pens and pencils An Atlas, and maps of the world. A globe. Copies of: -The Story of Mankind (2,000 edition by Van Loon) -This complete Study Guide. The purpose of this course is to provide the student a simple idea of the history of Medieval Europe. The student is to do each step thoroughly, and in sequence. The student should complete a lesson per day. The course should take approximately hours of study, including reviews for tests, and testing. There are 24 lessons, averaging about 1 hour per lesson, with exceptions. There are three tests. All essays are to be kept by the student in their workbooks. A student may (and should) continue into the next lesson if he or she completes a lesson early. There are four field trips, which should be prepared in advance, two to see plays performed. NOTE: THREE TESTS AND TEST ANSWER GUIDES FOLLOW THE COURSE, IN THIS DOCUMENT.

2 3 CHAPTER TWENTY-NINE - CHARLEMAGNE LESSON # 1: 1. LOCATE: on a map of Europe: Poitiers (in France) Germany Catalaunian Fields (Southeast of Paris, France) Ravenna (Northern Italy) Aix-la-Chapelle (in the North of the Frank s lands, in Germany, the Northern Rhine territory.) Nymwegen (in the Netherlands, near Amsterdam) Ingelheim (near Frankfurt, Germany) 2. FULLY UNDERSTAND AND USE IN SEVERAL SENTENCES: Franks- A European tribe centered in Germany. Ideal- The most perfect way a thing can be, or be done. The Battle of Poitiers- The battle, in 732, where Charles Martel, Chief of the Franks, defeated the Muslims and drove them out of France. Disorder- Chaos, lack of organization. The Roman Police Officer - Slang, for the Roman army, who had kept peace and order through Europe for over 1,000 years. Converts- People who decide to join a religion, or any group. Hordes- Massive groups. His Holiness - How the Pope, the head of the Catholic Church, is addressed (how one says his name in a conversation, just like calling someone Mr. Smith, or Bob.) Cast About - Slang for looked around, and reached out. Overtures- Approaches to, first communications.

3 4 Descendants- Those in our own family who follow us in time, as a son follows a father, who followed his father. Imperial- Having to do with an empire and emperor. Prime Ministers- Important people in a government who usually run things. Mergovingians The descendants of the Frank s king, Merovech. Major Domus- (pronounced domoz )- The master of the palace, the person who runs things for a king or emperor. Succeeded- Followed into a job, took a job later in time. Theologian- Someone who studies religion. Shrewd- Clever and practical. Coronation- A ceremony where a person is officially made a king, queen, emperor or empress. Longobards- A German/Swedish tribe. Incorporated- To have added a thing into what one already has. Domains- Large areas. Papal State- The areas or Earth controlled by the Pope. Residence- Home, the place one lives. Cordial- Friendly. 3. READ: in SOM, Charlemagne, chapter twenty-nine, from page 148, to the end of page EXERCISE: One of the best ways to get power in the world is to offer your help to a person who has power, and then do everything you can to help them. How is the relationship between Pepin the Short, and the Pope, an example of this? 50 words or more.

4 5 LESSON # 2: 5. EXERCISE: In your own country, are there people who help others who have power, and in turn, they grow in power as well? Find three examples. (Look at your government. Who works for the person in charge? How about very rich people, who works for them and becomes powerful because of it? Even artists can work for powerful people and become powerful themselves from the relationship.) LESSON # 3: 6. EXERCISE: Name two ways Pepin used the powerful Catholic Church to become king. 7. EXERCISE: Was Pepin wise to fight for the Pope after Pepin was already King? Why is it good to keep our word and help our friends, even when we may not need them? Why is it good for our friends and for us? 50 words or more. LESSON # 4: 8. LOCATE: on a map of Europe and the Middle East, and on a globe: Eastern Germany Spain Brittany (A peninsula in northern France, between the Bay of Biscay and the English Channel) Rome Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) Verdun (a town in Northeastern France) Mersen-on-the-Meuse (The Meuse is a river which runs through France, Belgium and the Netherlands. Mersen is in the Netherlands.) Teutoburg Woods (near the North Rhine river, in Germany)

5 6 9. FULLY UNDERSTAND AND USE IN SEVERAL SENTENCES: Monasteries- Places where monks, people who have dedicated their lives to a certain religion, may do nothing but follow and practice their religion. Basques- The people who lived in the Western Pyrenees mountains. Margrave- A German nobleman. Brittany- A peninsula in northern France, between the Bay of Biscay and the English Channel. Safeguard- To make certain someone is protected and safe. The Eighth Century- The years A.D. Exclusively- Solely, only. Rowdies- People looking for a fight and to make trouble. Restored- To have returned things back to the way they were, or to have fixed things. Rival- An enemy or opponent for success in a certain activity. Inheritance- What one receives from others, after they ve died. Carolingian- Having to do with the early Frank kings. Treaties- Agreements made between two warring groups. Gaul- Ancient France. Germanic- Having to do with Germany. Inhospitable- Unfriendly. Regions- Areas of land. Legions- Large groups of soldiers. Teuton- Having to do with the German people. Deutschland- The German name for Germany.

6 7 10. READ: in SOM, Charlemagne, chapter twenty-nine, from page 150, to mid page 152, the name Deutschland. (Skip the drawing on page 151, please.) 11. EXERCISE: How did Roland and Charlemagne follow the good example of Pepin the Short, in their relationships with others? How did this help Charlemagne? 50 words or more. LESSON # 5: 12. EXERCISE: Get a good modern map of Europe. Look carefully at it, and count the number of countries in that continent. Look again, and count the number of small countries. 13. EXERCISE: How did European kingdoms keep getting smaller and smaller? Look at what was done to the Roman empire, which left it in two parts. Look at what Charlemagne s sons did to his kingdom. How does this start to explain why there are so many countries in Europe? 50 words or more. 14. EXERCISE: Do you think a small, or a large country would be better able to defend itself, and why. 50 words or more. LESSON # 6: 15. LOCATE: on a map and globe: Corsica (an island in the Mediterranean Sea) 16. FULLY UNDERSTAND AND USE IN SEVERAL SENTENCES: Potentates- People with power.

7 8 Amidst- In the middle. Sorely- To a great extent; very. Beset- Surrounded. Appeal- To ask for aid. Hastened- Moved quickly. Thomas Jefferson- The third President of the United States. Unceremoniously- Without any ceremonies, or warning. Relegated- To have demoted, or moved down in importance. Scrapheap- Garbage pile. Corsican- Having to do with the island of Corsica, in the Mediterranean sea. Notary-public- A person given the right to act as a witness to official documents, and signatures on documents. Napoleon- The great (and terrible) leader of the French and their armies, in the early 1800s, who tried to conquer the world. French Republic- The government of France, after the French Revolution, a war which ended kings and the rule of the rich, in France. 17. READ: in SOM, Charlemagne, chapter twenty-nine, from mid page 152, ( As for the famous ), to the end of the chapter on page EXERCISE: Would you want to wear the crown and be emperor of a land, if you knew that there were many others who wanted the crown who would do anything to get it? Why or why not? 50 words or more.

8 9 LESSON # 7: 19. EXERCISE: If you were king, how would you choose to protect yourself so you could remain king? 50 words or more. LESSON # 8: 20. EXERCISE: At the end of page 154 of SOM, the author writes For history is like life. The more things change, the more they remain the same. Let s look at what he really means. How have things changed since the Romans? Is the world ruled by one large empire? Do we walk everywhere, or if wealthy, ride horses? Are wars fought with swords and shields? Do we only know of Europe, the Middle East, and some of Asia? Write down ten ways the world is not the same as it was in Roman times. Now, let s look at how people act. Are there still people hungry for power, and control? Are there still rich people and poor people? Do countries still fight each other? Do people still help each other sometimes? Do they still have families, and look for ways to take care of them? Write down ten ways people have not changed since Rome. The student now takes the test for chapter 29.

9 10 CHAPTER THIRTY THE NORSEMEN LESSON # 9: 21. LOCATE: on a map and globe: Denmark (Northern Europe) Sweden (Northern Europe) Norway (Northern Europe) France England The English Channel (between France and England) Germany The Frisian Islands (off of the Netherlands, Northern Europe) Normandy (Northwest France) Schleswig (Near the Baltic Sea, in Northern Germany) Wessex (in Northern England) Iceland (in the North Atlantic Ocean) Greenland (in the North Atlantic Ocean) The North Sea (off of Northern England) The Baltic Sea Northwest Europe) 22. FULLY UNDERSTAND AND USE IN SEVERAL SENTENCES: Norsemen- Norse means North. Norse men are from the Scandinavian countries in Northern Europe, Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Live off the fat if the land - Slang, for having everything one could want or need. Buccaneering- Having to do with buccaneers, also known as pirates. Frisian- Having to do with the Frisian Islands, off the coast of the Netherlands, in Northern Europe. Situated- Located. Smouldering- Burning, with smoke and embers (hot particles) rising slowly. Fleets- Groups of ships. Subjects- Conquered people, or people under an emperor or king.

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