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1 Exploring the Tipiṭaka

2 1. Traditional Teaching and Preservation of the Tipiṭaka SOURCES: Tipiṭaka Sinhala Mahā Aṭṭhakathā The Great Commentary Dīpavaṁsa, the Island Lineage Mahāvaṁsa, the Great Lineage Samantapāsādika, Vinaya Commentary

3 Timeline: 499 BCE Awakening of the Buddha

4 Timeline: 499 BCE Awakening of the Buddha 499 BCE Setting the Dhamma Wheel Rolling

5 Timeline: 499 BCE Awakening of the Buddha 499 BCE Setting the Dhamma Wheel Rolling 492 BCE Teaching the Abhidhamma

6 Timeline: 499 BCE Awakening of the Buddha 499 BCE Setting the Dhamma Wheel Rolling 492 BCE Teaching the Abhidhamma 544 BCE Passing Away

7 Timeline: 499 BCE Awakening of the Buddha 499 BCE Setting the Dhamma Wheel Rolling 492 BCE Teaching the Abhidhamma 544 BCE Passing Away 544 BCE 1st Council (500 monastics)

8 Timeline: 499 BCE Awakening of the Buddha 499 BCE Setting the Dhamma Wheel Rolling 492 BCE Teaching the Abhidhamma 544 BCE Passing Away 544 BCE 1st Council (500 monastics) 444 BCE 2nd Council (700 monastics)

9 Timeline: 499 BCE Awakening of the Buddha 499 BCE Setting the Dhamma Wheel Rolling 492 BCE Teaching the Abhidhamma 544 BCE Passing Away 544 BCE 1st Council (500 monastics) 444 BCE 2nd Council (700 monastics) c. 310 BCE 3rd Council (1000 monastics)

10 Timeline: 499 BCE Awakening of the Buddha 499 BCE Setting the Dhamma Wheel Rolling 492 BCE Teaching the Abhidhamma 544 BCE Passing Away 544 BCE 1st Council (500 monastics) 444 BCE 2nd Council (700 monastics) c. 310 BCE 3rd Council (1000 monastics) 1st c. BCE 4th Council (500 monks)

11 Timeline: 499 BCE Awakening of the Buddha 499 BCE Setting the Dhamma Wheel Rolling 492 BCE Teaching the Abhidhamma 544 BCE Passing Away 544 BCE 1st Council (500 monastics) 444 BCE 2nd Council (700 monastics) c. 310 BCE 3rd Council (1000 monastics) 1st c. BCE 4th Council (500 monks) 1871 CE 5th Council (2400 monastics)

12 Timeline: 499 BCE Awakening of the Buddha 499 BCE Setting the Dhamma Wheel Rolling 492 BCE Teaching the Abhidhamma 544 BCE Passing Away 544 BCE 1st Council (500 monastics) 444 BCE 2nd Council (700 monastics) c. 310 BCE 3rd Council (1000 monastics) 1st c. BCE 4th Council (500 monks) 1871 CE 5th Council (2400 monastics) 1956 CE 6th Council (2500 monastics)

13 2. The Contents of the Tipiṭaka

14 Tipiṭaka, Three Baskets Total Pages: 15,577 pgs Vinaya, 2,240 pgs, 15% Vinaya 15%

15 Tipiṭaka, Three Baskets Total Pages: 15,577 pgs Vinaya, 2,240 pgs, 15% Sutta, 8,503 pgs, 53% Vinaya 15% Sutta 53%

16 Tipiṭaka, Three Baskets Total Pages: 15,577 pgs Vinaya, 2,240 pgs, 15% Sutta, 8,503 pgs, 53% Abhidhamma, 4,834 pgs, 32% Abhidhamma 32% Vinaya 15% Sutta 53%

17 Vinaya Piṭaka, Discipline Major Divisions: Sutta Vibhaṅga Bhikkhu Vibhaṅga 25% Bhikkhuṇī Vibhaṅga 17%

18 Vinaya Piṭaka, Discipline Major Divisions: Sutta Vibhaṅga Khandhaka Cullavagga 21% Mahāvagga 21% Bhikkhu Vibhaṅga 25% Bhikkhuṇī Vibhaṅga 17%

19 Vinaya Piṭaka, Discipline Major Divisions: Sutta Vibhaṅga Khandhaka Parivāra Parivāra 16% 16% Bhikkhu Vibhaṅga Sutta 25% Vibhaṅga 37% Cullavagga 21% Khandhaka Bhikkhuṇī 47% Vibhaṅga Mahāvagga 17% 21%

20 Sutta Piṭaka, Doctrine Nikāyas: Dīghanikāya, Long Discourses Majjhimanikāya, Middle-Length Discourses Saṁyuttanikāya, Thematic Discourses Aṅguttaranikāya, Numerical Discourses Khuddakanikāya, Small (or Miscellaneous) Books

21 Sutta Piṭaka, Doctrine Dīghanikāya Divisions: Sīlakkhandavagga, 13 Discourses Dīgha Long 10% Mahāvagga, 10 Discourses Pāthikavagga, 11 Discourses

22 Sutta Piṭaka, Doctrine Majjhimanikāya Divisions: Mūlapaṇṇāsa, 50 Discourses Majjhimapaṇṇāsa, 50 Discourses Uparipaṇṇāsa, 52 Discourses Dīgha Long 10% Majjhima Middle Length 17%

23 Sutta Piṭaka, Doctrine Major Divisions: Sagāthāvagga, 11 Themes Nidānavagga, 10 Themes Khandhavagga, 13 Themes Dīgha Long 10% Majjhima Middle Length 17% Saḷāyatanavagga, 10 Themes Maggavagga, 12 Themes Buddhaghosa, 7,762 Discourses Saṁyutta Thematic 18% Bhikkhu Bodhi, 2,904 Discourses

24 Sutta Piṭaka, Doctrine Divisions: Numbers Increasing from 1-11 Dīgha Long 10% Majjhima Middle Length 17% Buddhaghosa, 9,557 Discourses Bhikkhu Bodhi, 8,122 Discourses Aṅguttara Numerical 20% Saṁyutta Thematic 18%

25 Sutta Piṭaka, Doctrine Khuddakanikāya: Early Texts, 4 (5) Books Verse Texts, 8 Books Commentary-Type, 3 (6) Books Khuddhaka Short 35% Parivāra 16% Dīgha Long 10% Majjhima Middle Length 17% Sutta Vibhaṅga 37% Khandhaka 47% Aṅguttara Increasing Number 20% Saṁyutta Thematic 18%

26 Sutta Piṭaka, Doctrine Khuddakanikāya: Early Texts: (Khuddakapāṭha) Dhammapada Udāna Itivuttaka Suttanipāta Khuddhaka Short 35% Parivāra 16% Khandhaka 47% Aṅguttara Increasing Number 20% Dīgha Long 10% Majjhima Middle Length 17% Sutta Vibhaṅga 37% Saṁyutta Thematic 18%

27 Sutta Piṭaka, Doctrine Khuddakanikāya: Verse Texts: Vimānavatthu Petavatthu Theragāthā Therīgāthā Jātaka Apadāna Buddhavaṁsa Cariyāpiṭaka Khuddhaka Short 35% Parivāra 16% Khandhaka 47% Aṅguttara Increasing Number 20% Dīgha Long 10% Majjhima Middle Length 17% Sutta Vibhaṅga 37% Saṁyutta Thematic 18%

28 Sutta Piṭaka, Doctrine Khuddakanikāya: Commentary-Type Texts: Mahāniddesa Cūḷaniddesa Paṭisambhidāmagga Khuddhaka Short 35% Parivāra 16% Dīgha Long 10% Majjhima Middle Length 17% Sutta Vibhaṅga 37% Milindapañha Nettippakaraṇa Peṭakopadesa Khandhaka 47% Aṅguttara Increasing Number 20% Saṁyutta Thematic 18%

29 Khuddaka Nikāya (Khuddakapāṭha) Dhammapada Udāna Itivuttaka Suttanipāta Vimānavatthu Petavatthu Theragāthā Therīgāthā Jātaka Apadāna Buddhavaṁsa Cariyāpiṭaka Total Verses: ,149 1, , ,905 5, ,364 Parivāra 16% Jātaka Birth Stories 35% Khandhaka 47% Sutta Vibhaṅga 37% Apadāna Traditions 27%

30 Abhidhamma Piṭaka Abstract Teaching Dhammasaṅgaṇī 7%

31 Abhidhamma Piṭaka Abstract Teaching Dhammasaṅgaṇī 7% Vibhaṅga 10%

32 Abhidhamma Piṭaka Abstract Teaching Dhammasaṅgaṇī 7% Vibhaṅga 10% Dhātukathā 0.3%

33 Abhidhamma Piṭaka Abstract Teaching Dhammasaṅgaṇī 7% Vibhaṅga 10% Dhātukathā 0.3% Puggalapaññatti 0.5%

34 Abhidhamma Piṭaka Abstract Teaching Dhammasaṅgaṇī 7% Vibhaṅga 10% Dhātukathā 0.3% Puggalapaññatti 0.5% Kathāvatthu 10%

35 Abhidhamma Piṭaka Abstract Teaching Dhammasaṅgaṇī 7% Vibhaṅga 10% Dhātukathā 0.3% Puggalapaññatti 0.5% Kathāvatthu 10% Yamaka 21%

36 Abhidhamma Piṭaka Abstract Teaching Dhammasaṅgaṇī 7% Vibhaṅga 10% Dhātukathā 0.3% Puggalapaññatti 0.5% Kathāvatthu 10% Yamaka 21% Paṭṭhāna 50%

37 3. Alternative Perspectives

38 Timelines: Life of the Buddha BCE Life of the Buddha BCE Ascension of Aśoka c. 327 BCE, c. 310 BCE 3rd Council Ascension of Aśoka c. 268 BCE, c. 251 BCE 3rd Council

39 Timelines: Life of the Buddha BCE Ascension of Aśoka c. 268 BCE, c. 251 BCE 3rd Council

40 Councils: Sri Lankan Tradition: 1st Council (Mahākassapa) 2nd Council (Yasa) 3rd Council (Moggaliputtatissa) 1st Council (Mahākassapa) 2nd Council (Yasa) 3rd Council (Moggaliputtatissa) 4th Council (Mahinda) 4th Council (Mahārakkhita) 5th Council (U Jagarabhivaṁsa) th Council (Mahārakkhita) 6th Council (Hikkaduwe Śrī Sumangala) th Council (U Revata) 1956

41 Councils: Thai Tradition (Saṅgītavaṁsa, 1789): 1st Council (Mahākassapa) 2nd Council (Yasa) 3rd Council (Moggaliputtatissa) 4th Council (Mahārakkhita) 5th Council (U Jagarabhivaṁsa) th Council (U Revata) st Council (Mahākassapa) 2nd Council (Yasa) 3rd Council (Moggaliputtatissa) 4th Council (Mahinda) 5th Council (Mahārakkhita) 6th Council (Buddhaghosa) 7th Council (Mahākassapa, 1143) 8th Council (1477) 9th Council (1788)

42 Tipiṭaka/Tripiṭaka: Tipiṭaka closed by around 2 nd c. BCE and Commentaries kept separate Mahāyāna Tripiṭaka includes later Sūtras, Śāṣṭra, Tantra, Dhāraṇī, etc

43 Vinaya Piṭaka: Pāḷi Tradition (Pātimokkha) Bhikkhu Vibhaṅga Bhikkhuṇī Vibhaṅga Khandhaka Parivāra Other Traditions Prātimokṣasūtra Bhikṣu Vibhaṅga Bhikṣuṇī Vibhaṅga Khandhaka?

44 Prātimokṣasūtra: Pār Saṁgh Ani NiḥPāt Pāt Prati Śaikṣa Adhi Total Mahāsāṅghika (ZH) Pāḷi (Pi) Vinayavibhāṣā (ZH) Kaśyapīya (ZH) Mūla Sarvāstivāda (ZH) Mahāvyutpatti (Skt-Tib) Dharmagupta (ZH) Mahīśāsaka (ZH) Sarvāstivāda (ZH) Sarvāstivāda (Skt)

45 Sutta Piṭaka: Pāḷi Tradition Dīgha Nikāya Majjhima Nikāya Saṁyutta Nikāya Aṅguttara Nikāya Khuddaka Nikāya Other Traditions Dīrgha Āgama (Dharmaguptaka, Mūlasarvāstivāda) Madhyama Āgama (Sarvāṣṭivāda) Saṁyukta Āgama (Sarvāṣṭivāda, Kāśyapīya,?) Ekottara Āgama (Sarvāṣṭivāda/Mahāsāṁghika) Kṣudraka Āgama (Dharmaguptaka)

46 Sutta Piṭaka: Pāḷi Tradition Dīgha Nikāya, 34 Suttas Majjhima Nikāya, 152 Suttas Saṁyutta Nikāya, 2,904 Suttas Aṅguttara Nikāya, 8,122 Suttas Khuddaka Nikāya, 19 books Other Traditions Dīrgha Āgama, 30, 47 Sūtras Madhyama Āgama, 222 Sūtras Saṁyukta Āgama, 1,362 Sūtras (364, 27) Ekottara Āgama,? Kṣudraka Āgama, 14 books

47 Pāḷi Dīgha Nikāya: Dīgha Nikāya, 34 Sūtras Chinese Dīrgha Āgama, 30 Sūtras DN 1 DĀ 21 DN 2 DĀ 27 DN 3 DĀ 20 DN 4 DĀ 22 DN 5 DĀ 21 DN 6 DN 7 DN 8 DĀ 25 DN 9 DĀ 28 DN 10 DN 11 DĀ 24 DN 12 DĀ 29 DN 13 DĀ 26 DN 14 DĀ 1 DN 15 DĀ 13 DN 16 DĀ 2 DN 17 DĀ 2 DN 18 DĀ 4 DN 19 DĀ 3 DN 20 DĀ 19 DN 21 DĀ 14 DN 22 DĀ 31 DN 23 DĀ 7 DN 24 DĀ 15 DN 25 DĀ 8 DN 26 DĀ 6 DN 27 DĀ 5 DN 28 DĀ 18 DN 29 DĀ 17 DN 30 DN 31 DĀ 16 DN 32 DN 33 DĀ 9 DN 34 DĀ 10

48 DĀ 1 DN 14 DĀ 2 DN 16 DĀ 3 DN 19 DĀ 4 DN 18 DĀ 5 DN 27 DĀ 6 DN 26 DĀ 7 DN 23 DĀ 8 DN 25 DĀ 9 DN 33 DĀ 10 DN 34 Chinese Dīrgha Āgama: 30 Sūtras Dīgha Nikāya, 34 Sūtras DĀ 11 DĀ 12 DĀ 13 DN 15 DĀ 14 DN 21 DĀ 15 DN 24 DĀ 16 DN 31 DĀ 17 DN 29 DĀ 18 DN 28 DĀ 19 DN 20 DĀ 20 DN 3 DĀ 21 DN 1 DĀ 22 DN 4 DĀ 23 DN 5 DĀ 24 DN 11 DĀ 25 DN 8 DĀ 26 DN 13 DĀ 27 DN 2 DĀ 28 DN 9 DĀ 29 DN 12 DĀ 30

49 DĀ 1 DN 34 DĀ 2 DĀ 3 DN 33 DĀ 4 DĀ 5 DN 14 DĀ 6 DN 16 DĀ 7 MN 60 DĀ 8 DĀ 9 DN 24 DĀ 10 MN 105 DĀ 11 MN 4 DĀ 12 MN 12 Sanskrit Dīrgha Āgama: 47 Sūtras Dīgha Nikāya, 34 Sūtras DĀ 13 DN 18 DĀ 14 DN 19 DĀ 15 DN 28 DĀ 16 DN 29 DĀ 17 MN 102 DĀ 18 DĀ 19 MN 95 DĀ 20 MN 35 DĀ 21 MN 85 DĀ 22 MN 100 DĀ 23 DN 32 DĀ 24 DN 20 DĀ 25 DĀ 26 DĀ 27 DN 12 DĀ 28 DĀ 29 DN 11 DĀ 30 DN 7 DĀ 31 DĀ 32 DN 6 DĀ 33 DN 4 DĀ 34 DN 5 DĀ 35 DN 3 DĀ 36 DN 9 DĀ 37 DĀ 38 MN 51 DĀ 39 DĀ 40 DĀ 41 DĀ 42 DN 10 DĀ 43 MN 55 DĀ 44 DN 2 DĀ 45 DN 13 DĀ 46 DN 8 DĀ 47 DN 1

50 Satipaṭṭhānasutta MN 10 MĀ 98: Majjhima Nikāya Contemplation of Body Madhyama Āgama Breathing (5) Postures (1) Full Awareness (3) Repulsiveness (9) Elements (9) Charnel Grounds (10) Postures (2) Full Awareness (3) Counter the Unwholesome Forcible Mind Control Breathing (1) Four Jhānas Perception of Light Nimitta Repulsiveness (4) 6 Elements (5) Charnel Grounds (6)

51 Satipaṭṭhānasutta MN 10 MĀ 98: Majjhima Nikāya Contemplation of Feelings Madhyama Āgama Pleasant, Painful, Neutral Worldly, Unworldly Pleasant, Painful, Neutral Bodily, Mentally Worldly, Unworldly Sensual, Non-Sensual

52 Satipaṭṭhānasutta MN 10 MĀ 98: Majjhima Nikāya Contemplation of Mind Madhyama Āgama Passionate, Not Passionate Angry, Not Angry Deluded, Not Deluded Collected, Scattered Great, Not Great Surpassable, Not Surpassable Concentrated, Not Concentrated Liberated, Not Liberated Passionate, Not Passionate Angry, Not Angry Deluded, Not Deluded Defiled, Not Defiled Collected, Scattered Great, Not Great Cultivated, Uncultivated Concentrated, Not Concentrated Liberated, Not Liberated

53 Satipaṭṭhānasutta MN 10 MĀ 98: Contemplation of (the Nature of) Things Majjhima Nikāya Madhyama Āgama Hindrances Components Sense-Spheres Factors of Awakening Noble Truths Sense-Spheres Hindrances Factors of Awakening

54 Abhidhamma Piṭaka: Pāḷi Tradition Dhammasaṅgaṇī Vibhaṅga Dhātukathā Puggalapaññatti Kathāvatthu Yamaka Paṭṭhāna Sarvāṣṭivāda Saṅgītiparyāya Dharmaskandha Prajñāptiśāstra Dhātukāya Vijñāṇakāya Prakaraṇapāda Jñānaprasthāna Mahāvibhāṣa Śāstra Abhidharmakośabhāṣya

55 Tipiṭaka

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