APEH chapter 10.notebook August 27, 2013

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1 Chapter 10 New Monarchs The "new monarchs" arose in Western Europe after These rulers collected taxes, had bureaucracies and standing armies, and administered justice through law enforcement and judiciaries. They also typically controlled Church appointments and revenues. Nobles still owned land and had a high status, but they had less power than before. In all cases war was what allowed monarchs to centralize power in their hands. Each kingdom had had lawmaking bodies since the Middle Ages, but the new monarchs were able to exercise increasing control over them. In these bodies, the nobles had to share power with the bourgeoisie, who became the monarchs' natural allies. England had its Parliament (House of Lords, House of Commons), France its Estates General (three estates: Church, nobility, bourgeoisie), and the Iberian kingdoms their Cortes. 1

2 Spain arose with the marriage of Queen Isabella I of Castile (r ) to King Ferdinand II of Aragon (r ), although after they each acceded to their respective thrones each kingdom remained legally separate (separate laws, taxation, budgets, militaries, Cortes) The Catholic Church in their realms was subordinated to their authority. They controlled its budget and appointed bishops. They achieved religious unity by expelling the Jews in These exiled Jews became known as Sephardic. They launched the final phase of the Reconquest and conquered Granada, the last Muslim state in Iberia, in In 1492 Castile sponsored Christopher Columbus, who intended to travel to Asia. He actually reached the Americas, and Spain soon acquired an enormous overseas empire. In 1512 Ferdinand conquered most of Navarre, thus completing the process of unifying Spain. Their older daughter Joan "the Mad" married Philip of Hapsburg, Duke of Burgundy. Their younger daughter, Catherine, married King Henry VIII of England. These marriages were part of Ferdinand's anti French policy. Joan was their heir, but she was declared insane after her mother and then husband died. Ferdinand made himself King of Castile as well, and the heir to all his domains was his grandson Charles of Hapsburg. 2

3 France Joan of Arc helped King Charles VII (r ) defeat the English during the Hundred Years' War. He began taxing the population and maintained a standing army. His son Louis XI (r ) "the Spider" was France's "new monarch." he turned France into a great power with a strong centralized monarchy and a prosperous manufacturing economy. He defeated Burgundy and incorporated it within his kingdom. The Dukes of Burgundy were left ruling the Low Countries. His son Charles VIII (r ) began a campaign of military expansion and invaded Italy, beginning decades of rivalry and warfare there with Spain. 3

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5 Wars of the Roses The Wars of the Roses were civil wars between rival branches of the royal house of England, York and Lancaster. Richard III, a York, was defeated in battle in 1485 by a Lancastrian army, ending the wars. Henry Tudor became King Henry VII and married Elizabeth of York, reconciling the two branches. Henry VII (r ) was England's "new monarch," centralizing power, ending feudal wars, and creating a centralized judicial system to which even nobles were subject. 5

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7 Germany and Italy were exceptions because no ruler centralized power in these areas. The Holy Roman Empire contained over 300 independent units (free cities, principalities, duchies, kingdoms, bishoprics, monasteries). Beginning in the 13th century, almost every emperor was elected from the Hapsburg family, rulers of Austria. Through marriages the Hapsburgs expanded their domains until it became the leading dynasty in Europe. 7

8 Italy consisted of about a dozen independent states, mostly cities and small monarchies. Some cities were republics (Florence, Genoa, Venice). These cities were economic rivals and often went to war with each other. They hired mercenary armies under leaders called condottieri. Italian cities took sides in the rivalry between France and Aragon (later part of Spain). Each claimed Naples. France invaded Italy three times (1494, 1499, 1515), but ultimately Spain prevailed and the Kings of Spain became Kings of Naples and Dukes of Milan. These cities had the most developed manufacturing and commercial economies of 15th century Europe. They dominated trade between the Middle East and the rest of Europe, and developed banking and accounting. They were under the control of their wealthy bourgoisie. In Florence a banking family, the Medici, seized power in 1434 and ruled as dictators. They became major patrons of the arts. 8

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10 Renaissance The Renaissance was an intellectual and cultural movement which began in northern Italy in the 15th century. It was the rebirth of classical Greek and Roman culture, art, and philosophy. The classical mind's focus was on humanity and human ability and reason, and classical art glorified the human body. The medieval mind's focus, however, was on God and human limitations and sinfulness, and medieval art glorified God. Humanism was the philosophy of the Renaissance. Human reason, talent, and accomplishments are at the center of this philosophy. It first arose in Florence, and the father of humanism was the poet and scholar Petrarch ( ). Humanists believed that there are no limits to the human mind and what its powers of reason can accomplish. It rejected medieval education, which relied on authority and tradition, and instead emphasized research and scholarship and studying original, classical sources rather than medieval commentaries or summaries. A cultivated humanist should know many languages, be a scholar of history, literature, and philosophy, and be both a good speaker and writer. Humanists compiled manuscript collections of classical works. Refugee Greek scholars from Constantinople (which fell to the Turks in 1453) introduced humanists to classical Greek learning. The printing press, invented around 1450 by Johann Gutenberg, helped disseminate all surviving classical literature. 10

11 The Renaissance arose in an increasingly secular society with more secular values. The Church was relatively weaker, and lay people had greater access to education. Bureaucracies and the bourgeoisie valued education and encouraged it. Civic humanism was a philosophy which believed in cultivating the mind and virtue in order to become a better citizen, improve civic life, and devote oneself to public service. Niccolo Machiavelli ( ) was a Florentine humanist and political philosopher and author of The Prince (1513). It is a manual for rulers, and he recommends that rulers be utterly ruthless in order to maintain their power. He wanted a strong, centralized monarchy in Italy so that it could defend itself from foreign invasions. He proposed that the Medici lead Italy. 11

12 Renaissance art reflected classical and humanist values and themes. The nude human body became a focus again of art, just like in classical times. Art showed symmetry and proportionality, perspective and shading (chiaroscuro), naturalism, secular subject matter, and new techniques like oil painting and fresco. Artists were no longer anonymous, as humanists celebrated individual accomplishment. Giotto ( ) was the pioneer of more naturalistic Renaissance painting. His figures shows greater emotion and realism and his work used perspective. Donatello ( ) is famous for his nude statue of David, the first three dimensional nude sculpture in European art in a thousand years. Leonardo da Vinci ( ) was famous for his highly realistic portraits which captured emotion, personality, and psychology. (Mona Lisa, the Last Supper) He was the archetype of the "Renaissance man," as he was very interested in science as well. Raphael ( ) was famous for his sentimental images of the Virgin Mary and baby Jesus (Madonna). His School of Athens uses perspective and is an example of humanism expressed in art, as Renaissance humanists were posed as notable Greeks and Romans. 12

13 Michelangelo ( ) was a painter, sculptor, and architect. He painted the frescoes of the Sistine Chapel (the creation on the ceiling and the last judgment behind the altar). He sculpted David (a biblical figure) as a colossal nude in the heroic classical manner, and the Pieta (the Virgin carrying the dead Christ). He was architect of the dome of Saint Peter's basilica in the Vatican, still the largest dome in the world, in the largest church in the world. Renaissance architecture revived and surpassed classical models. Buildings were simpler and mathematically proportionate, unlike flamboyant medieval Gothic buildings. The pioneer was the cathedral dome in Florence of the 15th century, which was larger than any Roman dome had been. 13

14 Northern Renaissance Humanism spread northward from Italy in the 15th and 16th centuries. Humanism was most important in the Low Countries, where there were also self governing cities, a wealthy bourgeoisie, and a prosperous manufacturing and commercial economy. Flemish and Dutch art also flourished during the Renaissance. Northern humanists tended to be more focused on religion, and so less secular than their Italian counterparts. For them, the purpose of a humanistic education was a more authentic spiritual life. They emphasized reading the Bible and a simple, humble piety as opposed to the empty, ritualistic, and ceremonial medieval Church with its corrupt and materialistic papacy with its wars and intrigues. The most notable Northern humanist was Erasmus ( ), a Dutch priest faithful to Catholicism who advocated the imitation of Christ (simplicity, humility, peace) instead of dogmatism and empty ritual. He encouraged reading original sources and a knowledgeable faith based on reading the Bible. The most famous English humanist was Thomas More ( ), author of Utopia. he was a leading official under Henry VIII, and was beheaded at his orders for remaining a faithful Catholic and refusing to accept the Church of England. 14

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17 Age of Discovery Asian and African luxury goods reached Europe through trade with the Muslim Middle East. Italian city states dominated this trade. Portugal was a pioneer in sponsoring voyages around Africa to learn its geography, trade, and spread Catholicism. Portugal, and later Spain, as new monarchies had the resources and drive to do this. Because of the Reconquest, these kingdoms were also militantly Catholic. By 1498 the Portuguese were the first to reach Asia by sea, and they eventually established a maritime empire through control of islands and strategic points along the coasts of Asia and Africa. They competed profitably with the Italian cities. Their technological advantage over Asians and Africans was at sea, as they built the most advanced and well armed ships in the world. Christopher Columbus proposed a voyage to Asia by sailing westward. Isabella of Castile agreed to sponsor his trip. Instead, he reached the Americas, although he believed it was the Indies. Spain quickly realized it was a previously unknown continent and embarked upon its conquest. The native Americans lacked guns, steel weapons, horses, and immunity to diseases. Spain established an enormous American empire, which made Spain the greatest power in Europe in the 16th century. Portugal ruled Brazil, and Spain had a presence in Asia after conquering the Philippines. 17

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19 In the Americas Spain discovered the greatest deposits of silver and gold ever found. These precious metals paid for Spain's military but not for much economic development. This influx of precious metals led to long term inflation in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries. Prices rose as the money supply increased. After the 1500s Europeans dominated global trade, based on trade in gold, silver, luxury goods like textiles and spices, slaves, and tropical goods like sugar and tobacco. By 1550 Europeans knew far more about the world than classical or medieval Europeans had known. 19

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