2 Did the Qin Dynasty welcome or reject foreigners? We should reject foreigners! Let s build the Great Wall of China!
3 Which philosophy did the emperor follow? Qin Dynasty Legalism Set clear laws and harshly punish those who disobey. Han Fei Zi, founder of Legalism
4 How did the government function? Bureaucracy: a highly organized body of workers with many levels of authority High level officials Medium level officials Low level officials
5 How did the emperor choose government workers? Qin Dynasty Aristocracy: rule by officials chosen for their high social status (wealth) High level officials Medium level officials Medium level officials Low level officials
6 Did the Han Dynasty welcome or reject foreigners? We should welcome foreigners! Let s trade on the Silk Road!
7 Confucius, founder of Confucianism Which philosophy did the emperor follow? Han Dynasty Confucianism Set a good example for people to follow.
8 How did the government function? Bureaucracy: a highly organized body of workers with many levels of authority High level officials Medium level officials Low level officials
9 How did the emperor choose government workers? Han Dynasty Meritocracy: rule by officials chosen for their merit (intelligence) High level officials High level officials Medium level officials Medium level officials Low level officials Low level officials
10 Let s pretend we live during the Han Dynasty Who should work in my government? The smartest people!!! Let s take a civil service examination to decide who will work for the government!
11 Did the Tang Dynasty welcome or reject foreigners? We should welcome some foreigners! Let s trade on the Silk Road! We should reject some foreigners! Let s persecute the Buddhists!
12 Step 2: Make a T-Chart Tang dynasty Chairs Official Welcomes Foreign Contact New foods like garlic, peas, and spinach Ivory and pearls New entertainment (example: polo) New music (example: pipa) New religious beliefs (Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism) Buddhists run good schools, hospitals, and lodges Official Who Rejects Foreign Contact Uncomfortable with change (example: women riding horse!?) Special treatment of foreigners may be unfair Buddhist monks and nuns don t pay taxes
13 Four Noble Truths: Buddhism All life is suffering. The cause of suffering is cravings. The end of suffering comes with the release of cravings. The way to end suffering is by following the Eightfold Path.
15 COPY: The Mongol Empire was the largest empire in human history! Use the map to COPY and COMPLETE: The Mongol Empire started in 1206 the year. The Mongol Empire conquered 1279 all of China in. The Mongol Empire split into 1294 four pieces in the year. ANSWER: While watching the video, write one more fact you learned about the Mongol Empire.
16 Did the Yuan Dynasty welcome or reject foreigners? We should welcome foreigners! After all, I, Kublai Khan, am a foreigner from Mongolia. I will make Marco Polo my most trusted official.
17 Step 2: Make a T-Chart Yuan dynasty Official Who Welcomes Foreign Contact The Mongols made it safer and easier to travel on the Silk Road Persian scientist Al-Din brought an astronomical instrument => more accurate calendar! Al-Din built a new observatory Muslim doctors improved hospitals Marco Polo says nice things about China, so more European people will have good view of China Merchant class has gained respect for bringing ivory, perfume, and medicines Official Who Rejects Foreign Contact Foreigners learned about Chinese secrets Printing techniques Explosive powder Foreigners chosen to work for government; foreigners rule over Chinese Italian merchant Marco Polo doesn t read or write Chinese, but he makes $$$ Merchants travel without restrictions and do not pay taxes; treated better than Chinese
18 DO NOW: Mongol Invasion of Japan The Mongols tried to conquer Japan. What happened in 1281? The Mongols tried to conquer Japan again, but this time, a typhoon destroyed the Mongolian navy.
19 Fall of the Yuan Dynasty & Rise of the Ming Dynasty Kamikaze ( divine winds ) destroy the Mongolian navy After the failed invasion of Japan, the Mongols never regained strength The Chinese rebelled and overthrew the Mongols The Chinese formed a new dynasty: the Ming Dynasty
20 China s Foreign Policy SWBAT describe China s foreign contacts during the Ming Dynasty.
21 Step 2: Make a T-Chart Ming dynasty Official Welcomes Foreign Contact Huge ships that are unsinkable 30 places promised to become tributaries of China Sashes, ostrich, zebra, lions, giraffe& leopards Trade & travel restrictions Official Who Rejects Foreign Contact Cheap gifts from tiny country ambassadors Safe trade by sea was impossible, but travel restrictions help Have to pay to care for animals
22 Step #4: What did the emperor actually do? COPY: The Chinese entered into a period of isolationism, a policy of rejecting contact with foreigners Zheng He s fleet of ships was destroyed The Great Wall of China was lengthened & strengthened The Ming emperor built a new palace which became known as the Forbidden City
24 Mountainous Islands Japan is a chain of islands called an archipelago. It is located just off the Asian continent, close to Korea and China. 73% of Japan is mountainous and unsuitable for farming. Japan has 108 active volcanoes, including Mount Fuji. Japan has frequent earthquakes, often resulting in a tsunami.
25 Shinto and Buddhism Shinto Japan s original religion was Shinto. This religion expresses the love and respect of the Japanese for nature. Its followers worship spirits called kami. Impressive natural objects are kami, such as wind, lightning, rivers, mountains, waterfalls, and unusual stones. Shintoists celebrate life and the beauty of nature. Buddhism Buddhism began in India around 500 BCE. About 1,000 years later, it came to Japan from China by way of Korea. Buddhists see life as full of pain and suffering. The founder of Buddhism, Siddhartha Gautauma, taught that life is an endless cycle of birth, death, and rebirth. To escape this painful cycle, one must accept the Four Noble Truths and follow the Eightfold Path. Only then will one reach enlightenment and enter nirvana, a state of perfect peace. Buddhism did not replace Shinto. Instead, both religions thrived and even blended together. Even today, ceremonies to celebrate birth and marriage often come from Shinto, the joyful religion. Funeral celebrations are Buddhist, the religion that acknowledges suffering and pain.
26 The The spread of Buddhism India China Korea Japan
27 Shinto s Torii A gate found at the entrance of a Shinto shrine, where it symbolically marks the entrance to a sacred space
28 The Tale of Genji Murasaki Shikibu was a leading writer of Japan. She wrote The Tale of Genji, often called the world s first novel. The book follows the love life of Genji, a fictional prince. It paints a vivid picture of life in the emperor s court.
29 Pagoda When Buddhism arrived in Japan, the Japanese copied a Chinese structure called pagoda. These towerlike buildings always had three, five, seven, or nine roofs. India Japan China Korea
30 Strong Centralized Government Japanese rulers adopted ideas about government from China. Japan also had a strong centralized government led by a powerful emperor. The government was supported by a large bureaucracy. Over time, a powerful aristocracy developed, which means that rich nobles held all the high positions in the government. India Japan China Korea High-level officials carried a fan with 25 folds. Medium-level officials carried a fan with 23 folds. Low-level officials carried a fan with 12 folds.
31 Farming & Fishing 90% of the population worked in farming. Farmers provided the food that kept society going. Growing rice Japan s main crop was a hard life. Farmers had to overcome the difficulties of a poor water supply and limited amounts of flat land to produce large quantities of rice needed in a country with a population of several million. The Japanese obtained a variety of fish and other sea products. Deep-sea fishing brought in mackerel, shark, squid and tuna. Closer to the beach, men and women collected crabs, prawns, and shellfish. Women often dived for highly prized items such as pearls and coral. Japan had many skilled artisans and craftspeople. They produced finely crafted swords and metal tools, as well as prized items for the household such as furniture, pottery, and fine cloth. They also produced paper and magnificent woodblock prints as well as beautifully painted scrolls and screens.
32 Beauty and Fashion Social structure was based on beauty, elegance, and fashion. To be described as yoki (good), people had to look nice. People were judged by how good their taste was. The ability to recognize beauty was valued over qualities like generosity and honesty. Both men and women groomed themselves with care. In particular, an aristocratic woman had to look beautiful For women, long hair was an important beauty feature. Ideally, a woman s hair would grow longer than she was tall. The Japanese of this time considered white teeth unattractive, so both men and women carefully blackened their teeth. Makeup was also important. Women used white face powder to make themselves look very pale. Over the chalky powder, a Japanese woman put touches of red on her cheeks. Then she painted on a small red mouth. She also plucked her eyebrows and painted on a set in just the right spot on her forehead. A woman s clothing needed to be beautiful. An aristocratic woman might wear as many as 12 silk under-robes at a time.
33 The Rise of Feudalism in Japan In 645, a strong emperor created the Taika Reforms. The emperor took land away from the peasants. The emperor gave land to top nobles who paid no taxes to the emperor. Eventually, the emperor became weak. The poor became too poor. Bandits stole food from farms. However, the emperor was too weak to provide law enforcement. 1n 1192, a military dictator called a shogun seized power from the emperor. Feudalism!
34 Feudalism Feudalism a political, economic, and social system in which land is exchanged for military service.
35 emperor (no real power) shogun military dictator Japan s Feudal System daimyo samurai landowner warrior peasants mostly farmers
36 Japan s Feudal System SERVICE PROTECTION (ex. collect & TAXES taxes) SHOGUN DAIMYO LAND PROTECTION FOOD & HOUSING SAMURAI FOOD PROTECTION PEASANTS
37 Oath of loyalty: a promise of loyalty between lord and vassal Repeat after me. In taking this oath of loyalty, I swear to be loyal to you all the days of my life and never to make war against you. In taking this oath of loyalty, I swear to be loyal to you all the days of my life and never to make war against you.
38 Ronin A ronin was a samurai without a master during the feudal period in Japan. A samurai may have lost favor with his/her master, or the master may have died. When a samurai looses their master, they are supposed to commit seppuku. Those who did not, were discriminated against and many became criminals or bandits.
39 Welcome! Today, I will be the shogun. I will be your lord. You will become samurai. You will be my vassals. The word samurai means one who serves. You will serve me
40 Yes, girls can be samurai, too! Some women, like Tomoe Gozen, did take part in battles alongside men. Fighting one-on-one, she killed several enemies in a battle. Then she engaged in a sword fight with the enemy leader, who tried to drag her from her horse. When he tore off her sleeve, she angrily spun her horse around and chopped off his head. A woman named Koman is another famous warrior. During a battle on a lake, she saved her daimyo s banner by swimming to shore under a shower of arrows with the banner in her teeth.
41 Step 1: Swear by the Code of Bushido! I will live by Bushido, the Way of the Warrior. I place bravery, honor, and loyalty above all else. I will be fearless in the face of death. I will always do the right thing. I swear to be loyal to my lord. I would gladly die for him. If my lord is murdered, I will avenge his death. Would you swear by the Code of Bushido?
42 Samurai Armor Samurai did not use metal armor like the Europeans. Made of many panels of silk, leather and metal. They wanted to be able to move quickly in their armor. Wore it any time they went out, not just in battle.
43 Weaponry The sword is the soul of the warrior. If any forget or lose it he will not be excused." Tokugawa Ieyasu
44 Haiku A Japanese form of poetry. Always has 3 lines Syllables: five, seven, five Deep meaning, few words. That was a haiku!
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