Blurring the Line between Liturgy and Popular Religion: An Example from the Hispano- Mozarabic Rite

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1 Journl of Hispnic / Ltino Theology Volume 10 Number 1 Article Blurring the Line between Liturgy nd Populr Religion: An Exmple from the Hispno- Mozrbic Rite Rúl R. Gómez S.D.S. Scred Hert School of Theology Follow this nd dditionl works t: Prt of the Ctholic Studies Commons, Christinity Commons, nd the Liturgy nd Worship Commons Recommended Cittion Rúl R. Gómez, S.D.S., "Blurring the Line between Liturgy nd Populr Religion: An Exmple from the Hispno-Mozrbic Rite," Journl of Hispnic / Ltino Theology 10:1 (Aug. 2002) This Article is brought to you for free nd open ccess by USF Scholrship: digitl Gleeson Librry Geschke Center. It hs been ccepted for inclusion in Journl of Hispnic / Ltino Theology by n uthorized editor of USF Scholrship: digitl Gleeson Librry Geschke Center. For more informtion, plese contct

2 [mt Vol, 10:1 (2002) Blurring the Line between Liturgy nd Populr Religion: An Exmple from the Hispno-Mozrbic Rite Rul R. Gomez, S.D.S. Scred Hert School ol Theology Blurring the Line between Liturgy nd Populr Religion 19 of the pproches to the cross nd to the celebrtion of Holy Week would hve entered into the religious prctices of Hispnics in Ltin Americ nd the US. I find some merit to his clim. Thus, 1 will look t the pproch to the cross nd to Christ s seen in the ritul use of the Lignum Cmcis nd show how it mnifests Hispnic piety in generl To do this, I begin with the use of the Ligmm: Crucis by describing the Ad lertim nd the Ad mmmn pro indulgeniim liturgies t Snt Eulli s well s the Hermndnd Mozérnbe s prticiption in the Good Fridy processions} Then I offer n interprettion of this in light of liturgy nd populr religion l conclude by pointing to some direct links to Hispnic populr piety fterwrds, The Ritul Use of the Lignum Crucis Introduction The ncient liturgicl rite of Spin, often clled the Mozrbic rite, is one of severl Ltin lnguge liturgies tht rose in the West in the first four centuries. Only three hve survived to this dy: the Romn, the Milnese, nd the Spnish. Orientnlium Ecclesinrum (hereinfter bbrevited s OE ), the Second Vticn Council s Decree on theest» ern Ctholic Churches, conveyed thecouncil s openness to diversity in the liturgy when it stted ll the rites celebrted by Ctholics in the Est or the West enjoy the sme dignity nd s privileges the Romn rite (OE 3). This led Crdinl Mrcelo Gonzlez Mrtin (rchbishop of Toledo ) to renew the ncient Spnish rite's sttus nd life. He formed Commission whose work resulted in updting nd desig» mting it s n lternte liturgy for ll Ctholics in Spin in New liturgicl books lso ppered in I ddress three questions here: (1) Wht is liturgy? (2) Wht is populr religion? (3) Wht is the reltionship between liturgy nd populr religion? I see link between liturgy nd populr religion forged in the ritul use of certin symbols. Those used in both relms medite this link nd tke on pivotl role. Such is the cse of the Lignum Crucis, seventeenthcentury reliqury holding relic of the wood of the true cross used by the Mozrbic rite prish of Snt Eulli y Sn Mrcos in Toledo My interest in the Mozrbic rite ws encourged by Orlndo Espin, who climed tht when the rite ws replced in the eleventh century by the Romn rite, mny of the Mozrbic liturgicl prctices pssed into Hispnic populr religion} Spnish missionries lter spred these throughout the Spnish-speking world If Espin is correct, then some Ctholicism: Preservers of His- Orlndo lispin, l entecostlism 3: Populr pnic Ctholic Trdition?" ACHTUS Nrrziisletter 4 (1993) 1012 The cross ppers fundmentl to the spiritulity of Mozrbs, This is most evident on Good Fridy when they gther for two liturgies nd then tke prt in processions tht wencl their wy through the city, THE Cm/ OF TOLEDO The city tht inspired the pinter El Greco in the sixteentlrcentury hs remined reltively unchnged since in prts of the city core, the csco ntigiw. Toledo sits top rugged promontory hedged in on three sides by loop of the Rio Tjo. The steep, crooked streets in the cm ntiguo tend to be nrrow nd often impssible by cr. lhe prish Church of Snt Eulli is hidden in n out of the wy brrio of the csco ntigzmi This brrio once butted the medievl judcrz u(jewish qurter). It is set on steep, nrrow, cobblestone street. The church ws built in 559 dun ing the reign of King Athngild ( ).3 It hs suffered reforms, rev building, bndonment, nd reconstruction over the lst L441 yers The building ws bndoned in 1842 but repired in the lte 1960s 2The description is bsed on my observtions, notes, nd videotpe tken by my reserch ssistnts, Rolnd Morin nd Leon Zlowski, t the Holy Week services of Snt Eulli on Holy Thursdy (April 1, 1999), Good Fridy (April 2, 1999), nd Holy Sturdy (April 3, 1999), s well s the Good Fridy processions on April 2, I use the present tense to help the reder enter into the event lthough it ws contingent historicl event put together by the ctors. Nonetheless, l hve observed the generl outline nd the key elements of the event described previous to 199 ) nd gin in 2000 nd A, Arellno, "l Ptroqui Mozrbe do Snt liulli' Tro'nicu Muzmtw (hereinfter CM) 6 (1982) 12; Frncisco de Sles Cordob, "ls iglesis nimzirhes detoledo, CM ll (1984) 9 10; Igncio Gllogo l er ilver, L iglesi mozrbe de Snt Eulli detoledo, CM 17 (1986)7 9; nd Sixio Rmon Prro, Toledo t [ Mrio, 2 volumes (Serie lv Clsicos Tolednos 6; Toledo: lnstituto Provincil de Investigciones y Estudios 'l olednos, W78; reprint of Toledo m In Mnor Toledo: Severino Lopez Fndo, 1857) , 1R

3 it) his; R t; 513.5, when eict the ws instlled The church ws reconsecrted for wors ip m 1%. lhe building is modified Visigothic nd Mozrbic style with Mudejr elements.5 The oor pln is bsilic]. The most striking imge inside is the figure of womn on cross. She is Snt Eulli, third century virgin mrtyr who is the ptroness of the prish. Dted to the sixteenth century, the figure hngs in the chpel t the end of the right nve. The imge of Snt Eulli wers wig of long curls mde of chestnut-colored, humn hir. A white stin dress covers her body. As for the relic of the wood of the true cross, the Lignum Crucis, it is found in reliqury in the shpe of Ltin cross. The reliqury sits top the tberncle in the Blessed Scrment chpel. The relic of the true cross ws found in smll coffer when repirs were being mde to the church in themid fifteenth century nd the reliqury ws mde in There is box t the foot of the cross which contins the relics of Snt Eulli. A br seprting the box from the bse hs two levels. At the second, the inscription sys the donor ws former rector of the prish who gve the money for the reliqury fter hving recovered his helth? Prior to 1987 it ws on its mid ( pltform used by crriers on which imges re plced for processions) nd kept in corner of the scristy. The Hermmlml Mozémbe tkes it out in procession on Good Fridy. Don Enrique Crrillo Morles, the pstor, decided to"return the Lignum C rucis to its "rightful plce," bove the tberncle in1987. His resoning is prtilly bsed on sources tht note the plcement of the relic on top of tberncle or inside of it.m The min reson Crrillo Morles gives for this, however, is liturgicl The Ligmim Crucis is plced over the tberncle so tht, due to the singulr venettion tht is given to it {the tberncle] by the Ctholic liturgy, it is ssimilted to nd is united to tht which the Church gives to the presence of Jesus in the Blessed Scrment. Thus, he delibertely wnts to link the Lignum Crucis to the Blessed Scrment. As will be shown, thereli qury is treted s if it were monstrncc contining prticle scrmentl presence of Christ. See Cordob, Ls iglesis mozrbes dctoledo, 9. of the 5For Visigothic, Mozrbic, ndmudéjr rchitecture see Xvier Brrl i Altet, The Erly Middle A ges; Prm Lte Antiquity to All) (Tschen World Architecture series; Koln nd New York: Benedikt 'l schen Verlg, 1997) Enrique Crrillo Morles, Leis Reliquis de Snt Eulli, CM 20 (1987) 2. " l-iurtdo s reson for giving the money for the reliqury, the recovery of his helth, mkes it type of ex volt) given in thnksgiving for fvor received. This is populrreligiousprcticeyet very common mong Hispnicsll over the world. Enrique Crrillo Morles, interview by uthor, Notes, Toledo, My 17, Crrillo Morles, Ls Reliquis de Snt Eulli, 3. " A. Arellno, 12. Crrillo Morles, "hs Reliquis de Snt Eulli, 3 (trns. mine). T HE AU TERTIAM SERVICE literlly Blurring the Line? between Liturgy nd Populr Religion 21 The first liturgicl service of Good Fridy is the All tertim service, t the third hour. This service hs been celebrted new t Snt Eulli only since It is recovery of service found in the Liter Ordinum tht ws ltered nd combined with the Ad rum/1m service under Crdinl Cisneros in Terce or the third hour is usully 9:00 A.M. The liturgy includes procession of the ssembly with the Lignum C rucis nd two venertions of it. Don Enrique greets those gthered, inviting them to prticipte in the service with their ttention nd pryers. He ddresses pryer to the Fther in which he mentions tht this frction of the wood of the cross is the sign of slvtion; therefore, it is crried in procession so tht s we cross the se [of thislife] we pry for the slvtion tht comes through it. Then he instructs the ssembly to leve the church in procession. Don Enrique strts hymn to the cross, [Victoril T11rez nm s.12the people sing s they go out of the building into the plz, down the hill, up round the building, nd bck inside. At the rer minister swings the thurible filled with incense. Don Enrique follows with the Ligmtm Crucis. Bck inside, the people go to their pews while the ministers return to the front of the ltr. Don Enrique continues to hold high the Ligmtm Crucis. After the hymn, he reds monition cll ing on ll to dore the wood on which hung Christ the Svior. Inside the ritul unfolds s the Ligrmm Crucis is venerted twice. During the second venertion, come people nd mke vrious forms of reverence. All do so from slight distnce before nering the reliqury to kiss it. During the venertion rite, lsting bout twenty minutes, don Enrique sings the Vexz'll Regis followed by the hymn,, Victurz'! T22 rewrds. After everyone venertes the reliqury, don Enrique tkes it to the ltr. He instructs the people to stnd nd mkes brief monition inviting ll to cclim the cross in litny of prise. lie begins the litny extolling the holy cross on which Christ hung nd whose blood wshed our wounds. After the litny, ll kneel nd don Enrique prys closing pryer. The Ad nonm pro indulgentim service, the second liturgy of the dy t Snt Eulli y Sn Mrcos, is in the fternoon. The title in English is At the ninth hour formercy. This service is the longer of the two, lsting bout ninety minutes nd in sense is continution of the morning service. One feture is the litny for mercy (indulgenhm)u decreed 1 This is n idiosyncrtic introduction by d. Enrique,- the Missulr. nd the Litter Ordinum offer the text of Ltin hymn but due to the lck of nottion, he hs substiv tuted this hymn of recent vintge. The title in English is Victory! You will reign." it ws composed by F, X. Moreu; nother version is vilble in the hymnl, Flor y Cnto (Portlnd, Greg; Oregon Ctholic Press, 1989) 194 (the title is simply l tl mutnts). ' Indulgenlium cn be trnslted s indulgence, prdon, tenderness, nd mercy; the ltter word best conveys the request for mercy in the ple for forgiveness

4 20 R1112!R.Gémez, when electricity ws instlled. The church ws reconsecrted for worship in1973. The building is modified Visigothic nd Mozrbic style with Mudéjr elements.s The floor pln is bsilicl. The most striking imge inside is the figure of womn on cross. She is Snt Eulli, third-century v irgin mrtyr who is the ptroness of the prish. Dted to the sixteenth century, the figure hngs in the chpel t the end of the right nve. The imge of Snt Eulli wers wig of long curls mde of chestnuecolored, humn hir. A white stin dress covers her body. As for the relic of the wood of the true cross, the Lignum Crucis, it is found in reliqury in the shpe of Ltin cross. The reliqury sits top the tberncle in the Blessed Scrment chpel. The relic of the true cross ws found in smll coffer when repirs were being mde to the church in the mid-fifteenth century nd the ws reliqury mde in There is box t the foot of the cross which contins the relics of Snt Eulli, A br seprting the box from the bse hs two levels. At the second, the inscription sys the donor ws former rector of the prish who gve the money for the reliqury fter hving recovered his helth.7 Prior to 1987 it ws on its ndu ( pltform used by crriers on which imges re plced for processions) nd kept in corner of the scristy The Hermmzdnd Mozémbe tkes it out in procession on Good Fridy. Don Enrique Crrillo Morles, the pstor, decided to return the Lignum Crucis to its rightfulplce, bove the tberncle in1987. His resoning is prtilly bsed on sources tht note the plcement of the relic on top of tberncle or inside ofit) The min reson Crrillo Morles gives for this, however, is liturgicl. The Lignum Crucis is plced over the tberncle so tht, due to the singulr venertion tht is given to it [the tberncle} by the Ctholic liturgy, it is ssimilted to nd is united to tht which the Church gives to the presence of Jesus in the Blessed Scrment. u Thus, he delibertely wnts to link the Lignum Crucis to the Blessed Scrment. As will be shown, the reliv qury is treted s it it were monstrnce contining prticle scrmentl presence of Christ. See Cordob, Ls iglesis mozrbes de Toledo, 9. of the 5 For Visigothic, Mozrbic, ndmude jr rchitecture see Xvier Brrel i Altet, The Erly Middle Ages: From Lte Antiquity to AD (Tschen World Architecture series; Koln nd New York: Benedikt Tschen Verlg, 1997) Enrique Crrillo Morles, "ls Reliquis de Snt Eulli, CM 20 (1987) 2. Vliurtdo s reson for giving the money for the reliqury, the recovery of his helth, mkes it type of ex vow given in thnksgiving for fvor received This is populr religiousprctice yet very common mong Hispnics ll over the world. 2 Enrique Crrillo Morles, interview by uthor, Notes, Toledo, My 17, "Crrillo Morles, "Ins Reliquis de Snt Eulli," 3. A. Arellno, 12. " Crrillo Morles, "Ls Reliquis de Snt Eulli, 3 (trns, mine). THE AD TERTIAM SERVICE. Blurring the Line between Liturgy nd Populr Religion 21 The first liturgicl service of Good Fridy is the Ad Iertium service, literlly t the third hour. This service hs been celebrted new t Snt Eulli only since It is recovery of service found in the Libcr Ordinum tht ws ltered nd combined with the Ad numm service under Crdinl Cisneros in Terce or the third hour is usully 9:00 AM. The liturgy includes procession of the ssembly with the Lignum Crucis nd two venertions of it. Don Enrique greets those gthered, inviting them to prticipte in the service with their ttention nd pryers. He ddresses pryer to the Fther in which he mentions tht this frction of the wood of the cross is the Sign of slvtion; therefore, it is crried in procession so tht s we cross the se [of thislife] we pry for the slv~ tion tht comes through it. Then he instructs the ssembly to leve the church in procession. Don Enrique strts hymn to the cross, [Victori] T12mums. The people sing s they go out of the building into the plz, down the hill, up round the building, nd bck inside. At the rer minister swings the thurible filled with incense. Don Enrique follows with the Lignum Crucis. Bck inside, the people go to their pews while the ministers return to the front of the ltr. Don Enrique continues to hold high the Lignum Crucis. After the hymn, he reds monition clling on ll to dore the wood on which hung Christ the Svior. inside the ritul unfolds s the I.ignumCrucz s is venerted twice. Dun ing the second venertion, people come nd mke vrious forms of reverence. All do so from slight distnce before nering the reliqury to kiss it. During the venern'on rite, lsting bout twenty minutes, don Enrique sings thevexéll Regis followed by the hymn, j Victori! T12 reinnis. After everyone venertes the reliqury, don Enrique tkes it to the ltr. He instructs the people to stnd nd mkes brief monition inviting ll to cclim the cross in litny of prise. He begins the litny extolling the holy cross on which Christ hung nd whose blood wshed our wounds. After the litny, ll kneel nd don Enrique prys closing pryer. The Ad nonm pro indulgmtium service, the second liturgy of the dy t Snt Eulli y Sn Mrcos, is in the fternoon. The title in English is At the ninth hour for mercy. This service is the longer of the two, lsh ing bout ninety minutes nd in sense is continution of the morn. ing service. One feture is the litny for mercy (imiulgentirsz decreed This is n idiosyncrtic introduction by d. Enrique; the Misslc nd the Lilm' Ordinum offer the text of Ltin hymn but due to the lck of nottion, he hs substituted this hymn of recent vintge. The title in English is Victory! You will reign. It ws composed by E X. Moreu; nother version is vilble in the hymnl, Flor y Quito (Portlnd, Greg; Oregon Ctholic Press, 1989) W4 (the title is simply Tu' reinnis). the 3 Indulgentmm cn be trnslted s indulgence, prdon, tenderness, nd mercy; ltter word best conveys the request for mercy in the ple for lorgiveness.

5 22 R1111!R. Gomez, by the Fourth Council of Toledo (633). Becuse pennce nd reconcilition of penitents were public in the Visigothic church, this service ws to be the scrmentl reconcilition liturgy. The litny plyed mjor role in the completion of the pennce nd it incorported the rest of those ttending into communl pennce service. ENI'RANcE, 0FMlNlS YERS The ministers file in from the scristy in silence. Don Enrique crries the Lignum Crucis s in the morning, with humerl veil covering his hnds nd the bse of the reliqury. He plces the Lignum Crucis in the middle of the ltr between tpers, The, Ligmim Crucis remins on the ltr ll through the liturgy though direct references to it never occur. The Good Fridy evening processions re the third event. inchris tin circles c me processions into use once persecution wned in the fourth century. As John Bldovin notes, the relxtion of persecution ment tht Christins were free to tke to the streets, nd fter the first decde of the fourth century such public mnifesttions were perm nentlylegitimized. M Consequently processions becme regulr feture in Christin religious expression. In Jeruslem prticulrly, processions t Holy Week becme wy to recll nd re enct the events of Christ s Pssion. These prctices cptured the imgintion of Christins elsewhere nd hd gret impct on their own religious prctices. Ronld Grimes defines procession s linerly ordered, solemn movement of group through chrtered spce to known destintion. m its min purpose is to give witness, ber n esteemed object, perform rite, fulfill vow, gin merit, or visit shrine." Grimes 4 Mrius Férotin, Lc Liber Ordlmzm En Usge Dns I Eglisz Wlsiglhique ct Mozmhr d l lspgnc du Cinquieme Sibclt' (Monument Ecclesie Liturgic 5; Pris: Firmin Didot, 1904) 199, n. 1; Jose Vives, Toms Mrin Mrtinez, nd Gonzlo Mrtinez Diet, eds, Concilir sigéliros e Hispmm-Rummms (Brcelon 8: Mdrid: Consejo Superior de lnvestigciones Cientifics lnstituto Enrique F16rez, 1963) 210; cn 55. Jorge Peniles, "The Reconcilition t Public l enitents in Spin During the First Millennium (unpublished pper [1986} 39) 4 5. John F, Bldovin, 5.1., The Urbn Chrcter ofclrrisllun Worship: The Origins, Development, nd Mening of Sltiomzl Liturgy (Orientli Christin Anlect 228; Rome: l oni. lnstitut um Sludiorum Orientliuin, 1987) 84. The fourth-century Spnish pilgrim Egeri describes these in her diry She tkes note of their novelty nd similrities between prctices in Jeruslem nd bck home. Egerl: Diry of Pilgrimge, Ancient Christin Writers 38, trns. nd nnotted bygeorge l5. Gingms(New York: Newmn Press, 1970)chs. 30~38 (13344). 3 Ronld L. Grimes, Reding, Writing, nd Ritulizing: Ritul in Piclive, Liturgicl, nd Public Plces (Wshington, DC; Pstorl Press, 1993) 63: the destintion cn be shrine or point long the route, where some ritul ct tkes plce. WGrimes, Reding,Writing, nd Rilulz zing, 63. Blurring the Line between Liturgy nd Populr Religion 23 notes tht processions re oriented towrd destintion rther thn center/ 7" Processions becme mens to proclim fith publicly nd to tke the liturgy hidden in churches into the street. In this wy, the city becme liturgicl spce. Bldovin gives certin trits of them tht reflect current Spnish prctice in generl nd the processions in Toledo in prticulr: Processions of ll sorts re, of course, public in nture, but populr liturgicl processions differ in tht they re much lrger in scle nd succeed in bringing together people of diverse bckgrounds nd sttus. Thus, s kind of democrtic form in very undemocrtic world, they succeeded in bringing liturgy onto thestreets. 21 There is cler evidence of processions in Spin in the sixth century; they tended to be penitentil in chrcter.22 This is trit tht continues to mrk Holy Week in Toledo tody, Holy Week in the ninth century.23 MOZARABS AND THEIR PASO More drmtic elements were dded to Once ll the people hve left Snt Eulli fter the Ad nonm pm indulgentim liturgy, few members of the Hermndd Mz mbe tke the Lignum Crucis to the Mozrbic prish Church of Snts Iust y Rufin. There it will be prepred for the Good Fridy Processions tht go through the cusco ntiguo. Snts lust y three other non Mozrb groups too.24 GATHERING or THE HERMANDAD Rufin is the homewbse for The Mozrbs who will process hve been rriving t Snts lust y Ru n since 7:30 RM. In ddition to those who live in Toledo, others from Mdrid nd other prts of Spin hve come to tke prt. The processnts include men nd women, boys nd girls. The mles come dressed in the distinctive royl blue mntle of the Hermndud; lrge cross emblem dorns its left rm. They wer their vener (Mozrb emblem) mygrimes, Reding,Writing, nd Rilulizlng, 63-64; nd idem, Beginningsin Ritul Studies, rev. ed, (Columbi: University of South Crolin Press, 1995; lst pub by University Press of Americ) 27i 1 Bldovin, 160; in n. 75 he cites Schuster, Snemmrtnlury 1:220. 1" lbid. Z lirne Lr, "The Liturgicl Roots of Hispnic PopulrReligiosity, Mimi,Mrs y Musn: Liturgy in the Hispnic Church, comp. nd ed Kenneth G. Dvis, OHM, Conv. (Schiller Prk, 111.:World Librry Publictions, div. oi]. Si Pluch Co, 1997) Descriptions of the groups nd pusos re in Smwnn Snt Toledo 99:l mgrm d9 Actos y Cullos (Toledo: junt de Cotrdis y Hermnddes de Semn Snt de Toledo, 1999, booklet)17*. On cofrdz s see mong others Antonio Mestre Snchis, "Religion y cultur en el siglo XVIII espnol, lllslori do l Iglesi en ESpRl/ l, vol, 4, (Mdrid: Bibliotec do Autores Cristinos)

6 ' 24 Klil R. Gomez, ribbon. "lhe femles rrive dressed round their neck on blue nd gold in blck. Their emblem, ttched to blue nd gold ribbon in the form of bow (11120),is pinned over their hert. Don Enrique rrives dressed in the hbit of the Mozrbic chplins of blck cssock, white surplice, blck cope nd ruf ed collr. The Mozrb cross emblem on blue nd gold bnd hngs round his neck. Only processnts my be in the church t this time. The rchdiocese ssigns chplin to ech group. In this wy, the populr religious prctice of Holy Week processions is legitimized nd integrted The first group to leve is the one tht ccompnies the Descendiv into the ecclesil life of Toledo. mimto pso. Then follows the group ccompnying the pso of the Virgen dc [s Anguslis. Some dressed in seventeenth rmor re century next. Then come the members of the Knights of the Holy Sepulcher who c» compny the Snt Scpulcm imge. A mn young in rmor drgs blck pennnt ttched to sper behind him before the ded Christ. Then re fol comes the Hermndml Mozu rbe with the Lignum Crucis.ZS They lowed by more rmored processnts. The group ccompnying the pso of N uestm Scliom dc [ Solcdd follows. In this order, living tbleu is set up in which Jesus is tken down from the cross, plced on the lp of his weeping mother, escorted by soldiers, followed by Christ lid out in coffin, leving n cross empty (the Lignum Crucz's reliqury), nd the mother weeping. Thus, the gospel nrrtives describing moments ofjesus pssion re setup to be reencted for ll to see. the lst About 10:00 PM the Lignum Crucis emerges from the church. The peso is crried by four Mozrb men. young it is led by two boys vested s ltr servers, one of whom swings thurible. The pge is more imsy thn the erlier ones nd so ny movement is esily seen in the cnopy. One is struck by its simplicity nd strkness. The spotlight on the front of the pnso is focused on the reliqury mking it shine underneth the cnopy. While the Hermmlud emerges, civic nd militry officils pproch the church from the lower prt of Snt Just street. re They the lst to line up. These include members of the city council, the provincil government, militry officers, nd officers of the Gurdi Civil. They re led by the myor who wers the Mozrb cross emblem on gold chin s symbol of the citygovernment s role of civil protector of the Hvrmndd Moz rbe? Crdinl Gonzlez Mrtin in 1976 decreed the prticiption of the Hermndd " in the Good Fridy processions nd indicted their plcement behind the 51mm Crucis de l Sepulcmpso See Mrcelo Gonzlez Mrtin Decreto sobre cl Lignum l rroqui Mozrbe do Snt liulli y Sn Mrcos, 50mm Eilesidsilco dt l Arzolris. purl dc 'Ibledo 132 (1976) 2084). 22(If. szstituciones dc l [lustre y Artilquisimu l'lwmmzdd do Cblleros Mozzimlws dc Nilestm Slem de l Espernz, dc In Imperil Ciudd dc 'l olvdn, Cpitulu dc Toledo Blurring the Line between Liturgy nd Populr Religion 25 Along the route I overher observers sying "those re the Mozrbs!" Some bless themselves s the Lignum Crucis psses by. Others sk who this group is. Yet others note the simplicity of the Ligmmz Crucis peso nd re not very tken by it F or Mozrbs though, to go in procession on Good Fridy' is to engge in n ct of recollection. It mens to ccompny the Lignum Crucis it 15 to do pennce. Don Mrio Arellno Grci sserts tht tking the Ligmlm Crucis m procession is very importnt: it is the most importnt element in the procession of Good Fridy since it is the uthentic relic of the cross. The rest re just sttues."ll The officils of the rchdiocese wit t Hombre de Plo Street for the ps of Our Ldy of Sorrows. Once the group with their chplin psses by, they insert themselves in the procession before the civic nd militry officils The center of the church group is tken by Archbishop Frncisco Alvrez Mrtinez He too wers the Mozrb cross emblem on gold chin, sign of his role s the current ecclesisticl superior of the Hispno-Mozrbic rite nd titulr hed of thehé f llmildlld Mnitob-l" The end result is huge, blocksvlong procession mde. up of how dreds of men, women, nd children dressed s or penitents in forml ttire. Three drum nd bugle corps nd ten prises re interspersed mong them. The pesos for the most prt re very elborte nd bedecked with colorful fresh flowers. The re pws sizeble, except for one smll ngmlm Crucis under polio (cnopy). It elicits ttention nd quiet respect which is only surpssed by the reverence pid to Christ lid out in the coffin. All together they form living tbleu of the Pssion of Jesus Christ. The observers re temporrily suspended in time s they return to the moments ofjesus suffering nd deth. lhey re moved to pity for the s Virgin she mourns her beloved son's deth. The ritul llows the relted scriptures to come to life before ll who hve eyes to see. The drm llows the ugliness ofchrist s ignominious deth to be trnsformed into beutiful nd mjestic pgent of victory. (Toledo: Arzobispdo de Toledo, prroquis Mozrbes de Sn Mrcos y do Snts Just y Rufin, l966, rev. 1984) rt. 5; Constituciomrs de l [lustre yantiqm simu Hiermmzdd dc Cblleros y Drms Mozrimbrs dc Nur'stm Swim: de [12 Espernz, dc l Imperil Ciudd dc Toledo (Toledo: Arzobispdo de Toledo Prmquis Mozrbes de Sn Mrcos y de Snts lust y Ru n, 1966, rev. l999) rts. 14 nd 25. lurdo Lozno fmily interview by uthor, Notes, lune 2, 1999; combintion nd trns. of sttements mde by different members of the fmily: Its un cto de recogimiento. Signific compnr l Lignum Crucis. Es completr l penitenci. 2" Mrio Arellno Grci, interview by uthor, Notes, My 20, 1999; trns. of Es cl elemento ms importnte de l procession do Viernes Snto puesto que es l reliqui uténtic de l crux. Lo dems es solmente imgenes. iqct. Constituciones (1984), rts. 1 nd 5; Constitutions: (1999), rt. '13. Alvrez Mrtinez ws designted crdinl by Pope john Pul II in 2001.

7 26 Rd] R, decz, INFORMAL DISPERSAL AND UlSASSEMBLY Once the processnts return to the church they sing the Slve nd disperse to go their seprte wys. The Ligmtm Crucis is left on its nd in the secured church. Next morning smll group will quietly return it to Snt Eulli where it will be ffixed to the top of the tberncle, left there until the next Holy Week. Afterwrds, only pssing reference will be mde to the wood of the cross in the ortions nd redings of the Holy Sturdy Vigil nd on the Fest of the Finding Cross on My 3. Interprettion of the True The fct tht the Ligmmz Crucis reliqury stnds out s principl symbol in the liturgies nd in the evening processions of Good Fridy rises three bsic but importnt questions, Wht is liturgy? Wht is populr religion? And, wht is the reltionship between liturgy nd populr religion? By nswering these one cn come to see how the Lignum Crucis is pivotl symbol. Wht is Liturgy? A mjor result of Vticn II ws the reform of the Romn liturgy Scrosnctum szcilium (SC) recognizes it s centrl to the life of the Church s its "fount ndsummit (SC 10) nd delinetes the progrm for reform. It lso describes liturgy by presenting its trits. in prticulr, the Church teches liturgy is prticiption in the pschl mystery of Christ s well s humn ctivity whereby the fithful my express in their lives nd mnifest to others the mystery of Christ nd the rel nture of the true Church (SC 2). Motivted by Scrosnctum Concilium, liturgi' cl theologins hve been considering how the liturgy is both the fount nd summit of the Church s life. In their study severl hve shown how the liturgy is not only locus theologicus but lso thcolqgiprirml.m This is not new ide but it hs even emerged more since Vticn H. The liturgy is wht I cll encted theology/ 3 It is theology in ction tht clls forth theologi secund orre ection on the experience of God tking plce through word, song, ritul, nd so forth. Becuse Blurring the Line between Litm gy nd Populr Religion 27 liturgy is more thn texts nd involves God 8 ction s well s tht of the worshipers, Alexnder Schmemnn notes tht the tsk of liturgicl theology is to exmine wht is done in worship. 2 In this wy the theologin is ble to identify the rel nture of worship nd thus ttin correct comprehension of liturgicl event. I propose five chrcteristics of liturgy, tour of which re found in the documents of Vticn II, especilly Stzcmsnctum Concilium: liturgy is Christocentric, nmnetic, epicletic, nd ecclesil. The fifth, liturgy s ecclesiul ritul pmxis, is rticulted by Mrgret Mry Kelleher.34 I pply these to the Good Fridy events in Toledo nd the ritul use of the Lignum Crucis. Cumsrocsmruc Scrsncttim Concilium portrys liturgy s the exercise of the priestly office of Christ (SC 7). He is present in mny wys: in the person of the minister, in the Scriptures tht re red, in the scrments, in the euchristic species, nd in those gthered in his nme (SC 7). Thus, liturgy is christocentric. The two Good Fridy liturgies re clerly Christocentric, First, the ssembly is convoked inchrist s nme through two officil liturgies. Second, Christ s pssion nd deth is the min focus of the pryers nd Scriptures for both services. Third, they re presided over by thechurch s minister, don Enrique; other liturgicl ministries in the form of reders nd colytes lso pper in service to the worshiping ssembly Fourth, most of the pryers re ddressed to the Fther in Christ s nme; some re ddressed directly to Christ s the meditor between God nd humnkind becuse of his deth on the cross. Fifth, the liturgies invite the ssembly to recognize its need for Christ s reconcilition through venertion of his cross in the Ad lertim liturgy nd in the Ad nonm penitentil service. The penitentil spect of surrender to Christ is extended into the Good Fridy processions. These too re christocentric: the events of the finl dy of Jesus life re presented in sculpted tbleux crried by the fithhil. The processions re snctioned by church uthorities nd ccompnied by its ministers. The prticipnts engge in pryer nd pennces, self-imposed or given by their confessors. The processions ct s n invittion to onlookers to pproprite fith in the slvific i Mry Collins, Criticl Questions for LiturgiclTheology, Worship 53 (1979) ; Aidn Kvngh, (Chi Liturgicl Theology: The Hlt! Memoril Lectures of Sebury»Wcstcrn Theologicl Seminry, 1981 (New York: Pueblo, 1984)74 75;Robert Tft, Wht Does Liturgy Do? Towrd Soteriology of Liturgicl Celebrtion: Some "theses, Worship 66 (1992)194»le. See Edwrd ]. Kilmrtin, 5.1,, Euchrist in the West: History mid Theology, ed. Robert J. Dly, 5.]. (Collegeville: The Liturgicl Press, 1998) Alexnder Schmemnn, Introduction to Liturgicl 'l'htrology țrns. Ashleigh E Moorhouse (Crestwood, NY; St. Vldimir's Seminry Press, l986) 9. Schmemnn, 11. Mrgret Mry Kelleher, "Liturgy: An Ecclesil Act of Mening, Worship 59 (1985) 490 ]. Also, three trits similr to these five cn be found in Kevin W. Irwin, Context nd Text: Method in Liturgicl Theology(Collegeville: The Liturgicl Press, 1994)

8 28 Ril! R. Gomez, scrifice of Christ on the cross, which the re prticipnts procliming publicly by their ctions. The plin, spre Lignum Crucis crried t the end lso serves to focus on Christ s the source nd summit ofchris tin worship. As do Mri Jesus Jurdo Durn sttes, tking the Ligmml Crucis in procession is more importnt thn the imges be cuse it is sliver of the cross of lesus; its like tking Christ in procession,tht s why its under the plm. it is the only one under plio like the Blessed Scrment. The rest re only imges nd they do not hve much spiritul vlue despite their beuty/3" ANAM N 137! le Scrrvsm tum Cuncilium lso declres tht in Christ the perfect chievement of our reconcilition ws ttined nd the fullness of divine worship ws given tous (SC 5). This hs been relized by his incrntion nd the offering of his life, deth, nd resurrection for our slvtion, This scrifice is his ongoing pschl mystery which not only offers worship to God but lso ctulizes his redemption of the world. Liturgy then is centered on Christ s pschl mystery nd is built on it. In other words, liturgy is nmnetic. It memorilizes nd ctulizes the pschl mystery. Although the pssion nd deth of Christ is the centrl focus of the Good Fridy liturgies nd the processions, it is only prt of the totl pschl mystery celebrted tht dy. Don Enrique offering of flowers before the venertion of the cross during service in themomii ig. In this wy he mkes link to the Christms hs introduced the the Ad tertim liturgy. The flowers chosen, roses, lilies, nd violets, re specificlly mentioned in the Illlillt) for tht Mss. They represent the ongoing redemption of the Lord fter his glorifiction found in mrtyrs (roses), virgins (lilies), nd the pure (violets). These re signs ofchrist s kingdom in the world. In this wy the totlity of the pschl mystery found in the Incrntion, Life, Pssion, Deth, Resurrection, Glory, nd continu ous presence of Christ in the Church is celebrted. As such, not only do the Good Fridy litu rgies memorilize Christ/s redemption, they ctulize it in the primry sign of the Church gthered in his nme. The Good Fridy evening processions extend the nmnetic qulity of the liturgies into the streets. By tking the Lignum Crucis in proces- " Mri Jesus lurdo Durn, interview by uthor, Notes, June 2, 1999; trns. of es un trolo de l crux de Jesus. is como si llevrimos Cristi) de procesion, por eso v hloptio. Es cl unico que v bioplio como el Sntisimo. Ls dems son solmente iini igenes y no tienen mucho vlor eepirituzil unque son precioss." The Illntio is roughly equivlent to the Romn Prefce in the Euchristic * Pryer. it is one of seven vrible pryers tht forms the structure of the Hispno- Mozrbic euchristic celebrtion. Blurring the Line between Liturgy nd Populr Religion 29 sion, the honor ccorded to the relic ofchrist s cross serves to bring to mind Christ s redemption nd to rise wreness of his presence in the midst of those gthered. Don Enrique declres: "We re following the exmple of the Jeruslem Church, doing wht is described byegn/ 3" For this reson, in my judgment, the processions re t the lest qusiliturgicl. They re christocentric nd nmnetic. EPICLETIC Another trit of liturgy is the presence of the Holy Spirit. The first gift Christ gives to his followers is the Spirit. Through the Spirit those gthered in liturgy re chnged into the Mysticl Body of Christ nd re empowered to offer perfect worship to God in union with Christ. Thus, liturgy is epicletic for it conveys the Spirit to those gthered, ie, the Spirit is poured out on those open to it. The HolySpirit s role hs been integrl to the economy of slvtion for the Spnish Church since erliest times nd this isre ected in its liturgy. The concept of the filioque ws first introduced t the Third Council of Toledo (589) s prt of the Symbol of Fith. Furthermore, the ortions of the Hispno-Mozrbic rite regulrly end with doxology in prise of the Trinity. For exmple the Ad fertium liturgy ends with the doxology: Who with God the Fther nd the Holy Spirit lives nd reigns, one t" God, forever nd ever, Amen. The text of two of the three doxologies for the three presidentil pryers in the midst of the Litny for Mercy sys: By your our mercy, God, who lives with God the Fther nd reigns with the Holy Spirit forever nd ever. Amen. M These convey the sense tht the Holy Spirit is present s they worship. The doxologies convey sense of being convoked by the Spirit. 1 submit tht it is the sme Spirit tht lmpels them to proclim their fith publicly by going onto the streets in procession. Eccissw. A fourth trit of liturgy is its ecclesil spect. Those who tke prt in liturgy re chnged by Christ into his Body. Lumen Gerztium (LG) teches tht the trnsformtion into the Body of Christ mkes his followers the 3" Crrillo Morles, interview, My 17, 1999; trns. by uthor of Seguimos ejemplo de l e1 lglesi de Ieruslén tl come 10 describe Eteri [sic], See John 20:22; Acts 2. 3 Sec 1 Cor 12:3 Missle Hispno-Mzrbicum (Toledo: Arzobispdo de Toledo, 1991) l: 1: QuiUim s cum Dru Pm el Sncio Spiritu, toms Dns rtrgnmm in sircul seculomm. Amm (trns. by uthor). * Missle 1:355 nd 356. Ltin: Per miseriwrdim mm, Dem; mister, qm' vivis cum Dec Pirs, 81 regns inswt ul srculomm. Amen (trns. by uthor).

9 3t) Ril] R. Gomez, 5,0,5. Church nd this occurs in every legitimte gthering of the fithful (see LG 26). liturgy mkes the Church; t the sme, time it is n ction of the Church. 'l'heretore, liturgy is ecclesil. One wy to pproch the ccclesil nture of the ritul use of the Ligmlm Crucis is from the legl spect. The I'lispnozrbic rite is n officil liturgicl system snctioned by the Romn Ctholic Church whose ecclesisticl superior is the rchbishop oftoledo. In this wy the rite becomes prticulr expression of the ecclesil nture of the Body of C hrist. Crdinl Gonzlez Mrtin officilly the Ligmlm C rucis in the two Good Fridy liturgies by the publiction of new liturgicl books. He lso pproved its use in the processions. When the community gthers in worship in its different forms with the or rchbishop, his designted gents, the pstors nd chplins of the Mozrbic rite, they mke visible to the world the Body of Christ encompssed in prticulr gthering of the fithful. Becuse the rchbishop lso tkes prt in the processions question rises: does this mke them liturgicl given the trits bove? ECCLESIALRI I UAL I RAxls llowed the use of To further explore the liturgicl nture of the, ritul use of the Lignum Cr'uci, it is necessry to see how the Church is being constituted by the Good Fridy events. Actions re symbolic: they evoke feelings, revel vlues nd embody wht is meningful. As result, symbols hve role in the incrntion of mening. Humn culture is prtilly comprised of vlues; symbols help pprehend them. Ritul is ction tht mkes menings nd vlues rel. Liturgy is the ction of the Church t pryer. This mens liturgy is ritul tht ctulizes the Church nd its shre inchrist s redemption. Tht is, liturgy is ecclesil ritul prxis, ction tht incrntes mening nd constitutes the Church. Kelleher tkes the notion of symbol nd incrnte mening nd pplies it to liturgy s n ct of mening, At the hert of this notion is humn subjectivity: The ssembly, mde up of individul subjects, becomes collective subject: community, group of persons who hve chieved certin degree of common mening. Clerly, since symbols crry community s menings, they will vry from community to community. The Good Fridy events disclose tht Mozrbs sense being pr ticulr community ccompnied by the presence of Christ s it inter- 3 For the role of the Holy See nd bishops in the designtion of ny form of worship s liturgy, see SC, 22; instruction Inter Occzmmilci, September 26, Kelleher, 482. Kelleher, 486, n. 23 citingloner-gn s notion of community, Met/Md, 79. Blurring the Line between Liturgy nd Populr Religion 31 cts with the lrger church nd culture tht surrounds it. Becuse the Mozrb community gthers on Good Fridy t two liturgies nd for the processions in Christ's nme, it chooses to respond to the Spirit tht convokes it to give witness to Christ 59 centrlity in their lives s community. The community lso brings its fith to ber on worship by ctively prticipting in the liturgies nd the processions. The Lignum Crucis serves to help focus this worship nd to bind the members together s the Body of Christ. As severl of my informnts reiterted, the Lignum Crucis mkes them wre of the presence of Christ mong them, s if it were the Blessed Scrment. Don Jose Mirnd further explins tht the [reliqu ry] is symbol of our Ctholic fith; there is nothing better since it is little piece of the Lignum Crucis; nothing else cn represent the scrifice of our Redeemer. 45 In terms of the procession with the Lignum Crucis, don Miguell ntoj declres they tke it out becuse it is Sign Wht is Populr Religion? of fith which we mnifest in thestreets/ 4 There hs been much reserch on populr religion both s Chris tin nd non-christin phenomenon. Mny terms try to describe the religious prctices of common people or those who re not the elites of religion. Some include little trdition, folk religion, common religion, populr piety, nd vritions thereof. All re ttempts t describing very complex relity: the experience of, or fith in trnscendent relity nd its incorportion into everydy life, especilly by common people. These nmes re ect the dominnt notion of s comprised of two opposite poles: the religion of elites nd the religion of religion the people s opposed to the elites. Peter Willims rgues tht populr religion comes from nd belongs to the people rther thn to the elite specilists specificlly trined in religiousfunctions." This is common point of view. But he seems to be unwre tht mny religious elites lso prctice some form of populr religion. In my experience, religious professionls lso pply religious tenets to everydy life in some form, be it s informl lose Mirnd, interview by uthor, Notes, Mrch 23, 2000; trns. of E5 simbolo de nuestr ie ctolic, no hy nd ineior per ser un trozo Ciel Ligmtm Crucis; nd ms puede represenlr el scrificio de nuest'ro redentor. Miguel Pntoj, interview by uthor, Notes, Mrch El, 2000; trns. of "Es un muestr de te que se mnifiest en lclle 7 See, for exmple, Pieter Mend rik Vvijhoi nd Jcques Wrdenburg,(iljj u il nd Populr Religion:Anlysis life 'l'licmefor'religious Studies (The Hgue: Mouton, 1979). t Peter W. Willims, Populr Religion in Americ: SymbolicChnge nd the Mink emizution Process in Historicl Perspective (Iinglewood Cliffs, NJ; Prentice-Hll, 1989) 5.

10 32 Rd! R. Gomez, personl devotions or religious cts not necessrily recognized s worship but seen s necessry for full integrtion of religion into life nd vice vers. In other words, populr religion lso occurs under the egis of officil religion. In my judgment, populr religion gets mny of its themes nd notions from officil religion nd the ltter gets mny of its notions nd insights into God's ction in the world through the lived experience of people pplying their fith, Ann Tves indictes tht, in the Ctholic context, the hierrchy in the nineteenth century cross the bord mde concerted effort to pro mote nd guide some populr prctices while permitting others to develop on their own. Through the lte 19605, novens, rosries, forty Hours, processions, nd other forms of populr religion were still prcticed by clergy nd lity on regulr bsis. Some were built into the liturgicl clendr, while others were more spontneous nd informl. ln some of the Ctholic world these prctices re still encourged by Church officils, prticulrly in Spin nd Ltin Americ. indeed, fter Vticn ll, the Ctholic Church of Ltin Americ ctively sought to understnd nd promote populr religion s form of evngeliztion. Hispnic scholrs of populr religion tend to see populr nd officil religion in symbiotic reltionship, though they too re gretly in uenced by the dominnt View. Virgilio Elizondo notes tht since the onset, Christinity ws ble to present unique wy of universlizing peoples without destroying their identities so they would not hve to dispper either through ssimiltion or mrginliztion.51 One wy it ws ble to do this ws through the interweving of the Christin messge with locl religious trditions. Ann Tves, The Household (f Filh: Romn Ctholic Devotions in Mid-Nineteenth Century Amrric (Notre Dme, 1nd,: University of Notre Dme Press, 1986)27 8, 89. See, for exmple, Conclusio 5, vol. 2 of L lglrsi on In Actul Trnsform/men do Americ Ltino 1: l Luz del Concilzo. Segund Conferenci Generl del Episcopdo Ltinomericno, 24 Agosto, Agosto26 Septiemhre 6, 1968 Bogot/ Medellin, Colombi (Bogot: Conseio Episcopl Ltinomericno [CHLAM]; Mexico, DE: Libreri l rroquil, 1984), chpter 6: Pstorl Populr," nos. 1w l5, nd ch. 9: Liturgi, no. 15; L Evngclizmtilin on 81 Pressure en y cl l'ulum deaméric Ltin Puebl, Tercer Conlerenci Generl (101 Episcopdo Ltinomericno (Bogot: Consejo Episcopl I.tinomericnomlCELAM]; Mexico, DE: ( onseio Episcopl Mexicno, 1984), nosi , 910 5, 935 7, ; Smile Domingo Conclusiones, Bogot, CELAM, 1992), no. 53; Iohn Pul ll, The Church in Americmlicclesi in Americ: On the Encounter with the. Living[ 5145Christ: The Wy to Conversion, Communion, nd Solidrity in Americ, PostSynodl Apostolic Exhorth on (Wshington:USCC; Vn: cn City: l,,ihreri Editrice Vticn, 1999) 16, 5 Virgil Elizondo, Populr Religion s Support of Identity; A Pstorll sycho logicl Cse-Study Bsed on the Mexicn Americn Experience in the USA," szcilv ium 186 (1986) livid, 37. Blurring the Line between Liturgy nd Populr Religion 33 Another Hispnic scholr who hs exmined populr nd officil religion is Espi n.53 He notes every mjor religion, to the degree tht it hs well~defined normtive core of beliefs nd liturgy, hs ided in the development of populr version ofitself. e4 Arturo Perez. exmines Hispnic populr religion s source for the inculturtion of Ctholic liturgy. He notes the forms of populr religion mong Hispnics vry but they revel bsic trit: complex of underlying belief rooted in God expressed in profound sense of the scred nd trnscendent, openness togod s word, pryerfulness, n bility to endure, nddetchment. > Tves, Elizondo, Espin nd Perez point to the perspective tht populr religion is not necessrily in opposition to officil, doctrinl, or forml religion but cn be intimtely linked to it. It is from this viewpoint tht I see the Lignum Crucis s pivotl symbol. It comiects officil nd populr religion by serving s point of reference for the liturgies of Good Fridy s well s the devotionl chrcter of the evening processions. The link is further strengthened by theof cil snction nd prticiption of the hierrchy in the processions s well s by the prticiption of those who the crry Lignum Crucis in procession in the liturgies of Good Fridy Wht is the Reltionship Between Liturgy nd Populr Religion! The reltionship between liturgy nd populr religion is best seen in the concept of scrmenlizls. They include blessings, exorcisms, nd blessed objects for use in liturgicl events nd populrdevotion. The Ctechism of the Ctholic Church, in terms of populr religious prctices sttes the religious sense of the Christin people hs lwys found expression in vrious forms of piety surrounding thechurch s scrmentl life, such s the venertion of relics, Visits to sncturies, pilgrimges, processions, the sttions of the cross, religious dnces, the rosry, medls, etc? It dds these expressions of piety extend the liturgicl life of the Church, but do not replce it. - " 5JOrlndo O. Espin, Populr Ctholicism mong tonnes, Hispnic Ctholic Culture in the US: Issues nd Concerns, eds. ly P, Doln nd Alln Figuero Deck, SJ. (Notre Dme, 1nd,: University of Notre Dme Press, 1994) Idem, The Fith of the People: TheologiclRe ections on Populr Ctholicism (Mryknoll, NY; Orbis Books, 1997) Arturo Perez, Populr Ctholicism: A lilispnic Perspective / El Ctollcismo Popw lr: Un perspectivzzhispnu (Wshington, DC: Pstorl Press, 1988). 5 " lbid., 7: He cites Puebl (1979) nos. 444 nd Cf. SC 60; Book ofblessings(collegeville: The liturgicl Press, 1989) 1076, Ctechism of the Ctholic Church, 2nd ed. rev, in ccord with the officil Itin text promulgted by Pope John Pul II (Wshington, [1C4 USCC; Vticn City: Libreri Editrice Vticn, 1994, 1997) 1674; 178 dvises the reder to compre the Council of Nice II (US 601; 603) nd the Council of Trent (DS 1822) in this regrd. SQlbidi,1675,

11 34 Rm)! R. (Zo/nwz,$13.5, Tking the Lignmn Crucis in precession extends the penitentil Sv poet of the Ad tertim nd Ad nmmm liturgies into the relm of populr religion. This occurs on Good Fridy evening, In my opinion, the link must be mde in order for to people find their lives celebrted in the liturgy nd the liturgy celebrted in their lives. M Populr religion is one wy this is done; these Moxrb customs re indictors of tht. THE. LioNUM Cucus As APIVUI M, SYMBOL Clerly the l..igm.mz Crucis is pivotl symbol. One of the resons is its shpe in the form of cross: the cross is venerted by Christins s the sign of their fith. At the sme time the Lignum Crucis is n object of populr devotion. The reliqury becomes n implement of populr religion when it is tken out in the non-liturgicl ctivity of Good Fridy processions. Nonetheless, becuse it is tken out s if it were the Blessed Scrment, the Lignum Crucis extends the liturgy into the populr religious relm. This blurs the line between liturgy nd popu. lr religion. indeed, it revels the nexus between the two, PAKALIJELS WITH Hisi'ANir : Prim Becuse Mozrhs nd their rite re ect the liturgy nd spiritulity of the erliest Hispnics, I suggest they nd their liturgy re n pt source for exmining the roots of much contemporry Hispnic spire itulity, especilly s expressed in populr religion. For exmple, the Mozrb View of Christ s the God~Mn who is exlted bove ll others becuse of his scrifice on the cross prllels the pproch towrd Christ found in Hispnic devotionl prctices throughout the world. The imges of Jesus fvored by Hispnics tend to be the Jesus t his infncy, the Snt Ni o (Holy Child) or t the end of his life, the Nzrene (the l\lzrene).m These represent the vulnerble, dependent jesus who not only re ects humn wekness nd vulnerbility but lso requires humn solidrity in suffering. This revels to Hispnics tht Blm ring the Line between Litu rgy nd Populr Religion 35 Jesus ccompnies them in their lives nd inspires them to ccompny him in his suffering nd deth, his resurrection nd exlition, For Hispnics the cross nd resurrection re intimtely interrelted. Roberto Goizuet notes tht in the Vi Crucis processions of Good Fridy, Hispnics engge in prxis tht, s n ct of ccompni' merit, constitutes nd em powers them s persons nd s community of fith.w The Good Fridy events thus provide wy for Hispnics in generl to stress the pssion s n ctive, communl undertking over ginst suffering pssively endured by solitry individul: Suffering shred is suffering lredy inretret. J The source of hope is not the Resurrection of solitry individul but the ultimte indestructihility of the community tht ccompnies Jesus on the Vi Crucis nd is reconciled with him in theresurrection. M It ppers tht the stress on Christ s exltiion entered the Old Spnish liturgy becuse of the need to emphsize this in light of the Arin perspective t the time of the rite's gretest unfolding. In my judgment, this liturgicl emphsis eventully influenced the spiritul. ity of the fithful to the extent tht by the time the Romn rite becme predominnt mong the Spnish, the exll'tion of Christ hd led to n overemphsis on his divinity. As result, the need for meditors who could pproch the throne of mercy develrmed mong Hispnics in generl. In my opinion, tht is why tody Hispnics tend to pproch Mry nd the sints for help in sking Christ for his grce rther thn pproching Christ directly. There re other prllels The Mozrb sense tht one must em brce the cross even to being n lter Christus s mrtyr hs its prllel in the Good Fridy processions found mong Hispnics ll over the world where individuls perform penitentil cts of self-scrifice. Mmzds nd promess, penitentil vows nd promises mde to God, Mry, nd the sints by individuls, re nother wy. The the crrying of cross in everydy life is expressed by such concepts s hy que scri ficnrse per Sits lzijos (one must scrifice oneself for one's children) or Cl. Kthleen Hughes, R.S.C.J., comp. nd intro, Willim Leonrd, How Firm Foundulimz: Voids of the Erly Liturgicl Movement (Chicgo: Liturgy Trining Publictions, 1900)170 1; Ros Mri lcz, "Pryer, Worship, nd Liturgy in Us. llispnic Key," Fronti {Hispnic Theology in the United 5mm, ed. Alln Figuero Deck (Mry/knoll, NY Orhis Books, 1992) Cf. Segundo Glile, ReligiosirldPopulr y Pstorl llispmwaamerlcmi (New York: Contro Ctolico pr liispnos LlOl Nordeste, 1981) 15, 4143, 51-52; Jime Lr, hs imgenes de lesucristo populres en Ltinomeric," ReliglusiddPopulr: Ls [mgms do [csurristo y l Virgen Mri enamt ric [mind (Sn Antonio, Tex; lnst' uto de Liturgil iispn, 1990) 15; Antonio Prej, ed., lhledo Oculto, e1 Arte m [s Cllmsums; Nvidml Orulm: L05 Niiios Isxis do [s Clusurtzs hilednmzs (Toledo: liundcion de Cultur y Deporte Cstil, ~l,, Mnch, 1999), no hy m] que por bier: no vcng (there is no evil tht does not come for some good). These re common wys of speking mong Hispnics s they fce problems nd try to mke sense of them in light of their fith in Christ nd his scrifice on the cross, For his development of this concept see Roberto S. Goizuet, Cuminemos con Imus: I mmrd Hispnic/Ltino Theologyof Acmmpxmimmt (Mryknoll, N,Y.: Orbis Books, 1995). idem, A Mtter of Life nd Deth: Theologicl Anthropology Between Clvry nd Glilee," CTSA Proceedings 53 (1993) 4. 5; he cites Hns Urs von Bltsr (Sn Frncisco: 407 :lbid., lgntius Press, 1990)

12 36 Rmil R. Gomez, S.D.S. The Moximih sense tht the celebrtion of the liturgy con fined to the church building prllels the generl Hispnic mnifest one s fith publicly, This is seen, for exmple, in the number is not to be desire to of Hispnics t Ash Wednesdy services seeking shes on their foreheds, It lso is seen in the Hispnic ttitude towrd processions nd other devotionl cts; they re seen s eqully importnt s officil liturgicl celebrtions, if not more so nd thus ttrct much prticipv tion. Mozrbs bring elements of everydy life into the liturgy nd tke liturgicl elements into everydy life s seen in the flower offering t the Ad tertim liturgy nd in the Good Fridy procession of the Lignum Crucis. These find prllel in Hispnic prctices of celebrting impor~ int life events in church. Such is the cse with the Presenttion of the Three Yer Old, the Quince A1605 rite for the fteen yer old, nd the use of the rms nd [1120 (coins nd yoke) t Hispnic weddings. In fct, ll three hve cler prllels in liturgicl rites found in ncient Hispno- Moz rbic texts. Church elements re lso found in everydy life s seen in ltrs in homes nd t grve sites, the use of holy wter t home for vrious purposes, nd the imprting of blessings by prents on their children. Much of Hispnic populr religion the liturgy throughout the world hs much in common with the Good nd celebrtion of Fridy celebrtions of the Hispno-Mozrbic rite, s I hve shown. See Jime Sncho Andree, Rites de l infnci y l dolescenci en el ntiguo ritohisp nicol l sllmdum: Studi offerti 1 Prof. [ordipine 1' Pns, ed, lldebrndo Scicolone, (Rome: l ontilicie Ateneo S Anselmo, 1992)207 45; Férotin, Liber Ordimim, VI ()rtio super eum, qui cpillos in sol fronte tndem uult (37 38) VII Ortio super prtiulum, quem prentes d doctrin offerunt (38 39)nd XII Ordo super eum qui brbm tngem cupit" (43416); Isidore of Seville) Dcecclesis Iicis officiis, lilmr secundus, Pl,83,8 10c'812b; nd, Conferenci EpiscoplEspr iol/ Ritul dei Mtrimonio, noven edlcit'in renovd, version de l segund edicién tipic ltin (Brcelon: C omision Episcopl Espnol cle Liturgi, 1994) 149, 169, 177.

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