1 Chronicle Terrorist Attacks, Violence, and Humanitarian Crisis in Rakhine State, Burma / Myanmar (in Recent Years) Prepared by: Zaw Kyaw September 27, 2017
2 Outbreaks of conflicts in Rakhine State Two waves of the violent conflicts First Wave: May 28, 2012: Four Bengalis raped and killed a Rakhine ethnic girl from Thabyaychaung Village in Yanbye Township, Rakhine State. Conflicts between Rakhine ethnics and Bengalis (Rohingyas) spread to Yanbye, Sittwe, Buthidaung, Maungtaw, Yathedaung, Kyauktaw, Mrauk-U and Minbya townships in Rakhine State. Second Wave Conflict spread to Meiktila, Lashio, Yangon, Bago, Kanbalu and Mandalay. 145 were killed (36% Rakhine, 64% Bengali Muslim); 186 injured (42% Rakhine, 48% Bengali Muslim); and 6,700 houses (25% Rakhine, 75% Bengali Muslim) were destroyed. Control Measures June 8, 2012, the government issued section 144 June 10, 2012, the government declared a state of emergency under Section 412
3 2014 Du-Chee-Yar-Tan Attack in Rakhine State January , Police sergeant and his team visited a Bengali village called Du-Chee-Yar-Tan as part of their routine security patrol. They were attacked by the Bengali extremists, which led to the death of the police sergeant and the disappearance of weapons. Subsequently, Muslim Internet sites, such as RB news (Rohingya Blogger) circulated fake and fabricated stories.
4 2016: International Role and Terrorist Attacks in Rakhine State International Control Measure: Late August 2016, Myanmar government formed the Rakhine Advisory Commission Chaired by Dr. Kofi Annan. Terrorist Act: October 9, 2016: Bengalis terrorists carried out attacks on border guard police headquarters and police outposts simultaneously. In separate attacks, ten police members were killed and five injured and 68 arms and ammunition lost. Terrorists planted mines on motor roads to prevent the clearance operations. Aqua Mul Mujahidin group which was formed in August 2016 (in coincident with the formation of Kofi Annan led Rakhine Advisory Commission), led by Pakistani citizen Abdul Qudus claimed the responsibility. Local Control Measures: Oct to 1 Feb 2017: Maungtaw, Buthidaung and Yathedaung townships were designated as military operation area. 11 security forces including an army battalion commander were killed, and 19 security forces were injured during the subsequent military operation.
5 Prior to the August 2017 Terrorist Storms 15 March 2017: The terrorist group Aqua Mul Mujahidin was re-constituted to Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA). Just prior to that, Aqua Mul Mujahidin group met with leaders in Pakistan and discussed combination with RNSC (Rohingya National Security Committee). Their Chief of Staff (ARSA Military Chief Hafiz Tohar) was trained in Pakistan by the dreaded Lashkar e Tayyaba (LET). Note: The ARSA is led by militants who are not even based in Myanmar, but in Karachi, Pakistan. The leaders are ideologically motivated, maintain link with like-minded groups in the Middle East. 29 March 2017: ARSA declared a demand with 20 points to the Myanmar government. Some examples of ARSA activities: Designated the Buthidaung/ Maungtaw in northern Rakhine State as their hardcore area. Banned Bengalis (Rohingyas) from working in Rakhine-owned joint-venture farmlands and prawn farms in the region. Tunnels and terrorist training facilities were found on Mayu mountain ranges in Northern Rakhine State.
6 ARSA (Terrorist Acts) Prior to Terrorist Storms Goal of Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA) (Terrorist Organization) To launch the Jihad holy war in the whole Rakhine State, and ARSA has recruited about 1,500 members in Buthidaung and Maungtaw Townships. Their four steps plan The first - killing Bengalis (Rohingyas) working for the government, The second - kill Bengalis (Rohingyas) who do not accept ARSA, The third - threaten minority local ethnic (non-muslim) people to flee from there, and The fourth - attack the security forces. Between Oct 2016 & Aug , 106 civilians (90 Bengali Muslims) causalities due to terror campaigns to intimidate the villagers not to cooperate with the government (79 brutally killed and 37 missing).
7 Rakhine State Black Friday ( ) 30 police posts and an army base in northern Rakhine were attacked 7
8 Black Friday ( ) 25 Aug 2017: The Bengali (Rohingya) Terrorist coordinated attacks ARSA terrorists attacked 30 Police Post and an Army Base in Northern Rakhine Twelve Myanmar security forces and 77 terrorist died during that attack. The International Crisis Group mentioned:- The attacks on the security forces as a serious escalation of the crisis. The path to a long-term has been set out in the final report of the Kofi Annan-led Advisory Commission, welcomed by the Myanmar government BUT the Aug 25 th attacks have created a far more difficult political context for the government to implement these recommendations.
9 Aftermath of Black Friday August Between Aug 25 and Sep Clashes between ARSA Terrorists and Security Forces (Tatmadaw). No new clashes since Sep Terrorists were killed and 61 captured. Status of Bengali (Rohingya) Villages From the total of 471 Villages, 74 villages partially deserted, 176 villages totally deserted, 261 fully intact. Estimated over 250,000 people fled mostly to Bangladesh; ~ 650,000 still living peacefully inside the country. Status of native Ethnic Villages From the total of 501 Villages, 229 villages partially deserted, 4 villages totally deserted, 268 villages fully intact. Estimated over 100 native ethnic civilians were killed or missing due to terrorist attacks.
10 Aftermath of Black Friday August Hindu community leader U Ni Mal s testimony: Members of Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA) arrested some 100 men and women from Kha Maung Seik village tract on Aug. 25 and killed the majority of abductees; eight female Hindu villagers were forced to convert to the Islam and were taken to Bangladesh. Sep : Unearthed 45 dead Hindus, including six children, near Ye Baw Kya village (brutally murdered by the terrorists, throats were cut); they were believed to be among 93 Hindu villagers taken by the terrorists on 25 Aug. "All of our family died at the village... we will not go back," said Chaw Shaw Chaw Thee, one of hundreds of displaced Hindus seeking shelter in the state capital Sittwe. Rica a 25-year-old Hindu woman said from Kutupalong refugee camp in Bangladesh My husband knelt to the ground and a man chopped his neck with a machete right in front of us, She said she was among eight women who were selected to convert to Islam, prepare for marriage to Muslim men. Khin Saw Nyo, 48, an ethnic Rakhine woman We will die if we go back," she told AFP from inside a monastery sheltering refugees in Sittwe, adding Rohingya terrorists are still preparing to strike.
11 Sufferings of Minority Non-Muslims: Hindus brutally mass murdered by Terrorists; displaced Hindu people at the temporary camp in Maungdaw Twenty eight minority Hindu bodies were unearthed in Rakhine State s Maungdaw Township on September 24. (Photo: Thuta Zaw/)
12 Sufferings of Minority Non-Muslims: Ethnic Rakhine People evacuating due to terrorist attacks
13 Bombing attack to the Police car by Extremist Terrorists 13
14 Buddha Statues destroyed by terrorists 14
15 Humanitarian Crisis (Aftermath of Black Friday) Proportions of Displaced People Ethnic Community and Hidus 40% (internally displaced) Muslim Community 44% (internally & externally displaced) Total Internally Displaced Population Male 43%, Female 57% As of Sep , total 254 civilian causalities. Humanitarian Assistance The Minister for the Social Welfare, Relief & Resettlement, and Rakhine State Chief Minister led the humanitarian assistance to affected Muslim and Non- Muslim Communities in coordination with the Red Cross Movement & the International Committee for the Red Cross. The partners included Ambassadors of UK, US, Denmark, representatives from Australia & EU. Humanitarian mechanism to include the ASEAN Humanitarian Assistance (AHA) Centre to provide assistance to all affected communities.
16 Providing the Humanitarian Aids to IDPs from both Communities
17 Misleading Tweet, Fake Photos and Consequences Sep 5 th phone conversation: Aung Sun Suu Kyi to Turkish President Informing the Turkish deputy prime minister s tweet of fake pictures concerning the situation in Rakhine. Informing it s simply the tip of a huge iceberg of misinformation calculated to create a lot of problems between different communities and with the aim of promoting the interest of the terrorists. Note: Turkish deputy prime minister removed these fake photos later.
18 Misleading News & Photos and Consequences international media is fueling the fire.. disregarding the fact that there have been attacks on Buddhist and Hindu communities as well, carried out by militants. It was ridiculous to claim, as even some human rights organizations have done, that the Aug. 25 attacks were carried out by desperate Rohingyas who had been driven to violence by the brutality of the Myanmar Army. In reality, the group in question is led by militants who are not even based in Myanmar, but in Karachi, Pakistan, from where they maintain links with likeminded groups in the Arab world. They are not particularly desperate but ideologically motivated Authored by Bertil Litner (The only foreign journalist to have covered Myanmar s conflicts and ethnic affairs for over three decades)
19 Misleading News, Photos and Consequences Have they (international media) forgotten about media ethics? [unverified] fake stories like Rohingya Children Beheaded and Burn Alive, coverage in international media convinced me that journalists are no longer just (unbiased) observers. As long as they have preconceived ideas like the Buddhists are oppressing Rohingya, we can t hope there will be fairness in their stories, despite (even with) the unrestricted media access. FROM Ms. Aye Aye Win, former AP Resident Correspondent & only Myanmar female journalist to have won four international journalism awards, including one for her lifelong dedication to honest and courageous journalism Agenda Setting, Sensational and Commercialized Coverage. He referred to Rohingya opportunists outside the country who try to capitalize on sensational coverage. FROM Aung Hla Tun, a former Reuters resident correspondent who won Journalist of the Year in 2007 from Reuters
20 Dr. Kofi Annan s Rakhine Advisory Commission and Recommendations Late Aug 2016: 5 Months after forming her government, Aung San Suu Kyi formed the Dr. Kofi Annan led Advisory Commission in order to find long term peaceful solution for the communities in Rakhine State. 23 Aug 2017: Dr. Kofi Annan released the final report in Myanmar. 24 Aug 2017: Aung San Suu Kyi issues a Statement Welcoming the report, and promised to carrying out the recommendations to the fullest extent, and within the shortest timeframe possible. 24 Aug 2017: Military Tatmadaw Commander in Chief Sr. General Min Aung Hlaing pointed some questionable recommendations during a meeting with Dr. Kofi Annan while he welcome some recommendations. All stakeholders (including Muslim Community, Non-Muslims and the Military) participations are needed in implementing the government s road map. The International Community should urge the Muslims, Non-Muslims and Military to cooperate with the government. Sadly they are criticizing Ms. Suu Kyi who is the only one among the stakeholders Welcoming the report and promised to carry out the implementation. Myanmar should allow media and international community to visit the conflict areas regularly.
21 Dr. Kofi Annan s Rakhine Advisory Commission and Next Steps (excerpts from the Implementation Committee s 22 Sep Meeting Notes) To include the need to preserve culture, customs and traditions of the ethnic minorities including Mro and Daingnet ethnic groups in the resettlement programmes for the displaced communities, which will be implemented with advice from UN-HABITAT; To repatriate those who had fled Myanmar to Bangladesh based on mutual agreement between the two countries in 1993 and set up a Working Group to conduct systematic verification process for urgent repatriation; To seek advice of UN-HABITAT so as to include sustainable development aspects in the resettlement programmes for the affected communities. This will include building road networks, constructing electrical grids, sewage systems, schools, hospitals and police outposts;
22 Dr. Kofi Annan s Rakhine Advisory Commission and Next Steps (excerpts from the Implementation Committee s 22 Sep Meeting Notes) There had been request made to the Bangladesh Border Guards for the repatriation of 6 Hindu women and 3 children who were said to be living in the IDP camp at the border area; To dispatch the lists of terrorist attackers to the Bangladesh Government, INTERPOL and the UN; To send an invitation for the visit of the Bangladesh Minister of Home Affairs to Myanmar; (Note: Similar invitation also had been issued by the Chief of Myanmar Police to his counterpart) To arrange a tour for the UN, Diplomatic Corps, and media (Monday October 2).
23 Singapore's Foreign Affairs Minister Vivian Balakrishnan (excerpts from his speech, the UN General Assembly, Sept 23) Singapore Foreign Minister citing the ongoing conflict in Myanmar's Rakhine state following Aug 25 terrorist attack:- 'We must be very careful that we don't fall into trap of extremists Extremists everywhere actually have a common playbook. First, commit an egregious act of violence. Second, stick a religious label on the situation in order to convey a sense of 'us' versus 'them. Third, to eliminate the grey zone of moderates by causing alienation due to an overreaction. Singapore s FM noted that he met Myanmar State Counsellor Aung San Suu Kyi last week, she was "deeply troubled by what is happening in her own country, and deeply distressed by the pain and suffering which is happening there".
24 Kevin Rudd Former PM of Australia & the President of the Asia Society Institute of Policy (Sept 21, 2017) Ms. Suu Kyi is legally prevented from directing the military or border security forces to do anything against the wishes of the Supreme Military Commander. Ms Suu Kyi s challenges has been to avoid providing the military with sufficient justify a coup while also working toward long termsolution for Rohingya. Ms. Suu Kyi s Danger: She falls between two stools depicted by the military as too weak of national security while being seen in the eyes of the international community as too weak in her defense of the human rights. The military also hopes to undermine Ms. Suu Kyi in the eyes of the international community. Ms. Aung San Suu Kyi is no saint; no political leader is. Yet unless the international community focuses on the full dimensions of the crisis, not only will the humanitarian disaster for the Rohingya be prolonged, we will also see the end of the democratic rule in Myanmar.
25 Reality Check and Hypothetical Question Myth: Rohingas have to flee. Reality: If 400,000 self-described Rohingas left the State, where are the remaining 700,000? Reality: They do co-exist well in the State. Myth: Muslims are minority and the victims of the ethnic cleansing. Reality: Muslim population growth of over 150% between 1973 and 2014 in Rakhine State while overall population growth is 56% in same period. Today s Muslims represents over 90% of population in Northern Rakhine from 34% in Myth: 1982 Citizenship Law revokes Rohingya citizenship. Reality: None of the existing citizenship was revoke under the 1982 Citizenship Law. Citizenship law did not mention that the citizen must be from recognized ethnic groups. Myth: Buddhist majority dominate minorities and creating troubles. Reality: We all co-exist well. Some examples are (i) Millions of Chinese, Indian inhabit peacefully with Burmese and many other ethnic groups. (ii) There are 3 religious institutions within 1 mile radius in Yangon (Rangoon): St. Mary s Cathedral, 2 Buddhist monasteries and a mosque, all co-exist peacefully. (iii) There is only 1 Synagogue in Rangoon, [for that matter in all of Burma], well kept, and right in the middle of a Muslim area. No issues, in fact, according to Google, the neighbors, Muslims, Christians and the Buddhists help celebrate Jewish festivities together. Hypothetical Question: It is a fact, according to the US papers that there are millions of undocumented aliens living in California. If these undocumented aliens demand a separate state based on their religion or race, and if the undocumented alien salvation army attacks the police stations and the US National Guards and Army bases, what would the US Government do?
26 THANK YOU MERCI This document was compiled by Zaw Kyaw. Please contact me at if you have question and or require reference.
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