VOLUME XXXIX, PT. i. June i9s1 THE OF THE. ( J s s),~~~ 'I I. j I I BANGKOK

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1 VOLUME XXXIX, PT. i June i9s1 J u THE OF THE I I ( J s s),~~~ 'I I j I I BANGKOK 2494

2 I'

3 "the SEYEN SPIRES A SANCTUARY OF THE: SACRED FIG TREE: AT CHIE:NGMAI By K W. Hutchinson, M.B.E. INTRODUCTION VA'l' OED.YOD, fm nw1 Ir known as.bodhaham, raise!' rn nl>lc uts colllll'c[('!l with the 1lnJ.c~ oj it:-; com;tt'ndion, its llllllhtml dc sigu awl strikiug deeorat.imt, whi< h ltad a]j'pady attr:~elp1l nl-ltohuoll in the Yl'Gl'H lh fot'l' tho last W:tJ'. my I had howc vt J'.littho to show ill ju:-;tilication l'ot my nnmt ron::; PXClll'Hiom; th<: l'l' othel' than a pilu ol' plwtug-raplts whieh, whik illu1.;lrating t.lte rnius, all'ot d<,[ ll!l elw to lheit m igin o1 worlonnnship. 'I'lnm, Vat. Oc 1l-yod. rc mnint d an enigmtt to l!h' dul'illg lll.l' ahsmjl'l' i'l'o.m Ohic ngmai tht'oltg hont llw wal'; llul upon my l'utm H in J'amm1y l!h7,. I \VHf\ alllc lo rc snmu 1uy inv, :.;tigation::; 11lHlc J lllol'e l':ti'ollt'ahk eowlitinn:-;. I J'onll<l thl,;it< no longc J' <>Vl't grnwn ;m<l.;tlmndone<l, as in Ul.J(); tlw "imw.t emntym <l hacl bc < n c}e;n <: cl ol' l'ltllk n w tation and itf; sonth-west. mul was rea<ly for oecnpation hy ;. ounp; JnonkH, tlw senim uwuk- PHRA PHROHMSEN- hoing occupied with tlh colluction of fnndr; for rl'stol'ing the <lilapitl.alrtl viharn. With his ashit: t.ance, sandion was nbtftinecl from the senim Pali sclwlm at Vat. Oedilna11g, PHH.A MAHAMUN, for me to st.ud.y a valm-leal' mannscript containing the Chronicle (Tamnan) ol' Vat Cl'<l-Yotl. Both of these Buddhist dignitarit f-i have treated. my rcqnesttj J'o1 C'l'ncidation of the text with t.llc' gt eatest con:;idpration ancl Pln a Plu ornh<'n has invariably welccnncd my vi::;its to the munastel'y nml seconiled my effm ts to take acenwte mensut emeuts, ha1,; H.H. Prince Dhani Nivat, Kronwmnn Bidyalahh, l1ah gi, c n JH'tteticn.l proof of his intc J'eHt in my WOl'k lry l PJHling llll' his. own

4 2 THE SEVEN SPIRES copit s of two hooks which I havp 1Jl~Pn nnahlt- to J'( placc' il1 my post-war library, lmt which al'e t:>rrential fm a stnrly of Vat Cedyo<l.l His Higlnwss bas ah\'ays form<l timp, <llning 1ny short and rare visib,; to Bangkok, to give nw the benefit uf his atb:.ice awl assistance which, on my last vhdt, inelndp<l t fu: loan of notps ( fnrnishpd ll.v the' Deparhnent of A1 cljeology at Patna) on the Sanetnm-r at Bn<1dhagaya: these I hayc ntili~<: <l in tlw PXtl'acts 1wlow. For tlh-'sl' and all his many kin<lnessps I am pl'ohnmdly gratefnl to the Prince. ve1 ~ Mr. Ln Pc Win of thp Arebeo]ogien1 Sm yc-y in Mnndalas kiwlly present0 d rne last year with a pietnj't! of tlte Mahaho <lhi at Pagan. Signor Feroci of the Fine A rt1a DPpartmPnt mn<lv RkPtche.H for uw uud notes on the towprr at Aiho1E' in tlu\ DPcenn. 'rlmnks to an intl'o<lnetion from Mr. J.S. Fm niv:d of Rangoon, I have J'ec eivp<l Nome valuable notek fl'ont Mr. G.H. Lncc concel'ning thp temple.h at Pagan, KOHJe of which apjh'hl' t.o have served as models for the <lesi,gn o:[ tht oe imporhmt t< mplvs in Lmn)mn-Chiengmai in tht> 14th- l:>t.h Cf\lltnry. Extracts Hl'P given in Amwnr1ix I. Mr. F. SchrtdlH'l' of Chiengmai lent nte on sovc 'J a1 <Wcasiowi Vol. 1 L o-f Dl'. 0. FiHeher's work on the> Art and Al'eheology of India awl lwyon<l 2 1Hti:l been fhmght: A11tlwrity to l'g])l'odnee c<rpiek of two of hi:.; plates No. 13K. the rock temple at Bajl'a; Plate 17 :b, the Pyramid at Gaya before the repairs of lrro which should be compared. with the photo of Ga:ya aftfll' (copy pm chased from the Department of Al ch.eology in In<lin ). 'rhe t"\vo vhotos 1. Docwments Stl?' l'histoire Polii'if]Lte et Religirmse d u Laos Occidental... extrait dtt B.E.F.E.O. \'ol. XXV (1925) Hanoi by Professor G. Coedes. L'a? cheologie dn 8iam... (1925) Hanoi by Monsiet1r J.Y. Claeys. 2. Kunst Indiens, Chinas und Japans, Vol. 4. Kunstgeschichte von Otto Fischer.,. Propylaen Verlag, Ullsteinhaus, Berlin

5 THE SEVEN SPIRES 3 atl:or<l an L'l<Htuent uo1nnwnt on the extent of the restm. ation which wan CHl'l'ied ont in accordance with a small stone model of :rnediaeval t imes.3 In ]Jl'Oparing n1y Engli8h version of the exh acts below f1 ont Fi:::;elw t 's German text concerning the l'ock-temples and the Pagan }Jt ric~d., rt~prnduce I \Vas indebted to Mr. Schreiber for helping me grasp antl the exact 1neauing of the original. Mr. On Manng m;sif:dt d me with the measureml nts at Vat Ot d-yo(l an<l r11 ew tht\ plan::; to scale, n~ndering typing. assistance nl8o in N ai Puk Phttka8em t1 anspose(l t1w Lao text of the pi:dlllluaf :rnmmscript iuto Siam.ese and typed it for me ; he was also helpful in t~htablishing contact8 with the local Bnc1dhi8t anthoritie8 fur their advice regarding the relative position o.e the sevt n traditional sites visited. b;v~ Budrlha after the enlightenn1ent ; he even fnrni~he<l.tnc with extracts from the P hongsawadan Y orwk.4 But fur the Joyal co-operation of these t\vo Buddhists of Ohiengrnai, the.u.talerial in my hand~ for the completion of this paper '\vcmld havl' been immfil.cient when the time came for 111e to leave Ohiengmai finally at the end of May. Marchese L. Om.nbiaso, in answer to my appeal, has kin<lly prepm ed a trcinslation of the technical language mnployed by Monsienr Claeys in re;ference to the use of the radiati no a.rch at Vat Ced.-yod with which he concludes his study of Siame~w Architectnre.5 In the course of our talk last 1nonth, the Marchese illnstra:tcd the nwaning of the term horizontal th?~ust in this c;onneetion by reminding me of t,he habit of tjw Roma.ns in classical tim.es of selecting a rocky site for their bridges, so that, whore possible, each end of the bridge rested on a natural anchorage " capable of yielding the resistance required to :rnaintain the wedgeshaped bricks of the areh firmly in their place ancl so prevent the 3. V. Gazetteer of Gaya d istr ict ch. 3 by L.S.S. O'Malley. I.C.S... Calcutta C.h. XIX compiled by Phya Prachaki t Koracak. Bangkolt (PY. in the te:xt) 5. V. Appendix II

6 4 THE SEVEN SPIRES eollapsu uf tltu ln idge when sul>:iucted to the vertical thrust of tra:ffi.c passing of over it. This principle should be borne in mind when examining the arches at Vat 0e<1-yoc1. I am indebterl to anuth.er old fl'ien<l, Phya Vinit Vananclon, for H1P cmtect, hotanical identification of t\vo trees and a s1najl plant wh.ich occur in connection with the traditional list o:j; the seven localities visited after the Enlightenment beneath the Sacred Fig-tree (Ficus religiosa- Moraceae ). In tendering nry grateful acknowledgements to all who have he1pef1 me, I desire in particular to emphasize the debt which I owe to Professor Coedes fm the masterly exposition, chronological tables and, above all, for the notes appended to his translation into French of the Pali works, J'inaJcalamaUm~, 0 Etm~adevivamsa, Sasanavamsa ( Oh. IV) ;6 of an 8th century Mon Inscription from Lopbnri, also of two inscriptions in Pali and one in Pali-'l~hai Lampnn- collected together into the single volume, already rnontione<l, entitled Docttments SU'r l' histoire polit?:qne et 1'elig iettse dtt Ltw.s ocoidental...extrait du B.E.F.E.O. Vol..Ly XV ( 1925) (Hanoi by Professor G. Coecles ). In a preface, written in Bangkok 2H years ago, Ooefles presented his work in the form, not of a history of Northern Siam, but rather- as the title suggests- of Documents (practically unknown in Europe at that time), but which- when translated - would provide a soli<l taking-off ground, he helieved, for fresh research in regions still only partially explored. That 6. J?>naka.lamrtUni was written by the monk RATANAPANNA in Chiengmai during the years (V. JKM 169). He was then about 43 years old. (V. Docnments, pp. 5~6) Oamrtdevivmnsa written by the monk, BODHIRAJ\1SI, mid-15th century, is a religious epic of the Mon period in Lampun (V. Domtments, pp. 12 seq,) /-:} asanavnm.sa, a legendary religious chronicle, mentions the pilgrimage to Ceylon in 1424, also the alterations to the cedi at Vat-luang, Lampun, but dates them 1463, not 1469 (JKM). Gives very brief account of Bureng Naung's conquest of Chieng :mai in 1578 resulting in a religious reformation without reducing the people to slavery. at

7 THE SEVEN SPIRES 5 volume has beon constantly in my hands and has, in fact, performed precisely the service which its author intended. The result is the present essay.which is divided into five sections. PcH't I gives a ch~scription of Vat Ced-yod and the outlying buildings including the two plans and measurements. Part I I follo\vs briefly the development of Buddhist art in Inclia and Burma with the aid of extract,s from Fischer and O'Malley ; then, with the help of JKJY[ and of the extant remains in La:mpun, its progress is traced up to the end of the 13th century when the Mon kingdom of HARIPUNJA YA ( Lampun) wa.s conquered by Mengrai and his 'fhai from Ohiengmai. Part I I I carries on the study throughout the first period of 'rhai supremacy in the North which terminated with the Burmese occupation in actually the final half-century is a blank, since I found nothing later than 1527, the last date in JKM. The place t,o be assigned to Vat Ced-yod in the religious history of the North is then determined. I find difficulty in assigning Vat Oed-yod to a 11eriod before the mid-fourteenth century when cortain features of Pagan design appeared in Lampun and were repeated in the following century in Ohiengmai- features which are distinctive of Vat Oed-yocl. In the light of the uncolllpromising statement in pa1 agraph 5 of the Chronicle to the effect that a monastery was first founded by King Tilok and that the Fig-tree was planted by hhn later at this monastery on the site now occupied by Vat Oec1-yod, I can see no alternative to dating that temple in the second haj~ of the fifteenth century. Part VI contains my analysis of the Chronicle (TVOY) in 12 paragraphs under each of which is a note regarding the corresponding paragraph in JKl\L A comparison of the two sources points to the conclusion., that TVOY is a free translation, often amplified, of the passages in JKM whieh refer to Vat Ced-yocl. Among other similarities, both sources come to an end on the same date and with the same inforlnation. Part V consists of a transcription into Siamese of the ori~ ~inal Lao text of the manuscript, inscribed with a style on pa1m-letwes, probably the latest of a series of rescripts in which copyists, errol's a.re likely to acctunulate ; e.g. the mistake in 'l'ilok's age (para. 6 )

8 ~ '~ 6 THE SEVEN SPIRES and the incor1 ect total ordinations (para. 10 (d)). Omis~lions and interpolations by copyists of both JIGVI and 1'VOY are probably responsible for puzzling discrepancies between the two mss, viz. :- a. Omission by JKM 143 of the Sangayana and Library described in TVOY 6. and dated JKM however refers back to them forty years later in p. 1&S. b.c. Addition of a viha'l''n in 1455 on the South side by TVCY 5. and of the viharn adjoining the cedi in 1518 TVCY 10 (e)- both omitted by JKM which however dates the great sanctuary ''.1~!. ahav iltararn edesi" 1576; ttnd in 1518 mentions two v-ilwrn built in othel' temples, but not the vihanl adjoining the cedi at Vat Ced-yod (JKM 14-3 and 174). It will be observed that TVCY fails to record even t,he buihung of the cedi- let alone any comment on its unusual design. The gap which occurs in both rnss between the years 1455 and a period of 21 years passed over in complete silence both as regards conternporary events and progress of building at Vat Cecl-yod- gives rise to the suspicion that a whole page of the JKM manuscript may have been lost before the JKM became the main source for the Chronicle. Apart from amplifying JKM's reference to the fonndatjon of Vat Ced-yod, the Chronicle is of -yalne, if only for clarifying the ambiguous language in which JKM refers to that foundation for the first time- a reference which Professor Coedes, on the authority of H.R.H. the late Prince Damro11g B.ajannbhab, took to mean that the Seven Spires were already standing on their present tf' site at the time when King Tilok planted his tree, i.e. in rrhe Professor now considers that TVOY gives a better translation of the Pali than that given on p. 111 of his Docu'ments su r l' H isto ire Politigue et Religieuse du Laos Occidental... extrait du B.E.F. E.O. Vol. XXV ( 1925) (Hanoi, by Professor G. Ooecles) Pm"t VI includes the Siamese text of the Chronicle together with Appendix.

9 THE SEVEN SPIRES rrhe Rhu1y which follows o:[ Buddhist expansion in Lannathai nuder the impetus oj the Ceylon-pilgrims of Ohiengmai concerns a periorl in the histcny of the North vvhich was first made known to WPStern shulents twenty-fon1 years ago through the medium of Ooedes' Domt'tnents above-ment'oned, a volume which has h<"en my ermstant cmnpanion during the past months. It is only fi.tting thcn c frn <.\ that the study in which that vmrk has borne f1 uit should IH <ledicated. to the genial Acrthn and :master of historical research in FnrtlH l' Inr1ia, Professor G. Coedes, whose work, it is hoped, may soon become available to a wider ci 1 cle through tho m.edimn of tl lmslation. It is also hoped that, when improved facihtips enable the l'epl'<hlnction of the inte1 esting illustrations in S th'ctpatyakam1 an oj>portnnity for a second edition may arise, in orde1 to :l'evise the rrmlty C]Jl'(nlOlogy which attributes the lmilding of Vat Oetl-yorl to infhwnep from Pagan in the reign of King Annrn<lh (i.e. Ii.l'Ht~Jwlf of t.ht- olc~n rlth centm. y) 8. Rhodesia, Jnly 1949 E.W. HUrrCHINSON. P.8. Grateful acknowledgp1nents are also clue to His Highness Prince Dhani Nivat, Kron1 Mi.l.n Bidyalahh, and to Mr.O.M. Anderson for correcting and editing the text of my typescript ; also to Luang Clmluapani (Visudh Krairiksh) fm preparing a revised edition in '.l.'hai of the Lao '1\unnan Vat Oed-yod. 7. / Uhhpatyakam published Bangkok The erroneous chrono.. logy was repeated in an article on p. 16 of the " Standard " of 19th February 1949.

10 8 THE SEVEN SPIRES PART I Description of Vat Ced-yod 'rlw visito1 should take tlw north roa<l, Jc ave thp city hy the white-elephant gate and pass the eul'ions 1n<mnmt>nt of that 1uune on his right: if he then looks nortb west aeross the fic"i<l in the dil 0ction of Mt Suthep, a vague m.ass of bluish-grey mahnn1 y and spil es will he cliseerned indistinctly against the da1 k lwlt of of fm est that lies l)etween the fields and Mt SnthPp. In order to exmnine this unusual building at close quartf'1'8, it is necessary to leave the nutin-1 mul at Lio n, Cage JlHmnstPl'Y... "' r! 'JI?l'f1\lff\!Yl- son1e 4 k.m. from the centre of the city- and follow a cart hack for anothpr kilometl c en more thnmgh tho ;:;crnh (generally practicable f<w rn.oto1 -cm s ). Thu track hears we>st but heihls south eventuallr in Ol'<lPl' to skirt some hahitatiom.;, 8nte1 s a narrow defile betwe-en (east) a high, emhanln~cl t]wn te:t 1 acethe l'e puted tlitc of King Tilok's crenmtion- and (west) a stc~ep rnounrl STn monnted by the tall ced i and stttpa to conunemorate that King. The track then comes ont onto an open, grnss-cnvpl'c'<l ch~aring honniled ( west) by a mode:en wall 54 m. in length. 'l'his ib the eastpl'll wall of a cmht:yarcl (54 m X 91 m) in the eentre of which stands the "SANCTUARY OF rrhe SEVEN SPIRES'' which ih <..lilnly visible from the rnain roa<l north of the city. 'l,he central portion of this courtyard is ocr:npie<l by a phnth con1posed of late1 ite blocks, apparently unn1ortared, standing l1n. ~25 above ground-levpl and supporting the following lmihlings :- At east end, vuwrn ( asp.emb1y~hall) length east to west Centre, cerl i with 5 py1 ;unirls and 2 stu.rpa on npper terracn At west end, an nnterraced, vanltecl extension of cedi Add to this the un1 oofe(1 space l)etweon ced i ancl vihrtj'n 2i~m. 00 ~~1m. 08 G rn. ;)O G m. f>o

11 ~/6'"' J~ /(1.~ ~0 f/t;-rt:i?.enci:: :- ====~j_ zo 10 r= z5o~ N I -A-- I I: 1000 I T I I I I I I I I I I I : l : I 7' I l()t I 1 ~ : I!!;: I I Or I ~ ~~ I I c;~tlt.iiyo ~... {~/)/ IHf S 1 rt: OF /(~Jil)'!/ Tf!IY/1,l;r~; if.jv,nei) C"lr.t: flt;m ~rs ;{~;;o /t.wdrt/11-. I I I I Jg EooHNRRN# : J t 1 1'119 H 1'1 Jln1 /1 7U? /l;:;r 01'<,: I Ct:.IJ Yo.v /IN/) Sv.BSILJII/tf}' _5vt.l...l)!NGS : I I I : I I L t J G1 ound plan uj The Seuen Spi-res and sub.sidiary buildings.

12 ~ :I ~ I.. ~ ~ "ll '1., b::l ~ c:.. ~ t ~ I> ~ b ~ >a.. ~ ~ ~ b ~ ~ ~ l(t ~ I ~ It\ ~ ~ I :--1---: '1:; I /.1> I I ~ l: I ~._ I. I c ~.,..,_ :;::s-. ct. <::"':> ct. E- ~ ~ ~ "" C).,... (1:) ~ c ~ ~ r--.a.~~ t:>.,..,_ :::::-o n.:;.., b r--, r..---., c:t, t-- c;;.:, 0 r::-.j ). Lw:t-J J..- J (/) I :.. ~, C1:> Ill -r ~ <:::: c:t, Ill l- :;::: tr.l ~. ~ ct> ;.r.> p6-o.j fu g Ed f~~~ "" Ill I I I ~ ls I I I 'I T I ~ ~ I 4$<) / -r'-\~ I I ~ fl~j < ~ 1:) ~ ~ I h.

13 Tlw Seven.Spires E. Vanlt.


15 TI!B SEVEN SPIRES th( t11t:tl lt Hgth 11f tltv pli111h I'I'tUll t a:-:t t11 \\"t :.;t i:-; thel't.ftn t ;)7.Ill. OK. At tlw Wt :-;t t tld of thp pli11tlt i:-: all lllll'th ft>d plntfo1.m :) in h ug th whkh.u:in :-; ll(~l'l't'=-' to Uw Yitlllt lry K :-:tl ps. rrln total l1 11u,th frnlll va:-:t tu Wl'~t ut' thl~ \VludP mummn nt ti± 111. ~m jh lllol't' tlwn fmtt' tilm. :4 tltat nf it:-i widt.ij, whieh llt'\'t'l' Pxcc Ptl:-: lfl m. P\'1.'11 ai tlu. two hay:-: and il'\.!.!'l'll('l'itlly 11m. :20. lmt tajll'l':-: to ;l m. llh tlu Wt :-:t platl'o!'lll. Dimt ll:->iun:-: ~w~h a:-: tht>:-:;1 lt a\'t' <llllplt :->p:tt~t fnt ot.lu. J' llhildillg :-: 1111 tht lll>l'th :md :-<uttlh Hidl':-l uf thr eottl'lyarll. fr}a.qf end. 'l'llt>1'u a t'p a ft w ~ tlllll.l\ 11angn tre< 1 K on tlw l'ight as wv l nh l' ~ 111t t IH h rt, a.jauk t 1'1.'1.' and a gtovu of yn'tlng 'fi.t!plwuum. AgaittHt tlw I'Hl-'t wall il-' a nmd<rt'll e.loi:-:t Ul' wit lj ('t'lllpllf 1!11111' al\d tijt>d 1'tlOI', t Xlt'llllillg fl'ulll tilt Vlltl'illlCt -gal.t, Htidway dowll tht- tlu Past wall, to tht sont l1 c ast (~lll'llt'l'.,\'oath sid,. In IH IW<'<'ll tlw :4uHtll ( :n.;t <'Ol'lWl' awl :1 l-ijlihil IIJH uiug in tilt :-;uutll wall is tl~t luollkk' quartt l':-l 'il:i~, a W<Hal<\11 "v;j lntilding nn pilph, whi<~ll pt ovid(,...; :wt~tllll.llhhlat.ion Jn1 Plu a PJ oll:m- :-\!'H and :t 1\~w r(nttlg mollks and. nen...a ytlll.lll-{ jio'lt8 1'eUrf'/o8rt of sonw l\\'( uty yt :u r~ g t owtli iilli4 tltu HJI:tt'< 11t'Lwc PJI llli:-: lmilding and Uw u]h'llillg ih tl11 wall: orrtsid<' Lht wall, at :t Hhor(. <lil4t:tn<~< 1'1'\llll th(~ opt uiug-, ih a Hm:dl <'il'eulat t.owpj' in l'lllllh HP:tl' t.lll' :->UpJHl:-lP<I b :t<lit.ioll\d site or t.hr MimoKOpK Ll'P(' \l~lf1~) - Llll' 'Ll'aditional?'it:iilyata.na t t t t. ~Powards tl~t l'lo'ijth-w<:st <~oj'lt<''l', tttid.-way from it :u1d fro.tii tbp muli, stand. tltf' t vmnantk of a v< t y ajh'i< Ht. 1mt now st:tuj.t< d Fig-h v(', 1 )tdievv<l to hv th<' ]mreut of tlw yrnrug< t Fig-t.l't'PK ronnd ahnnt awl ttl ]H dt. HCl'lHh~d frmn tlw aetna.! s L('lH lll'on.u;ht fro.lll Ot ylou iu tl!p Jiftr~t>11th ec Idilll'J', of which a. ::;hoot was 1 >1anted l)y Kint.:: 'l'ilok.s Beneath it is a slal)- tlu t1 aclitional DIAMOND 'l'hrone.h vv est ond. Adjacent to it, hut ru:are:t to the ecnrl1 v of tho west. w:d] are two trepk, a. :iasrnin and a, pa.llll, hoth fnlly-.l\'1'0\\'11 ; 8. v. TVCY, para The throne on which Buddha sat, VafJ'asa.,rna or Bodh'tJJrttlruw.

16 io THE SEVEN SPIRES in the n<wth-west cm ne1 is another Fig-t1 ec eorl er;;pon<lin!-!: in sb~e to thp one neal' the monks' house. N o rth s ide. The main object. of interest, :tside frmn several yonng 1nango tre es, is a heap of earth, bricks ajhl mason1 y piled to the toj) of the north wall npal' the centrp wlh'l'p it i:-; said that Horne rnonln;' cells once Pxiste<l : it is considere<l by sonw t h('tt in early days a traditional "Je,velled-cloister" - Ratanacongkrom - passed through this site, eonnecting it with the octagonal vayilion of ln ick and plastel' just outside the enclosure wall, (before tlw presl nt wall was put. up) which is hel<1 to represent the tl'aclitional Anirn Fsa ced i, the site on which tlw Buddha stood fo1 SC'W'n dayr after his Enlightenment and hefol'e vacing the.jewelled Olnistt>r. It is popularly kncnvn as such, ancl contains a. modern iignre of t.h0 StmHling Bndclha, some two feet high, in sandal-wood. paintpd black. Access to the shrine is by two small stairways n:f brick,.80 m. \vide, on E'ach side of the plinth, giving on to the, now unro<)fnd, platfornl between ced and?n:hrt? n. The rough gale-l'oo[ of thatch with supporting posts, which formerly concealed the east fgga(le of the ced1: h:tve now been 1 emoved, tht: reby revealing the Pxtent. of the <1ilapiclaticm threatening the' east fac;,:ule behind whic lt, at nn gl'c'at <lepth, 1w1ck gives place to the original la,t,erite of tlw st.l'l.wtnl'c-'. 'rlw 1 eason. fen refacing the east fagade with bricks, lai<l less carefully tlum e }sew here, is less apparent than in the rase of the north an(l sout.h walls whe1 e the ]atel'it.e surface requhpd. a. hrick facing fen suppm Ung the stucco figm 0s with deco1 aje them ; bnt the decor;ttion ends with the figures.in the north-east and snnt.hf ast l'e-ent:l'ants, ]eaving the east f.a<;.a.de l'ormd the vaulted arehwa.y lmre. rrhe bricks, of which it now consists, :ue ill-set and appal ently nnmortal'erl; bnt behind, at no great~ distance, is solid Jateritc which supplieb all the ~rnpport l'e'<tllil ecl hori~ontally for maintaining the great vaul te(l eonidm: intact nnde1 the vel'tical \Veight of the pyramids above. 'rlu." vault is 16m. 10 cleep and the ])ie1 s of the entl ;mce an~h in the centre of the fa<;mde are. B m. tio high and snp Jmrt a radiating (Roman) al'c~h with a 1 ise of 1m. 68 and a span of 2 Ul. 40. ClaPys IWints out that. the bricks whieh now se1'vp as a


18 801-tth East 1 Ilace of the Seven Spires showing stupa,, The Seven Spz:res, Ohiengmai, showing the 1Jit behind the central py'ramid.

19 TilE SEVEN SPIRES 11 faeing to tltt at cll hilyi' t'\'l'll lh t ll mul!ldt d wt tlgv-~h:qh at ll!l auglt~ l't quin d to ol1tai11 an ill'l''ltl';ttc St llti-cit t h. lo Cuutp:u i11g lhu fn~~atll' at Ot d-~ ~~~l with that <d' the Jlahabodh i at Pagall, wt 11b~ervu tha.t tltt fot'llll'l' i:-: :O:lll'lllOlllltt t\. Jl~ (Wtl 8{/ij.i(t, Dill' :\t l'ih:h ('Ul'lH'l'; wih t c a~ at PngHn iltt t v al'l' [nnr, tli~trilntkd L'\'l'ttl,, :dung tht [ronlagl.'~td' lht lt.'t'l'ilt't' al1un ihl' Lu;adP. 'l'hil.- post l':' tht qlll'~tiun wlwtht 1. tin alh:ivm e at Ct d-~ <HI 11[ tht~ two t t nt.ra1.c::,t?t}jit ahovv tlw {'lltntuee to tlu va.uh Hlil,\' nui havu t1vpri\'f d UH ea~tvt'jt c ml of Uu vt rt it a I t ln n:-:t m. t. dt>t I. 0 l hl J wist>, iht:' damage~ to the c aht fat;adp llw~ pt~rhitp:- ilt.~ tluc~ tu 11Ht'~ mmt trieal ln ick-la~ ing ;uul <~m tdt t~k lll.tll'l:rl'i1tg ~ ot agai11 to ~tuav lin'w in the original pu:-i!:': of tht~ latl'l'ik hlotk:.-, t~uclj at' om i:.- tt'llllltt'll t11 llllltl l'l'::;jh lll-\.hh for thl rninon~ t owlit io11 of llu. L \\'U tlog;-;-h g :-;tainvays wldeh takt~ off fl'o.tll tht twrtlt and :-;m tt h wall:-;. of tlw van! t at a < liht:.mct of ;,.lll. 7 0 [l'olll the t ntran<:t~ :nul ~>lll!'l'g v fnun und.<. t: t.lw north-c ast awl sonth-c~ahl Jl~T:U ni ( l l't'hjh'('[ ivv I r Oll t (I the lljf)ll'l' tv l'l':tt'.u : th ui I' witl.th i:-i lnu c ly :-~ufli<:il-hl to adwit a hi).~; Jllall and. th<'~ t ravt>l'ht' tlu~ :-~o.lid ht.b l'il<.' \VallH whiull :t1'<'.'2m. 1~ ill dl plh l>etwt Pn lht wall ol.' tlte v;t.u.ll an.d t,jw < xlt l'itl'l' wnll. 'rlw vmdt. tnrminalt ;.: itt n Jmn~ wall witluml pt ndc ntivvh: ill fj onl ol' iltu wall jl'{ a l;u g<~ Bndt.lha ill di.ngy pa.l11.h tl ;qrp<tl'<.d, a :-~i.tn.i I at im:t.w r< Hts nu Uu gt'du1ul in ft mtl : lhlithcn. ;qi}h:'al' to pohl':ll'~h ally t laijh to HJl(~eial age or ihlpl'!lkt. WPKL or t]}( vault, it l't>tltletion Oll Lhu width of Lhc emu ft om llm. ~20 to l<~ks Umn () m. at the point ()f jnnclinu with thu nnt,urraet tl we~t.<>rn uxtenhion ih l'.fl't UL< d. by nlt au~ uf tln t. L l'l~uutt anth of lm. ~2;) nn b()th north and sonth Kides. At the~ jun.e:lim1 of the cer.u with thu \V<: slln n extt~nhioj.j, at it~ ilt thv cm.rtrv, i:; n pit 2 nt. 00 B<rnat t-. HWUU1 on the westurn extt crngy o:f the tm 1 aee a11tl the lah. rite \Valh; are in good alignrnent : they :.u u l1elieved to extend down tu llc'low.~l'<hllh1 J evel~ as at Pa,gan, wlll~l'e they ;tppear to havu served to drain l)tr the 1 ain-wa.ter fro1u the terrace. At the c:orue1 \vherc the western oxtemdon joins the south-west wall of the main 10. op. cit. pp v. appendix.

20 12 THE SEVEN SPIRES s1nine is n pile of earth and rubble extending up to a breaeh in the south \Vall of the pit at its 1nonth. 'rhe damage to the south wall of the pit was caused some B7 years ago by the fall of a Fig-tree which had grown up in the pit to a size which the authorities considered to be a. nwnace to the structure. Phra Promhsen re:memhers how, in his boyhood, the tree was removed under orders fl'on~ the Governor. Its uprooting was nndouhtedly the eanse of the abovenl8ntionecl damage to the south wall of the pit and has left itt~ mark in the pile of earth etc. up which it is possible to climb to the tm race al:l an njtcrnative route to the ruined stairways. The western extension consists of an unterraced vault 5 m.90 fron1 the entrance to the ixnage on a ledge at the end ( simihn to those in the east vault) which is known as Phra Thancai Wl'~vtuh ljecause it was made in a single day. The laterite areh rests oi1 piers 2m. 30 with a rise of l1n. 20 ancl a span of 1m. 60, on either side of which is a pilaster and beyonrl it a shallow re-entrant to the north and south sides o:f the external wall8 of the vault, which were faced with brick and decorated in the same way as the walls of the 1nain cedi. The external dimensions of the west extension, ti m. 50 in length and approx. 5 m. 80 in width, the height estimated about 5 m. - is not easy to 1neasnre owing to the rnin01.1s and over;. grown condition of t1he upper surface above the vault, which is 5 m. 90 in length, 2 Jll. 40 wide and am. 50 high, - inside measnrelllents. Although lacking in precision, these n1easurernents show walls of considerable solidity "\Yith corresponding thickness in the l'oof carried by then1 ; it may be questioned however whether this vaulted extension possesses the same rigidity as the central portion of the main shrine under the pyramids, a doubt which is reinforced by the flimsy appearance of the western end. beyond it is also in bad repair. 'rhe open platform One fe:::lture of the monunumt which deserves to be perpetuated for the benefit of posterity hy 1neans of plaster mould, if nothing better can be done, is the stucco ornamentation of the outer walls both of cedi and west extension. As stated above, the laterite walls were faced with brick and coated with plmster. A

21 Standing figures on North-East walll~.

22 Seated.figu'J e.s on North-East walls.

23 THE SEVEN SPIRES 13 lwri2iontal 1mm J d.ing clivi des <::~ach wall-face into an upper a111l a luwet pand. The l><.mel:-:; are Hepa1 atl'<l v<:: rtically hy bulging plaster pij asters wl.t.ich rest directly upon Hw latt l ite and arc eaeh a(lorned \Yith elaborate mouldings ronnel the base nncl capital. The centre of each panel ha8 been excavated sufficiently to contain a. brick filling which serveh to support. a human figure in high relief and richly clothed in the traditional style prescl'ibed for the type of angelic being known as thevad(t. ( Pa.1i: Devata ). Vestiges exist of at least 70 figures of \vhich 29 have either been dislodged or otherwise pel'ishecl Of the renutining 4:1 figures, those in the re-entrant stiancl 2 m. Ol' more high ; the ren1ainder are seated in the posture pa1 yanlcasana: the larger fignres nh'l:.tsnl e 1m. 25, the smaller ones lm. 05 fron1 knee to knee, measurements from crown tn toe heing 1 m.68 anrl 1 n1. 60 respectively. 'l'he sta.nding figure which Ohwy::; U.eseribed in detail stands 2 m. 45 high and is p;:trtieularly we11- pre::;m ved and suitable for perpetnati6n in the form of a plaster rnou]ding, which could. be preserved muong the artistic trea.snt'l.:ls of the n:1tiou. Claeys. con1pa.recl these :figu1 es with the stucco orna Jneutatiou of a mando p at Vat Tr tpang Tong at. Sukhothai. 11 The fiat huckgronncl of the panell:l in many cases. is engravecl with the outline of f-lowers :nul terh1rils, which enhance the lhe-like effect of the reliefs: shnih:tr decol'ittion is to be seen in the form of rnura.l frescoes in Pagan, the Ol igin of which will be discussed later. rl'lw dispaeity in ag e, observc:tblc in the trees and buildings gro1.1pcd <:Ltvuncl the cedi occurs also in the 1.Yiharn. It is possible that the <H'iginal.viharn was not built until t13 years after the cedi and replaced an e~:trlier Ha.ll erected by King rl'ilok to the south of the prebent building which itself is now being 'rebuilt, the perishable rnaterials employec1 being such that rehnilcling is necessary i.:tnd has probably been effected every century since 1518, the elate assigned by the Chronicle to the earliest vow rn on the plinth. l2 11. v. op. cit. p This 1nandop appears to bave been replaced now by a crude gilded pavilion. 12. v. TVCY. 10 (e) JKM 143 however appears to date both cedi and v-iha'i'n in the year 1476.

24 14 THE SEVEN SPIRES 1'ho 1mihling nnw lllhler l'l'pair is a poor o:xu.rnplo ot Llw u~md t.ypl'. At the west f wl.is a large Bud.dh L in plastel' in the attit1hle of samadln:, but a snuller brouze figure at its side in tho postnre of mr.u avijni 1leserves ~Ltteution 18 - Ohiengsen. style, fingers of the!'ight-ha.n<l mwqnal in length. rrhe bronze stand, 0 lll. 28 high, hnh a serrated upper rim. Another furnishing of clistinction is a. tall r! pulpit 1i'a'13J1~U, finely carved awl of slender proportions, tapering to a.finhtle eonsisting of four tiel'b of graceful, dove-cot ga.hles : the panels of the three upper tiers are atlol ned with gih k u.du. Tlwse two ohjects of distinction sel'vt' to recall the sumptuous fu1'nishings of four centuries ago when Vat Bodha,ram, as it wns then known, eontained the Saud.tl-wood image from Phayao, the pat?:mako1' Buddha from Oambo<lia. and a golden tjatimakor cast by King Mnaug Kvo even though they rnay not luwe i:tc.tua.lly been }Jbccd in the v-iharn.14 Befort \Vu examine the upper tenace, we mn.y note two holes in 'Llw ground, 2f'> ern. in <1iameter, near the narrow st.::thways of approach to the plinth. At first sight, tho modern frmnewm k u[ cement a1 omul the apertnre is sugge::;tivc of a drain; lmt thr:y are regarded loca.lly as an anchorage for the two ten1plc-poles, lung sine<:.~ vanished. 1x~ne;-t.th, The dimensions of the uppet ten ace col'respond with those viz n1. 08 from the pit at the west end to the pm ape t above the east fagade. The terrace is 8 m. 50 abovt~ gl'ounll-levu1. rrhe first object on the terrace, east of the pit-head, is the central pyrmnid, 4 m. 80 sq. at the base. At a distance of a metro f1 om each of the four corners stand the four satellite pyramid~, ~2 n1. 10 at the base, each provicled with an arched (corbelled ) entt ;;tnce to a l:lllht.ll vaulted chamber- that of the hvo western pyran1ids faceb east on to the entrance to a sin1ilar vaulted-chamber in the two eastern 13. sanwdhi - hands folded in lap, as in a trance. ma.ravi.icd - rt. hand on knee, as having attained victory over evil. 14. v. TVCY 10 (f), 11 (a), and para. 8 respectively. The latter how ever was placed in the 1.61JOsoth until its removal to Lampun.

25 lle ~ I ~ <> ~ c j-.,,'1-j --r I ~ ~ ~ l ~ ~ ~ 0 J ~ 0 I ~ I I ~or!~ L_j j ~ ~ 1----Dt'fr-~ 1~ ~ t---cu. g- c,;; ::u ;:._.,... ~ ~ C) 0 ~ ~ CQ "' ~.. 0 ~ ~ < ~ "' ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ IIJ CQ Cl. ~ ~ ~..., ~ c ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ;2 ~ ~? ~..,..,.;.. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ll ~ <1: ~ q;.... ~ '-.)


27 En.trance to cent ra.z Shrine at East end of platjorrm.


29 THE SEVEN SPIRES pyramids, that of the eastern FYl':uni<hJ. faeph WPst. 'fwo of these sma\ l vaults fm rn a ca,nopy over the steep, narrow, stairways on the nmtll :nul sonth sides of the vanltecl coni1lor below, which enwrge through the wwth ea:-rt. and south east pyramids respectively and faeel on to a minntp sluine in the COl'l'esponding arclwd vault of the north west an<l south west 1\Y'l.'am.ids. 'fhe base of the central 1)yramicl also contains a vaulted chamhe1', ~2m. 4li X :2m., inside the p~ 1 :unid, which is ente1 ed from. the east end by a vaulted corridor 4 m. RO long. 'l'he radiating arch at the entranc("' is set upon piers 1m. 7R high and has a rise of : the m.axi:j;;num heig ht is 2 lll. li;~ with a span of lm. GG. The pilast~~1 which guards the ent1 anep on thp nm th side i'i:l intact and sin1ila.1' to those on the wa11s llelow; hnt tlw c.m 1 esponr1ing vi1aste1 on the south side is missing and the wah hehinll it is in rninons condition - the :thsence of a1y~t this wonld seem <lne possibly tn compensating support., either at the side or above, the 1 oof of the> vault being unterracecl and the sirle-\vaus thin and not ovrn solid, being broken on both north and south sirles hy an open, metl'p-wide door-spacp, recta.ngnlat in form. rrlw vaulted charnber at the b~-tse of the central PYl'rtmi<1 is tlw SfHwt;nm and. women are requested by a notice (on the walls of th<~ lower co1 ridor) to abstain fron1. r>elh~t.rating to it. It. contaiw-:\ a large Buddha in plaster of similm. appe:trancp to those 1w1ow bnt, so it appe:u s, of grp;1te1 antir1nity - there are other signs of cnunbling. the 1 ight lumrl is hrokc n and Fl'mn the sanctum \Ve emergp on to an oppn platform (of thp same \Vidth as the vault.) \vhich extends fm~ 2m. 30 out. tmva.rd~ centrp of the lower te1 race - the' this t>::tstm n end l>eing somt>what lowpl' than the rest : it contains a.stn pa over each ba:y as well as the projecting p1atform. The hterite voussoirs of the stupa nve anange(l in a eirc1p, 72 m. GO in dian1et(n at the base, in 20 ro\vs one above the other, gradually clim.inishing in diarnetet rrs they asee.nd hellwlike to the square bas0 of the -plastered terminn1 shaft. rrhe 1ower end of this shaft rese--mbles a nmshroom, abrwe whieh five rings t~tppr to a cone at t.he summit. decoration of the two st1-t 'pa. 'l'hp shaft fnl'!ns the sole

30 i6 THE SEVEN SPIRES rrhe five pyramids however are all decol'at.ed in the snnie style, although thp thick stnceo coating has become detaehed in some places and left the late1 ite hloeks expoked : - stucco littel' the com:tyal cl. remains of the fallen The pattern is as follows :- each wall of :t pyramid is cuvided by two deep channels vertically int,() th1 ep npright sc~ctions which, as thc y ascend, diminish in accordance with the nahll'al taper of the pyr;uni<l. dividpd horizontally by twin fillets of fine leaves - rrhe vertical Sections H1'(' eight nn the Cl'ntral and five un the satelhte Jl"Yl':tlllids. ~'fhe result, is eighteen panels on each wall of the latte'r ;tnd twenty-sevl~n the Ct'\ntral pyrarnid. on each \vall of The central panels are clec(watc d with the lcurl-u oe India, singly m in pail s throughout; in the angle sections the kudu altprnates \Vit.h a design suggestive of three hnlhons, l'c'ctangnlar lozengpr, Side by side. hellier into a lmlbnns pot-pumpkin ornmnent; 15 rrhe shaft above the pyr:nnid the pinnaell\ (missing on the central pyramid), is a pile of r]ngs which diminish in <lianwtel' U}) to the finiale. The central pyramid, without tlti;:; pinnacle, stands K m. 50 above the terrace and 20m. 00 above= the p;1 omhl. Even with thp missing pinnacle and fi.n'iale added, the ]wight wonlcl have been only about one thhd of that of Cedi-Juang, tlw centra1 1nonnment of Ohiengmai. A nnmbpl' of sn bsidiary sites and ruins exist outside th.p Pxisting enclosnl'e in addition to the two sma11 shrines, alrpacly mentioned, that mark the traditional sites of AnimisacerU and the?'a.fayntana. The nnn1ber of scatt.pred bricks on the outer perimeter suggest that the whole site ( approx.. ~2.15 m. x 180) may have been enclosed with a,, all which took off frcnn the rni:ns of a gl'eat entmnee-gate, 1 6.Si m. 20 dne east of the entrance in the existing wall and on the f'ame axis as the viharn-cedi. The ruin consists of two massive pilp!-\ of brick wit.h tracps of stucco m na1nentation, bnt the connecting areh has vanished. 15. This object will be familiar to those acquainted with the decoration of the sikha'ra at Aihole. 16. This may be identical with the gate and wall orde:red by King Tilok when the original buildings were planned. v. TVCY para. 5.

31 p I. o e T 0.. ~ 4.501,.j.., ,8J.oc THI! T/1.01< ME:.MD/.!IAJ. VAT Ct:.l> " YDD Sc~u- /:/00


33 Cor belled ent1 ance to S hdne. Ru'l:n of East gateway to JJ'recincts.

34 ReUquary of King J.lfuang K es Klao zcumn the j)tecincts of the Seven 8 1n:1 es. The same.


36 The Seven Spi1 es, Ohiengmai, detail of the Tilok St'ltpa. Sonth-1Vest l~ace of the Seven Spires, showing central pit for Bo t'ree.

37 THE SEVEN SPIRES i7 The ta11 nwnnnwnt to King Tilok, west of the <lefile a,t the entrancr, \Vas hnilt hy his successor and gl mu]son, Pluu, Yod Chiengrai after King rri1ok's death in 14' The base of the cedi is 2B m. sq. - tlw style is a replica on a sma11 scale of the gtc>nt Cediluang completed by Ti1ok. The fine stu, pa was gilded hy the gtea.t~ grandson Pln a Mnn,ng Ken in lfllli. 18 On the east side of the ravine, overlooking thr 1'0:td, is n smu,ll octagonal pavilion of brick and p1as ter, 11ow in ruins, which is saicl to have served to support King Tilok\,; fnneral 1:t1 n hef<we the Cl'C'mation ; a short distance to the east is the actual C1'E'nmtinn gronnd on which King Pln n, Mnang Keo built the ~tzw8oth (bot;) in 1510 which 1neasnrecl HSm. x Hi.m. cnmpal'ed with tho small existing bot ll:m.x7.19 Some bricks in the ground l)et\veen the outer and :in1wr ga.tef-\ arc said t0 nmrk the site of t.he Lihrn.ry for the SeriptlU' :ls - ho montien- lmi1t originally hy King rrilok in 1477 and rplrnilt hy King Mnang Keo in rrhe nilcrodh (ficus lwngalensi.s) under which t1w Buddha rested. llc'ar the goat-herd's hut - one of the tnulitional sevon sites conunemorat.ing the Enlightonment known as ajctphla~n,1:g1"0dha - is locatecl hy the nwnk~ in the smne a1 ea, 1wnr the Lilw:n y, dpspit.e the stn:temcmt in t.lu! rremple Cluoniele that it was to 1w eommc n:wrnkd in the north west C0l'ner. 21 The rre1nple r:rank M uvalind to the east of the sluine is ~~till to ho seen in the same area of the shl'ine, slightly n<;n th for a, line drawn between the ruined. outer gate and the enh :mce to t,lw moclm n enclosed courtyard and on its bank are still to he sh~n tlw ma:i cot: bush associated with the t1 aclitiona1 sit<: v. TVCY v. TVCY 10 (c) 19. v. TVCY 8 and JKM v. TVCY 8 and 10 (c) 21. v. TVCY v. TVCY 5.? 'lwk I.'!UC is ''Barrintonia acutangulrt'\

38 is THE SEVEN SPtRES Lastly, at <t <listance of 150 metres to t1w surtth of the modern enclosure wa11 is a ruined l'ectangnlar brick lmilding, ± m. X ;)m. BO standing HomE' :2Q- m. hi.gh with a tlat roof ( 1lPsign nnknuwn) which is over:sn own by a fig tree which is grarlnally causing th.p bricks to disintegntte. Th l're walls arc of brick 1vithont rlo(\l' m \Vin<low, but the fourth, facing east, is completely open, in the fonn of u \Virle-spannecl radiating arch with a risp of 1m.. 2{) above the piers on Pither side 1m. 90 in height and 0 m. 70 square. 'fhp thj'l'l' solid walls have less depth and no bnttresses of any srwt ; eons~ ttnently the Bnrvival of the Hat-roofed structure for fmll' centuries is a Jnatte1 Ln surprise, if the popnh11 notion is correct that it was huilt hy King Kes Klao as a l'eliqu:wy fm his ashes, ( d. 1Gi33 ). The flool' is hare earth. Jt, crowns a low kno11 - with i:t pool helow. The soil to the east. is very swaintrr :Em scn.no (liktancc in the tlil'ection of the Temple Tank, M'ttcal ind which, at OJl<' may posrihl~' hayp PXt<"nd~:"d in this 1lirection. period

39 THE SEVEN SPIRES 19 PART II Development o Buddhist Architect1.1re in Northern Siam 'l'hl' origin of the 11\llllerous architectnl'cd ;m<l <trtistie :Ceatnres of Vat Ced-yr>d nn1st be sought i.n a survey of the development of Buddhist art fl'o!ll the earliest beginnings in India.. eent saying of Ooedes. : 23 rro quote a re ''Buddhism appeal's tu have ope11etl the way "for the diffnl':lion of Indian culture; the statues of Buddha ( Amanwati style) discovered at Pong Ttik and. Khora.t in Siam; at Dong DUong in Annam; at Pnle:mbang in Sumatra; in Java and Borneo, are an lanclmm ks that atte::;t the lhnits reached by Hilu1u l~xpausion in its beginning... they preceded th.e 'nstitution nf offiuial Oiva, worship with its cult of the royal lingwm. As for Vishnu worship, it did not make its np before the 5th century.'' pl~arance Among the illustrations in Dr. Otto Fischer\; book (to which J'ufL'l'unce ha::; aheady been mad.e) is a reproduction of one of the ear1iest kn<rwn Buddhist bnildings, Asoka\1 stnprx at Sanc.i iu N. India ~1fter its restoration in the first eer~tm y B.C., by which time it had hpen S1U'l'onnded by other strnetures?4 Among the surviving T( rnains are the carved stone gates and htlnstrade below the mound and, npon its smnmit, the stone chamber for relics which, with the mound, is without donht the fol'ol'uflllel' of the bell-shaped stu pa. of Ceylon- l'eplicati can he seeu at Vat Mahadha:tn, &a.jjanalai (Svankalok ). There are hut few builclings in tht open '\Vhich have \':\nrvived exposure to the eleme1rts as have those a.t Sanci: '\Ve are therpfore fol.'tunatl' that there still exist in India rock-templt: caitya excavated in rocky hill-sides which have survived intact. ancl may be assumed to represent the type of Bnclclhist temple h1 vogue two thousand years ago in India. J:i'ischer '\Vl'Ote o:e them: v. Coedes. H~istoi re (('J'tCienne des etats hindm..tises JJP Fischer, op. cit. pp. 22, idem p, 23.

40 20 THE SEVEN SPIRES "rl'he cailun of Bhaja and Bed sa, both. around. 17;> B.C.; those of Kond::ull and Ajanta (eave 10) of :2nd eentnry; ilhh:!l' of Nasik and. Mmnnoda, 1st century m. e a11 of similar type, a series of plain octagonal pillars (without c~ither base or capital) support the barrel-like vault and continue in a semicircle behind the stupa,, leaning slightly inwards. At Karli, aroun(l 80 B,C., these pillars are snperse(led by octagonal columns wiu1 strongly bulging base, bell-shaped capital..... the abacus projecting above them with huge sculptured elephants and their riders... In all these Halls, thr. entrance fa9ade is much nwre richly decorated than the. interior from which it is somet.imes.. separated by a vestibule... rieh in st.rnctnral as well as <lecorative designs... more particularly in the motif of t,he horseshoe arch above the entrance and t.he enormous " ::~tm-windows" whieh are often placed in the upper windows as well, in rows, in the upper stm ies.'' Fischer proceeds "Several stone buildings afford proof that the ful'l.u of Uw cwityn was freqt1ently reproduced in free-standing temple:.; - in particular, a Durga temple at Aihole in the Deccan ( H th cent.ury ), surrounded with a pillared colonnade. Fnrthcl'Inore, rectangular ten1ples exist in. which the statue of the cleitty stood close to the back \vall, often in a niehe, - with the additimi ". of an open vestibule. As a rule they are heavy, rnj,her unwieldy buildings, constructed out. of large blocks of hewn stone, with fiat or slightly sloping roofs tmd are but sparsely ornamentt.\cl with reliefs... Just as the vestibules pre:~ :f-igure a later developn1ent, so also some of the temples at Aihole already earry small towers in stone above the sanctuary, several stories high... Evidence that such pyramid-like to\vers, n1.any tiers high, were already in existence at an earjier date comes down to us from the Kusana period. in the forn1 o:e the famons thirteen~towcred wooden tower which Kaniska erected at Peshawar npon a fi ve-tierecl plint.h -.a to\ve1 attaining a height of almost 195. m. T~1e. original J.l!I ahabodhi ( Budclhagaya ) must have been of n. similar type \V hen first


42 Bodhgaya before?~estor tttion 1'n 1880.


44 Bodhgaya ajte!' 1880.

45 THE SEVEN SPIRES 21 built, p()~sibly in the 2nd l\eutnry B.O. o1 at the buginning of the Gnpta pedn(l, on the spot befon t.hf. sacred. Fig~tree where thl Bnddha received enlightenment. Even at that early period it appeare!'l, wo may suppose, rnuch the same as after the renovation in 1105 and a steep pyramid of nine stories~ the vroportions diminishing as it ascends ; the walls decol'ated in regnlar sequence with pilasters, cornices, bli~1d-arches and blinll horseshoe-windo\vs; the crown, a gigantic finiale whieh suppm ts the slender spire of a stzt pa... in fact, the wooden tmnple-towers transformed into stone." 26 H is clear tha,t this extract introduces the most essential features of Vat Oed-yod - the pyramids, the stn pa, the sacred image againgt the hack wall, the ch cular holes in the sides of the pyramid and in tht Ktairwa-s' vault. The sun-windows, the horseshoe arch ( irnitatetl in the radiating arch), if not also the V(~stibule indicated hy t.lw platform on the terrace ( 6 m. cleep from the parapet of the to the step of. tio n:1. up to the level of tlw rest of the terrace) fu~mc1e decorated with the two st~tpa. at Nm th-enst mul South-East end. All these featu.res were already features of Buddhist architeetnre in India before the firsti In.dian colonists began to emigrate into the val'iom~ overseas territories of South-East Asia. '\ e must, now examine the mahabodhi at Gay a in greater detail since it served the Bunnans: who repaired it in 1105, as a rnodel :fm their own mahabodh1: in Pagan (built in 1215, if not half tt century earlier) - a model which we shall see was reproduced at Ohiengmai later on in Vat Cecl~yod. The aeconrrt evhich follows is extracted from Ch. B of the Gaz etteer of the Gaya D-istrn;ct by L.S.S. O'l\1nlley 1 190ti, sup~plernented by the notes furnished in April by Mr. K.R. Srinivasar, Snpol'intend.ant of 'the Depart~ rnent of Archeology, Patna. 26. Fischer, op. cit. pp. 34, 35. Apparently by a slip, Fisc~e:r's t~xt includes the date of the latest renovation, 1880, with those of 1105 and His note on p. 174 however expressly states that the final renovation in 1880 introduced alterations which gave the tower a completely different appearance and that the photo on p. 174 was taken prio'l' to that date.

46 22 THE SEVEN SPIRES 'l'he mahabodh i of Bncl.dhagaya con:::~i8ted of a :main tower, lho ft. high, in the form of a slender pyramid of nine stol'ies - thl' cornur angles of eaeh story (1ecoraJed vvith an amnlaka.. 'I.'he tcnver spring8 from a sqmu e platform, at the four corners of which are 8imilar, hut smaller, towers - each tower surmounted by a bulbous, fluted lowe1.member which support::; the fii1iale. The porch on the east side is a late all<lition. As Hnien 'rsnng descl'ibecl the shrine in the seventh century, it was built of bluish brick with a facing of plaster: the walls \Ve1 o covered with figures in relief. 'fhe sacred Fig-tl (;w, imme<1iately west of the nwnml.hmt,.is known to have been cut down at least tjll'ee times bef;>n~\ t100 A.D. when a new tree was planted and surrounded -by a wall 25 ft. high. This is understood. to rnean that the original ground site for the true 'vas abandoned and that the new tree was planted on a tenace, built 30ft. above ground-level and enclosing the lower registel's of the pyramid, supporting the fom. smaller towers at each corner. rfhis is presu:rnably as Hnien 'fsnng saw it in the seventh centm y and, in fact~ t.he tree blown down during a storm in 187(:) was growing on the terrace ; but the terrace in his tixne was probably lower. In 1861 traces were disccl'\rere(l of a succession of platforms underneath the high terrace. In 1880 General Cnnningluun, who 8npervised the restora;cion, found t,wo large remnants of an ancient tree which he regarded as remnants of the tree cut down in the r seventh century. The remnants were directly underneath the present position of the sandstone slab, Vu}?"asana, which, it seems evident, was 1 aised to its present position when the tree was planted on the terrace, circa 600. In addition to the Vajrasana, 01' Diamond rrh.rone, \Vh:leh, as the first name indicates, pnssesse<l strength to resist a thundc~rhult, there is a eircular blue stone with white veins, the r:mrface seoeed with coneentric circles, believed to bo Hnien 'l 1 sung's Bluestone, which he saw outside the Assen1bly HalL

47 the SEVEN SPIRES North of the UlOnumPnt the Gt>neral also discovered 2.'2 h uneat.p{l uulurnns, sorne i~ ft. high, eaeh nun ked with a letter of Asoka\; alphahf't- 1 ernains of the Je"\velle<l Cloister un the spot where Bn<ldha walkl'd fo1 seven days aftel' his EnJightl~nrnent. ( M ahnsrnnbodhi ) uhtle1 tlw sacred tree bodh'i. Tlw restoration in 1880 was cal'l'iecl out in accnrclanep with a snudl stone 1nodel of the te:mple as it was in melhaeval timps. In shm t, p1 e-goo, the1 e was a Ing-t1 ee gr<rwing on tlw grnnncl just w<:~st of the pyrami<l: the tenace was built with the ohject of 1H'Otecting the tree from deseeration. rrhus, the SO-called d1 ainagp pit inunetliately west of the nutin pyramid at Cecl-yorl ancl ::tt tlw 111 ahabodhi in Pagan woul<l appear to re1n esenl a pit fm th.p sac1 c <l tig-tree and constitutes yet another cornrnon feature lh tween thosp two Hheines and the parent shrine a.t. Gaya. rrlu~ Mon of South Burrna and West Siam who were Bndflhists as early probably as the sixth eentnry looked to Gaya fm the motlel nf their temples and built pyrarnids until, with the spread uf Islam in hulia, Ceylon tended to become the centre for the (!iffusion of Buddhist influence in south-east Asia and the bell-stu pa of Kan<ly replaee>rl the pyrninitl of Gaya as the architectural syxnbnl of tlw Faith. This C.OlTesponded with the 1 isc of the Hinaynna an(l eclipse of the Mahayana in that area.. In Burma, fragment!-\ of the Pali canon have been founcl on thp pl e-b'tun1ese site of Pronw an<l (la,t,p from about the sixth century. 27 rl'his shows that the :infl.nence of Ceylon was all'etuly active, even at that early date': :indeed, as early as the 5th century the Ceylonese. saint., Bucldhnghosa., is reputed have died at Thaton. 28 Fnrthet east, in thl' lower part of Siam (then knfnvn as Dvaravati ), Buclclb.ist sites havp heen discovered at Phong rri.ik and Phra Fathom which elate from the seventh eentnry; and Lvo (:modern Lophul'i) at. the same period sent a Mon. Princess, Ca;madevi, who carried Mon civilization nncl Bnddhis:m to Haripunjaya ( lllo<le1 n Laurpnn) then inhahiter1 by their uncultured kinsmen, the Lwa. The dynasty she estahlishe<l 27. V. Coedes. HistoiTe ancienne... op. cit. p V: Coedes. Documents op. cit. p, 18 seq.

48 24 THE SEVEN SPIRES in the North was still ruling at the time when Lvo was overrun by Suryava1 nuul I in tlw :midclle of the 11th century and hecam.e a western bastion of tho Oambod.ian empire for the next th l'l'e hundt ecl years.29 Haripnn:jaya however resisted attacks both from the Kluner, and also fl'<nn Anurndclha on the West, whe1 e he was busy extending his newly won king<lmn of Pagan. Having COll<lU('l'ed the Mon of Thaton and Pegn, Annrudclha invited then1, as gnn<l Bnddhists, to help him eradicate heresy in Pagan, so as to unite But ma in a singly Hinayanist community. The success of his policy resulted in pilgrimages of Bm mese monks to Ceylon who bl'onght back "\vith them a kncrwledgc' nf both doctrine and an~hit.ecture, as practised in Oeylon. The full fruit of Anuruddha's policy was SElen during the reign of his snccc ssot, Kyanzit.ha (108fi-1112 app1 ox.) who ccnnpleted two te1nples founded ljy his father - the Ananda. and the Shwezigou. He was also responsible fm effecting the first. restoration hy the Bnr1neso at Bucldhagaya. 30 rrhis Hinayanist 1 enaissar.we ih des~ cribed by Fischer as follows :- "Front 1050 onwards, fo1 more than t\vn ef nturies, Pagan. was a focm' of g1 oat activity, innume1 able 'tmnples ancl monnn1ents to the Buddhist religion being built... For the most part they were tiered pyramids on a square hase, each, whether temple or stupa, crowned with a lofty fll>irc~ l)ore witness to the Faith and invoked a Blessing. which ginals 1vonld appear to have heen sought ont ancl the strne'hunj plans to h~ve been copied in eve1 y place within the urbit of Buddhist enltnre. Dagobas from Ceylon side hy side with the Jnahabodh1: tower from Bndclhagayrt, set higb upon an enor~ 1nons cubic piinth." "Tlw original in India 1va.s itself repaired hy kings of Burma twict within t"\vo cc n'lnries. One of the largest of t.hese constructions ancl the xnost remarkable is the Anandn tpmr>le 29. V. Coed~s, Docwment.c; : op. cit. p. 18 seq. 30. v. Coedes,. Histoi? e... op. cit. p. 200~203.

49 the SEVEN SPIRES 25 ( ), built on much the sa:me general lines as the temples in Cambodia, with the exception that, at thf~ Ananda, no walls of enclosure, no courtyards, no galleries exist, but just a cubelike block and, above, a succession of sloping roofs which soar upwards towards the silchctra in the centre - its slen(lej stu.pa-spire serving to unite and draw up all the roofs towards it. Four great vaulted corridors with pointed arches p1 o:ject some ways beyond the main block ancl intersect cmsswise at its axis. Outside, the continuity of the hm iz(mtal 1'oof-linP is hroken by high gable-spires ; that of the roof-diagonals hy stnpa-tnl'l'ets nwunted upon them." 31 This spate of temple-building only died out completely when the Mongols occnpied Pagan in It is thought however that 121!'>, thp date assigned for the mahabodhi by the late authority of the Glass-Palace Chronicle, might well be ante-da,ted at l0ast ha1fa-centnry to a period when creative activity "\VaS greater. In any case, the i(lea of giving the cedi a solid cubic base, similar to the tenaced base of the Gaya pyramid, undoubtedly ca:me to Pagan tln'o'ngh the agency of the Burmans (who J'estorec1 it in 1105) and made it.s appearance there in the mahabodln: of Pagan during that century : two centuries later it was brought to Lampun, as will be shown later. Similarly, the hlilhl vault and vaultpd C<Wt'irlor, a reflection of the early rock-temples, found its way to Pag an and reappearerl there at the mahabodhi and rl'hat-byin-nya, etc. The mu1 al frescoes, another feature of the Paga.n temples, deservr consideration in connection with the ornamentation of the exterior mural panels at Oecl-yod. Fischer's description is as follow: 32 " In a nu.mber of te1nples at Pagan... :mural frescoes are found dating from the 11 th to the 13th century : they represent a style which perhaps was chm acteristic also of the oldest Thibetan painting and probably had some connection with the school of N alanda.... The backgrounds res~c"mble 31. Fischer, op. cit. p Fischer, op, cit. p. 59. a

50 26 THE SEVEN SPIRES carpet woven with conventional patterns of trees and creeperten<h ils, \Vh ile t.lw figures in the fort>groun<l sepm to lw moving... theil' l'mpple a1hl gtaeeful beul'ing points to an Indian lacing with the richly <leczn'ate<l fip;urps, gives an air of capl'ict> to tlwil' movements. Details such as tlw pointed noses, tlh curved lines of the ]ips, eyelirls awl c yebrows... depicte<l in iv± p1 nfile, serve to connect this style of painting, both with the past - as we see them depicted in the C(::iling frescoes of the Kailasa ternplc' at ~Jlnra (8th century)... an<1 with tlw rn ese11t... as we g( c them dr:~picte<l in the st~']p, still p1 aetise<l, of drawing in Bnnna, Siam,,J<wa and Bali.'' 'rhus Pagan, nntil its <1ownfnll in 1297, becamp a focus fm origin... The play of the tl'n<1i ils on th( backgtound, inter Hinayanist Buclrlhism in Burma (including wester n Dval'avati - annexe<l by Burma). It will be recallerl that when Bm nu1 occnpip<l W(~stern Dvaravat.i (P.:gn, rrha.ton etc.) all<l the Khmer at the> same time: took easte1 n Dvaravati (Lvo), the northe1 n Mon lan<ls of Huripunjaya antl Khelanga (Lampnn awl Lampang) retainc cl their ill<lependence until the end of thp thirteenth century. We read hmvevpr of frequent elashes between the northern Mon and the Klune1 33 of Lvo whose unsuccessful atte:.mpts to capture Harirmnjaya were commemorater1 by the pyramid of Vat KuJcnt, ereeted by Adityaraj, the sncepssful Mon ciuun]1ion, 011 the western outskirts of Hal'ipunjaya and restored by his successor, Sahhti/lhisiddhi in Vat Knkut is the earliest Bn<lclhist monument, so far as we know, still ~xtant in northern Siam. Claeys has pointed out certain affinities in the decoration of Vat Knknt an<l the p,r(1.sctda of Polonnarua in Ceylon which he traces to the influence of the Mon pilgrims who visited Ceylon. 35 The Mon. influence at Pagan, active in the eleventh and twelfth centnri 2S, gave place to nat.ive Burmese artistry which - as we have seen - was still in process of being formed by external influences and, so far as we know, had no direct 33. V. CDV (256) seq. Coedes~ Documents... op. cit. p V. CDV (256) seq. Coedes, Domtments... op. cit. pp. 22, V. Claeys, op. cit. p. 435.

51 THE SEVEN SPIRES 27 contacts with tlw :Mun uf northu1 n Siam, whobe furm of artistic expres~inn l'pnwinecl the sauw slender bl'ick Lower, whether pyra~nicl 01' oetagun, uf thei.l' ances tm s. rrhe graceful brick pyra.rnid in a cm nc~r of tlu tc mple cnclosn1 e a.t Vat Mahatlhatn, La.n1pun, is saic l to be a replica of one bnijt in 1063 a::! a shrine fen the fmnons relic which g ives its na.nw to the te1nple. 36 It was enlarged by King Sabhallhisidclhi and, two centuries aml more later ( 14 17) was enclosc cl within the existing stt,tpa (one of the finest exan1ple::; of tlw hel1-stupa in the ccmntt y) by King Tilok and the Thera., Mellha.nlmra, Llnl'ing the great Buddhist, renaissance in the North. This will be notecl later iu due course : sntficc it to mention here that the :fin;t monument so fal' a.s we kncrw built hy the rrhai on the Pagan pattern of a solid cnbic base for the tmve1 was the Phrayi.ln tornplc, also in Lmnpun, which the rrhera Snnuma constructed on the Pagan vlan, after residence in Bnrrna. This was in 1369, some two centuries aftet the l'emaissance periotl in Pagan, the fruit of which was kept hack from contact with Siam until then hy two circnmt~tunccs - the sirnnltaneons destruction of the Pagan dynasty l)y the Mongols ~mel of the Haripnnjaya. Kingdom of the Mon by the Thai at thu oncl of the thirteenth centu1y. The c1isorganization which ncuoxnpa.nietl these event!::\ in northern Siam and the religions rovival in Siam will be examine<l in Part III of this study, together with tlw expansion of Ncn thern Si;im undc r a series of benevolent Thai kings who left their people a tra<litinn of Bu<ldhist faith and practice which has survived to this day in the care given to rnaintailling some of the great sanctuaries they lrnilt. 36. JKM 115 and Claeys, op. cit. p. 434.

52 28 THE SEVEN SPIRES PART III The Thai Period in Northern Siam XIV~ XVI century The rrhai poriocl opens in the <listrict known as Yonarathct on thu Mukok river at a <listance of some.250 kilometres north-east of La.mpnn. The 'rluti fron1 south Ynnnan beyond Ohiengrung were continuing their southward expansion during the li3 th century when, in 1267, a grandson of the former chieftain of Ohiengrung, thu 23 years-olcl.:.'j!lengrai, founded a. city near the junction of the Mula.o with the Mekok, calling it Ohiengrai after hin1self. A quarter of a century later, the same man was destined t,o establish the Thai kingdmn of Lannathai with a new capital a few rniles north of Lmnpnn fl'mn which he had expelled the last Mon king, Yiba. Mengrai began by extending his hold over the various northern principalities : in 1269 he captured Chiengkong on the Mekong at the mouth of the rivet Meing which waters the rich Phayao plain: in 1273 he co:mpletecl his hold ove1 Yonaratha by founding a town in the north-west corner at Fang, less than ~200 km. due north of Lmnpun: in 1274 he swung south-east and captured Nan. Having thus consolidated his position he was able, twelve years later, to rnake a pact on equal tern1s with Ngam JY.[uang, Thai chief of Pha.yao, an<l with Ramkhamheng 'rhai king of Sukhoclaya, He thereby covered hirnself against the possibility of attact from eithe1 north or south while engaged in removing all tr ace of the old Mon kingdom. With this in view, h~ first prepared the ground by means of the fifthcolumn activities of his agent, Fu, in the Mon capital ~ in 1292 he attacked with his army, fired the city and expelled King Yiba who fled south, leaving nothing to survive him but his name which is still associated with the hill frorn which he looked back, as he fled, to see his city in fla1nes (Dot: Ba ). 37 A few years earlier Mengrai appears to have approached within a few rniles of the Mon stronghold when he occupied the Nonghoi-Saraphi area and founded the 37. v. JKM

53 THE SEVEN SPIRES 29 abol'livl~ cit~r of Knmkam 38 which, howevet, wah not to l>eeome tlw new Thai capital n.ny more than was Ln.mpun; this, as its muno ChiL'ugmai implies, was a new city. Chiengmni was founded in 129ti, a :-:;ho1 t dh;tance east of Ucchupn.bbata the so-called ''Sugarcane, mountain now kno,vn as Snthop after the hermit Vasudeva who foun1letl the' Mon capital six centuries before the new Thai city canw into existence. 39 In li301, the Thai city of Lmnp<tng was built on l>oth hanks o:t: the :Mcwang rivm replacing the Mon town Klwlanga on the west bank. 40 In 130B, Kmnldim was given the title of ''city" (na1chon) together with a ced'i with contained GO gilded statues - Cedi-silinm. 41 probably the embryo of the recently renova.tetl pyrmnid Mengt ai is said to have both built and lived in Va.t Chiungrnan : the present cedi is a. stn pa. the base of which is!::\111' l'ounclolt by a row (on each face) of life-size elephants - fot e-legs - head and in high relief, resembling the chang-lam models of the samu purio1l, extant, a,t Snkhollha.yn; this stuzja is of uncertain date, but it is I>l'olmhly of tho fcnu tel\nth century, tho stu,pct of Ceylon then taking tlw place held in Mon tinws by the pyramid. In 1325, a eity was lmilt at the confluence 'rc the rivet Mokok with tho Mekong; the foundation of Ohiengsen followed in li327 and in li331 of Va,t Pht u-luang (Klang vieng) in the centre of the city. In Chieng- mni, VaL Phea Singh was founded in the middle of the century and Vat Sunn-<lok in the third tluhrtor. The first half of the century was uccnpiod with the farnily fends which threatened to wreck the dynasty after Mengrai's death in 1a11. His succes~or only reigned fol' a few nwnths a.nd then returned to Chiengrai, his former hmne. His son, (Mengrai's grandson) Senttpu, was thus left to face the rivalry of an uncle, two conf::lins and a younger brother who in turn 38. v. JKM 120 also Coedes, op. cit. Docwnwnts p. 90 and p. 106 note (5}. 39. JKM 104 and Coedes, op. cit. Doclbments p. 73 (4}. " 40. JKM 119,,,, p. 90., (3). 41. JKM " 120,,, p. 90 (5). " "

54 30 THE SEVEN SPII\ ES ll:-\lll'pl'd I lit-\ l J l.l't)]}l' l<ll'. K I lll!'l IH'I'ttH:.; I ( I lii'jllg. I 11:4. l't'l!.!llll t' '._tl 1 '' ~'t :IJ':-., 42 Hit> :.;t~n'n J'eig-n of two yvai':-\ l'll1!1'd with lti~ dt ath in I :titi wlw11 tlw fifth nu ml>l'i' Df t1h d~ nast~. PlwyH (l:{;~ti-1:~;>;>), lwgal! tlw tir :-t 111' :t. : Wries of I>C'lH.. die<'ut t eig lls which fil Hll.\ t'«~ll:-'<didatvd t l11 forltnu :-: nf 1\Icngt ai\; family as rnll'l'::\ tlf J.~unnatlwi, gi\'illg Oltii JJgmai a wall a,ntl a moat. Anothet eit enmstant.t, UlW<>llllvt:tL~d wil h the dhot gani:-:at iutt oj: tho country afte1 l\1vngt ai~s dc ath, which may pn;;:-;j},j~ havt l'pt.m dc<l religious devolopmt ut was the lllh.lvj iaint~ fvlt hy til( mouks concel'lling tlw validity of thl'it 01'< llnatiuns iu t IH ah:-:vm ~ of an~ direet ot indirc ct anthu1 lty from Ceylon. Ki11g Kllna (l.:)t>;>-l:)x;,) was aware of the importmtct\ of this tfllcl:\tion and :-:a w t lu wa~ to solving it by the s~t.llll' ml tlwd as had. lwc~u adoptt d by Dhal!uHaraj. King uf Snklwdaya. Dharumnr aj, oll ll anlin.l; that :t Bnruw:-\v uwnk, Utlnrnlntt a had hl'ull tu Cc~yloll awl bad ;l(.tmtll,\ landt d at 1fm tu.lnm on tht l'td.nt n jolu'lll'y, appli.t tl lt> UdutnbarH [ot till' livt vicoh of a lll<lllk m tlaitwd dit c elly l>y him witl1 Lht aulllt>l'it.y Udlllll- 1Hti'H had ohtained ilt Ceylon. Thu 1n,ttt\l' uomplkd l>y ot'<lainiu.v. and Hc nding to Snldt<H laya t.hv 'l'hai JHonk Sttm:ma who hapjh'lt d to bu HLu<lyiug at tlw tim< in Htu ma. King Killla tll< t'pf()t'l' applif'd t.o Udmnlmi n ajt:h.> ~ hnt tlw nwnk, Anantla, wllthll Udnmlmra t-\plll t,o Chiegmai, pt oved uncc rt.~till <~J ltik qnalifiealious and KHgg I'Hlt d that Kfl..na apply Lo Dllmnmaraj fo1 Suman:t hiuuwlf tt~ eunw 1Jfl Jwrth. 43 'l'ho atrpliealion wah Hueec HH[nl awl Snmana lprt Huklln (laya. for Lhe north In li50~} and took up l'ohidt. Jwu in Lamplltl, bringing with k:iln a rl lic whieh he lwd fonwl lntl'iud in Llw Koil. Smnana not only Hl'i all mindh tu t'l~ht. l'eg:u d\ng tlu validity!lr hi~' 42. JKM 121~2 and Coecles, op. cit..!jocmnents p. 94 note (S). The Chronology is that of JKM which differs freqllently from P.Y. (e.g. Mengrai's death 1317 instead of 1311) P.Y. reckons each usurpation by his kinsmen as a separate reign. 43. JKM 123 & 125, also P.Y. p, 191 quoted by Coedes, Docn1Jwnts p. 95 note (6) which gives 1331 as the date of Udumbara's arrival in Ceylon.

55 IVnt Phrayi{.n. Lampnn.

56 j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j j

57 THE SEVEN SPiRES 31 Orders, but earned the respect of posterity as the temple-builder who gave Vat Flll'a YUn to Laxnpnn and intwhlnced n 1ww featm e into the templ(' n1 chitectnrp of tlw North. VAT PHRA YiJ N 'rhe new principle emhorlit><l in the cedi is none other than the high, massive block we have aheatly seen at Vat Ce<l-yotl where it caj l'ier both pyramids and bell-stu pa on thp terrace ; here tlw h'l'l'tteo is occupied by a single~ st upa, small in proportion to the cyclopean plinth on which it is set. Each facp of this Pnm mous block of laterite awl hrick is proyide<l with n steep flight of steps up to a giant figure of the stanrling Buddha in a blind vault. momunent is in excellent cmhlitinn.:tt the present time. The whole In the courtyard is an inscription Pngraved on a stele of red sandstone 0 m. 9r> high x 0 m. 55 wide whieh begins with a eulogy of King KUna in Pnli then in 'rha.i dpserihes how Sunuma came to resicle at Lampun, the great \Velcome accm <1ed to him and then his cnlln.b<wa~ tion with the king in hnilding the :monument to enclose his rdic (to which miraculous powers nl'e attribntpd). Characteristically, no mention is made of the design ; the whole interest cent1 es upon the fmll' il.gures of thp stan(ling Bmldha which were evidently suggested by scnne model Sumana luul seen dspwherp, to jmlg<:' from M1e only impm t,ant cm ruption in the text, whieh reads:- "Soon after his arrival the Mahathera pondered over with the irnage of Buddha standing nprif,>w.lt. on the last wall.... which era.ftsmen in for.me1 days had constructer1.... " rrhese words undonbtedly refer to some monument seen by Sumana during his visit to Pagan for study prior to his ordination by U dnmbara. The inscription (loes howevpr refer to the late1 ite nse<l in the construction : v. Coedes, Documents... op. cit. pp for the inscription and translation.

58 32 the SEVEN SPIRES " The Mahathera gave notice to the laity of both sexes, wellto-do- people and to all the \vell-informecl, that they were to search for laterite and fashion it.'' Later, we shall find the same laterite at Vat Cedi-lnang and, in still greater quantities, at Vat Oed-yod; \Ve shall also find the same heavy rectangular base, the same radiating arches an(l hlinrl vaults and - in the case of Vat Ced-yod- vaulted corridors which penetratc> deep into the heart of the structure. The fact that these featm'l's are found in the three temples mentioned, - all built within little more than a century after Sumana's arrival, - points to a common source of inspiration which, it is suggested, may have come from the n1ernol'ies and, possibly horn the plans, which Sumana may have brought hack \Vith him from Pagan. The That-byin-nyo 45 and the l\fahnbodhi telltples at Pagan are particularly indicated. rrhe l'ecords leave us in no doubt that the sacred object which a shrine was built to contain provided the builders with Jnm e interest than the form which the shrine was to take ~ and seconfl to this came the decoration of the stt-tpa with gold-leaf ; hut details of the Rtructnral design are seldom mentioned. We see it again in Phya Pra:jakit's hrief mention of the templc-> on Snthep heing built in 1386 to house the (lnplicate of Snmana's 1 elic which was prc->served on the mountain ten yem s after Sumann had transferred the original to Vat Suan-dok ('Pile Pnppharama) when he n1crved his qua1 ters there from Lampun; Rata,napan/iia tells ns nothing about the shrine on the mountain and merely notes that the Pnpphii.rama was built on tl~ site of a ros al garden donated by King Kiina. SimUal'ly, he tells us nothing about the crypt built at Vat Phra Singh for the reception of the treasured "Ceylon Buddha" ( Ph?Yf, sa~ing) clnrlng the reign of the SE''Venth member of Mengrai's line, Sen Muang M a ( 1B85-140l), but devotes six whole pages to the peregrinations of th0 Racred image and to the jealousies it occasioned anwng the princes of Siam, nearly leading to war between North and South as well as between Chiengmai and Ohiengrai v. Jmt1 nal B~t?.?Tta Research Socy plates 6 & JKM 127~132.

59 ..


61 the SEVEN SPIRES S3 VAT 0 EDI -LU A.ZV (} 'l'hp last recorded work of King Sen Muang Ma \Vas to begin hnil1ling a royal pavilion (1'l't}rtlcir.ta) in the eent1 0 of the eity in 1.101, the year in \vhich he died. 'rlw ''Titlow was left with the unfinisherl work on her hands. H01 ~on, Sam Fang-ken ( ), was only 12 years old when his father cliecl mhl nnnthet ten years had to elapse before his coronation : although a good waniot, lw was a he1 etic buddhist. These facts may help to account fol' the fact that the?'a.iak?-tlrt was not. complete<l until Vt{R. 47 Fnrthermm e, the building cannot have given complete satisfaction since, in 1178, King Tilok (J.:t.il-1487) enlargetl it from 5.1 to 70m. wide on each face and added 8 m. to the height which finally attainc'd 90 m. by tlw arldition of a single gl'acpful st1.tpa and was reckoned the finest monument in Chieng1nrti. Th<: original ra.falcuta owed its origin to the tale of some rnerchant.s returning from Burma : they sahl that the shade of King Kuna. ha<l appem <:d to them. one night in camp with a request. for Sam Fang-ken to l'aise' a tower in t.he heart of Ohiengmai which would ht> vihihle at a 1listance of ~11nn. fro:rn the city, and so open to him thp gates of pal'a.dise which W81'P clospd to hhn hy reason of t.he man~ Hv<:'R hp hall ta.kc->n when hunting. 48 Whatevm forn1 the rhjaltttta. had at its incpptinn, the final appearance of the 'finished building, in 1 1:38,.G.4 m. \vidp on e:wh face and s;z m. high, shows that an effort had bpen made to comply with the alleged 1nessage of Kiina's shade and enlargem<:'nt forty years later cannot have alte1 ed the main design. whieh as the ruin reveals, is a massive rectangular block ( considerably higher than it is '\Vide) with steep stairways up the sides nf t.he ]ofty plinth (laterite and brick) to a narrmv terrace which contours t.he building at the base of tlle great b Hnd-vanlt with radiating arch which forms the sole decoration of each of the two still intact faces ( N. and E.), each vault containing a giant Buddha. The graceful 47. JKM 134 and Coedes, Docu,ments p. 103 note (6 ). 48. PY. p. 206 JKM 134 and JKM 143, and Coedes, Documents p. 104 note (1).

62 36 THE SEVEN SPIRES In the year of the pig, C.S. H17 (14;"')5) he founded a MonastPnr fo1 the Mahathera Uttamapaiiiia north-west of Nabbi8irajaclhani ( Ohiengmai) on the bank of the Hohininadi stream ( Huey Ohankien) in a pleasant position upon high ground. 5 6 The same year he planted a iig-t1 ee raised fl om a layering which the pilgdms had previously taken in Ceylon off the southern branch (of the sacred Fig-tree ) and (brought back and) planted at the foot of Mt. Devapabbata (Snthep). 57 The planting of the tree earned for thl' rnonastct y the name of Mahahoclharama. Having planted the tree, the King had everything arranged around it as (though) around the Figtree under which 1\iiha was overcome: the slab (Diamondthrone) and the seven sites visited by Buddha. ttfter his Enlightennlent) were all included. In the year O.S. H38, year of the monlwy (147ti) the King had a great sanctuary ( rnahl.tvihata ) constructed in this rnon~tstery." Phya Pra;jakit merely status in his sixth chapter that:- "In the ye~u of the pig, C.S. l-117. the expedition against Luang Phrahang being unsuccessful, tho army retnl'llcil to Ohiengrnai FLIHl orders we'l:e given for planting a fig-tree of Ceylon and for building a cathedral ( mnha-ctram) with boundary posts duly consecrated, nntler the name of Vat, Bodharam Mahaviharn.'' 58 f) The temple chronicle follows Ratanapaiina quite closely, save its omission of the last sentence. rrhe emphasis it gives to nonexistence of the temple at the time when the fig-tree was planted reads s01newhat as an attempt by Ratanapaniia's successor to clear 56. ref. JKM 136 for Uttamapaillia. 57 O'Malley, op. cit. refers to a bas-relief over the E. gate at Sanchi showing the original transportation of a shoot from the tree at Gaya to Ceylon many ceturies before the Ceylon shoot was taken to Siam. 58. P.Y. ch. 19.

63 THE SEVEN SPIRES 37 up the ambiguity in his text: as such, it appears to he worthy of l'espect, since it voice8 local opinion acquainted with the shrine. An important fact is the presence of Uttamapaiina on the site, at the time when building began. He was the younger of the two Thera whom Medhankara sncceeded in persuading to leave Ceylon in 1424 and accompany the the pilgrin1s to Simn. If he personally had no first-hand knowledge of Pagan, there were six Burmese monks with the party and the possibility cannot be disjnissed that he l'eceived a plan of the?ncthcd.jodhi at Pagan fl'oln them. In 1455 he must have been over 60 years of age when the work was begun. As the temple is s01ne distance from the city, it is proba,blo that the old monk on the spot had control of the building opm ation; in which case the delay of 21 years between the planting of the tree in 1453 and construction of the nmin shrine in 14 7 G may have been due in some way or other to his age.. If the vawrn which the rremple Chronicle tejls us was ordered to be built in 1455 to the south of the fig-tree was ever erected, it was probably no more solid than the existing m:harn, now under renovation, and ready after 63 years to make way for the new ono erected in 1518 ; 59 in alignment with the cedi. Although all our authorities are silent concerning the design of Vat Oed-yod and its clecora tion, the origin can be traced with some degree of confidence to models in Pagan, made available to the builders in Chiengmai through the contacts established as a re::mlt of the pilgrimage of monks from both Sia.n1 and Burma to.. Ceylon, the models being reprorlnced in Lampnn and Chieng:mai thanks to the popularity of the pilgrims and Sihalabhikkhn with both king and people. The artisans who built Vat Oed-yod appear to have been less careful in laying the bricks than was Sumana who had actually been in Pagan hirnself before attempting to buil<l Vat Phrayun in the fourteenth century. Furthermore, they would seem to have been ignorant of t.he princivles governing the nse of the radiating arch. All was well so long as they were content to 59. TVCY. 10 (e).

64 38 THE SEVEN SPIRES reprmluet tht J~erwral featln t ~ uf tlw mulwhodhi: llltt thpy c arw to gl'ief whpn thc-y madu additions anllllloclifkat.it,llh 11f th~ ir u\\h -- P.g. the sma.ller vaulted enrridtll'k ou the WL t:t. f!'ultt awl t~jl tlh IPl'I':lt~~' \Vhcro t.lwy also tnnittt~d t.wo of the [onr slupu- wltit~h iwlkatt s that ()Vcn ~c()nfit1l nce.' tended tu spoil SOlllL',,f t ht~ wurk ttlhhttakt-11 (luring Htu last epntul'y 11f Uhiengma.r~ gnldpn ag<~ hl fort> tht. Burnwse occupation in 1;>7 B. Given tho inclinat.inn of the original tksigrwrs in Pagan tu roprmlnce the salient features of tlw t~arlipst. Bntillhil:lt art, H il:\ possible to trace a connection hut.weon the vanlkcl <~m ri<lurs, radiating arches and blind van1ts with Uw roek dutmlh:rs, hnrs<:>slhh' arehes, sun-windows at Bha.ja an1l Ajanta~ the pyrmni<lh with tlw Lowers a. hove the sane.tn~try at Aihnlt> whieh l'vnln~cl into t.lw pyt a Initl of Gayn and were imitatt~d by Lhe 1\Ion of Dval'aYati ;nul tlwu hy t.hu Bnnnans at tl11~ MahalHHlhi; tho la.teritu hlovk~:~- b1 imit.atl' the "hlucish~groy hriekr~, whieh Hui<'n '1\mng Haw at Gaya. It. should bu wldo(l lhat Ohicmgt ai ahm JlOHHPHS<'H a Vat Oerl '1/0ll- a short, distanee ont.si<le tlh\ eity, wm:\t of Lam pang road. rl'h<' t:eru l'( prodncc>h the Ohi(mgrnai shrino on It Hma11t~r!:;eale awl iu a lno<lifiod form, ou1itting the two snmller vaulte<l eorridor~::~ whieh h:.wo proved nnsatisfnctory in Ohiungma.i, alho orw of the stait wayh. 'rtw single stairway tn t.he tel'l'ace I akvh ofl' a.t tlw 8uut.h-\\'t Ht. Plld of Uw vau1ted corridor, (insteaa nf favllwt < ast.- at~ in Chiengma.i) and, in propol'tinn to Hs size, is whh~l' :m<l het.tc t Hghtt a than that: in t.}tp rnain eorriclor at Ohiengmai. 'rhe t<h'raee is <lifl'erpnt.ly <Ll'l'angt><l - the rnain towert{)eing flanked on the north a.nd south sldt. s hy t.lll'l'(' equidistant urn-like bases supporting a srnall, elonga.. tcd heu-stnjifl., smnewhat similarly mounted and crowned with the fm:niliar fivp tapering rings; but in place of the eone, an elongated finiale in plaster carrying a hti of tlve tapering filigree ct owns (gildqd). The whole monument has been recently plastered, so that no tracl' remains visible of the material, be1ow the plaster, of which the structure is composed - brick is the1 efore presumed. The fi.gu1 e in the vault at the west end of the conidor is a recumbent Buddha : a standing Buddha occupies the centre of each wall of the CiJdi jn

65 Wat Oed Yod, Ohieng'rai.


67 THE SEVEN SPIRES 39 plaep of the panels and bas-reliefs at Ohiengmai. The pit at the wesl c nd of the terrace is common to both shrines, but at Ohiengmai it is rectangular instead of square. No tamna n containing the chronicle coul(l be traced either at the Temple itself or at the Go V!~l nor~:4 l)fllce: the list of documents l'elating to northern histo1 y awl cnmrnerate!l by Ooedes as part of the collection in the' N ationa.l Lihl'ary 60 contains no chronicle of eithel' temple. No study of Buddhist architectnre in Ohiengmai would be cmuplett~ wit.hnnt some reference to the great number of religions fonihlu.tions- many possessing great charm and dignity -which invite comparison with the number of similar t~stablishments at Hmne -proportionate to the relative size and impm tance of the two citiuh. In a Buddhist country, it is true, the incentive of 'n1m 1it' tn lh 1lm.'ivPd from such '\vorks of benefact.ion may he more potent than in Christian countries : without. however the material support t cmdel'e<l hy kings such ah Kiina, Tilok and his great grandson, Mn:mg Keo, t.o dymunie ecclesiastics such as Snr:nana and Meclhankura ( pos~il>ly ahm Uttarnapaiii1.a) who organizt~d the rnerit-makel's, the rnel'itorious a.chievoment 1nnst have fallen far short of the rich ha.1 vost; which hns survived tl) this day in shrines such as Vat Phrayfm, Oetli-lnaug and Ced.-yod. Ohiengmai in t.he l[)th and Hith eent.n 1 i es was fort,unat.e in being the home of tlhee l'eligions fratm nitieh of which one, tho Ceylon fraternity ('Sihalabhikkhu') inherited a t.nldition of l'(~ligions activity f1 (~n the Ceylon pilgrimages. It, may hp of i nte t est to 1 ecall tlw successful and no less dyna1nic appeal :uld rekf.wtl in our own dtty by the lat.e Phra Srivichai to all chtshos in tlw north : the Ineritorious action he proposed to them was to dig a motor-road up the east face of Mt. Sutf1ep in order to facilitate pilgrimages to the relics in the mountain sanctuary. The 1 mmonse to his summons was surprisingly unanimous, but the work would have lacked permanence, but. for the wisdom ot, the Govern~ ment then in power who undertook to survey and, ultimately to metal and maintain the road. May Lannathai never lack inspired teachers to stimulate the interest of the people in meritorious action foi the common good and may the rulers never fail to co-operate in the true tradition of King K'iina, King "rilc>k and King Mnang Keo. 60. Coedes. op. cit. Doc~tments... p.p

68 40 THE SEVEN SPIRES PART IV Analysis of Tamnan Vat Ced-yod and JKM. ''THE CHRONICLE OF VAT MAHABODHARAM NOW GENERALLY KNOWN AS VAT CED-YOD" Eulogy of the fonnch e, King Tilnk (Tilokm aj), a notr d waj l'ior an<l statesman, known oilicially as H.l\1. Sil'idhmmna-eakkavat-tilokara.i, who reigne<l at Chiengmai as ninth sovpj eign of the Mengrai dynasty. 61 During his l't\ign the Chiengmai pi1gl'ims who, since their return f1'0lll Ceylon nn<lt>r 1.W edhankara. w<'j'p staying at Vat Phrayun in Lampun, were invited by the king to Chiengmai. rrhe king, as their patrnn, had convej tt>d a palace fol' their nhe in Chiengmai, pending the completion of Vat Patal Noi and Vat Padung Luang. 62 The palace was namefl Vat Rajamon <liell. dt(, rrhey Ol'dained many monks in accordance with the Ceylon J K Gi ves a simihu eulogy of King rruok mhl< J whose r>atl onage ~00 novices we1 e ordainl'.d by tlw thre<;;.l\1 ahatlh-'j'h on the banks of the Mephing river. J f(ju 13S-7. Recounts ~he pilgl'image to Ceylon HlHh r the three 1.'hera. 2.:> monks left, Chieng.tuai in 1 12B arul W<'l'U accoinpanied to Ceylon by 8 Cambodian monks: Hix Bm rnese monks :joined the party. All received ordination by the Ceylon clergy"in on a raft in the Kalyani rive1. 'l'he ol'iginal party did not reach home in Chiengmai until 1 1HO aftpj' d<~voting ti.ve years to o1 dinations in the south. 61. V. Coedes. op. cit. Docwments... note 5 p Tilok, b forced his father to abdicate in 1441 with the consent of the clergy. 62. V. Coedes. p. 106, note (1) suggests that Vanaratana, the name of the chief Ceylonese monk may have been corrupted into Ratanavana and Rattavana by pilgrims who gave his name to their temples in Siam.

69 THE SEVEN SPIRES 4i The pilgrims were in Lampun in 1432, but no mention is 1nade of their stay in Vat PhrayUn. J K.~.M 138. Foundation of Vat Padeng Noi (Rattavana. = red, not Ratanavana = gem-forest) All these n10nks vied in zeal to build up the new ced-l over the olu one (containing the Great Relic) which was enclosed out of sight within it. The King then built a pavilion for anointment northwards of the great Reliquary. 64 He invited his teache1 s Medhankara to Vat Padeng, whom he created a mahl:tswnmi and lengthened his name to Atula-saktyadhikarana as a mark of respect, at the celebrations in honour of the Great Relic..J K J.l!l 140. Locates the Pavilion for anointment on the north side of Vat-luang and dates its construction immediately after completion of the great stupa, the foundations of which were dug around the ancient ced - ( thus enclosing it in the stupa) 3. His Most Excellent Majesty, Tilok, hacl the pions desire both to confirm and p1 opagate the Faith and also to do honour to his parents. His Majesty accordingly appointed the Queen-mother to he Regent and proceeded to take the vows and tonsure of a monk... in the presence of a throng of senior clerics. Phra Maha Nanamangala ordained the king (was ~is upctf:jhctya) and Phra Maba Atula-saktyadhikarana, the Mahathera, sponsored him (was his karnmavltcctduya). The period of His Majesty's retreat is nnce1 - tain prior to resumption of the kingly functions. J KM 141. The account of the king's monastic service (undoubtedly at Vat Padeng, the seat of his sponsor and lnaster) is identical in both sources, but TVOY lacks precision in 63. V. Coed~s, p Note (l) suggest thatvanaratana, the name of the chief Ceylonese monk may have been corrupted into Ratana VC{;na and Rattavana by pilgrims who gave his name to their temples in Siam. 64. V. Coedes, p. 108, note (2) ''Fo:r JKM, the gteat telic always signi_ fies "Vat luang Lampun". The same practice in TVCY may indi cate connection with JKM.

70 THE SEVEN SPiRES the chronology given by JKM , the death of tlw king's exiled father; 1449, expedition against Nan ; followed by death of the Queen-mother. 4. In 1.!51 King Tilok constructed an uposoth (bot) in honour of his father and mother at Vat Padeng whm e both had been cremated. The site occupied.j:q sq. metres of land and the space around it was enclosed with spears. Before fixing the boundary posts, the king :fil1ed the space with soldiers ; he then pronounced the formula in Pali, which was intoned by the Mahathera Atula-saktyadhikarana in person. The king then gave a great fete which lasted seven (lays and nights. 5.,J K Describes the consecration in similar terms, adding that during the year 14f>2 many sons of good family received ordination within the limits fixed by King 'l'ilok, the first to be ordained being the Thera, Mahanarada. This was followed in 1~±53 by similar ordinations beginning with the Mahathera, Abhayasarada: in these cases however the sponsor was Atula-Saktyadhikarana and the master, Maha Meghiya. Since that time until today (1516) the Sect of Ceylon Buddhists have conferred ordination on all who desired it, no matter from what city they came.,. "Thereafter, all the monks who' had been to Ceylon unceasingly practised ordinations in the Chiengmai district in accordance with t.he Buddhist religion. They extolled the rnerits of rwhosoever plants a Bodhi tree ( Ficus religiosa ), Hearing their discourse, the king believed in it and expressed a <1esire to plant such a tree himself. The king's officers were despatched to look for a suitable place and they discovered the site where the M aha,bodhrwam now stands. The ground was accordingly levelled and a monastery founded there for the Mahathera Uttamapanna in park-land on a knoll overlooking Rohini strearn, north-north-west of the city Nabisi-r'ajadhani, that is to say, Chiengmai. Then, in t.he year of the Pigt 0 S. 817, King Tilok took a shoot of a Boclhi tree grown by rnonks

71 TI1E SEVEN SPIRES 48 at a tt wph near Mount Devapar\ a.ta, that i:-; to say 1\fonnt Sut hep, f t'tliu :-;t Pd uolleetl d frum t.he right-hand branch of the :\Iahal 11Hihi ll'l'l' in Ceylon: this the king planted in the (grounds ur tltt ) lllllllu~h r~ he had built there. Hence the name Mahahudhannu. In tlt der to reconstruct the scene where the Lord au ained enlightenment for the first time, the king gave or<lers to e<nnmtmwrate the seypll sites, as in the Middle Laml (India) whl'l'l' thp Lord overcame Phya. Vasavadi-mara, namely the Fforlhi ljallrtn{j, a KlalJ finely decorated unller the Bodhi tree \Vith all image ut the Buddha in sitting l)osture ~ the Animisa, cdi ( Buddha's stanep ), north east of the Bodhipallang and at nu grt~at eloister); distance frurn it; the Urttrtnacongk'i mn (Buddha's north, the Rntanakhla:n(J, reun!ceo ( the :jcwelle..:t Lrc mmry)~ north wet;t, tlw a}a1jhla... tl'igrodha (the goat-herd's ltnt nwler thu Bengal jious); east, the mu,calind (the tank nea:r Uw Cik Hhruh Barringtonia); south-east, tho rajctyatanct (the :\IimoHoJ>H tt'ed. On Lhe sonth, a v.utarn was later built ; there war-:, also a gate an1 L wall. When all was completed the King oaused a gr <mt eclobl'atiun to be heh1 at. the temple. J l( J.lf 143. Omits the nameh of the seven sites, a]::;o the niha,rn on thu south sid.c, together with tho gate wall..j JCIJ;f 148. A1lcls Lhat a great sa.nct.nary wa8 tmilt in this 1w mahiiery in 1 17 G, of which there is no mention in the Tamnan. rrhoro is u. strange gap or 21 years in JKM.and of 22 years in TVCY which suggests tho loss of a page in the original m. s.s. 6. In the year 1477 King 'l'ilok snmrnonded a council for the revision of the scriptures (8ang('tyan(z) by a group of over 100 monks (Sangha ) at Vat Bodharam in N abisi ( Ohiengrnai ). As Patron of religion, King Tilok built a mondo p for the Council in Vat Boclharam in order to spare the monks any inconvenience. Phra Dhammaclinna, Abbot of Vat Patc1l-noi, was at tho head and

72 44 THE SEVEN SPIRES the council lasted a year. King Tilok built a Library (H o M ondien) to contain the Three Baskets of the Scriptures. rrhis was tho eighth Council of Revision and there were great celebrations in honour of the Scripture and Library. King rrilok died at the age of 71. J K.ld 151. Gives the correct date of Tilok~s death at the age of 78 in the year PY., p. 255 agrees with that date and gives the full list of his milital'y campaigns against Ayudhya, Nan, Ph rae and Luang Phrabang. JK1l Omits reference to the Council for revision of the Scriptures which PY. p. 248 confirms was held under the presidency of Phra Dhammadinna of Vat Patal; J K.lJ1 168 refers back to the Council of 1477 when relating repairs effected by King Muang Keo tq the Library lmilt by Tilok at the time of the Council forty years earlier. 7. Phra Yod Chiengrai, ':Cilok's grandson known during his reign as King Sirisacldhamma, succedecl as loth in Mengrai's dynasty. With his army he carried the casket containing King Tilok's remains to Vat Maha Bodharam and cremated them there. After the cremation, he ej:ected a stupa to contain the ashes and thereafter invited the whole population unooasingly to do honour to them. J KM 151. Confirms, giving 1487 as date of Phra Yod Chiengrai's accession, also 1495 as date of his abdication after a 1 eign of,eight ye~tl's. His death eleven years lat,er at the age of 50 is also given by JKM King Yod Chiengrai founded Vat Ramphting ( rrapodaram ) in After reigning ejght years the king retired in favour of his son, Phra Muang Keo, 11th in Mengrai's dynasty. In the year 1510 King Muang Keo gave a plot of land 120m. x 80 m. in exchange for ground in Vat ]\faha Bodbaran1 measuring 60 m. X m. understood to be the site of King Tilok's

73 THE SEVEN SPIRES 45 cremation ground upon which he built an 'Mposoth measuring m. X 1H.25 m. Before setting up the boundary-stones, the king and queen-mother had a golden image ( patimcdcor) 65 of the seated Buddha cast in the attitude samctdhi and of the same standing height as the king : the image was placed. in the urjosoth. J KJvf 154. Dates the image 1510, but adds that it contained pu1 e golcl to the weight of the king and was composed of solid gold plates welded togethel.', hut not of solid golfl throughout. J KM elates the construction of the uposoth in the following" year and gives different measul'ements for 'the site while confirming those of the land given in exchange. PY. 262 follows the order of dates in the tamnan. 9. King 1\fuang Keo invited twenty-two monks learned in the scriptures to meet at Vat Maha Bodharam for the eeremony of setting up the boundary -stones of the ttposoth - 11 fr01n Ohieng1nai, 1 from Lampnn, 1 fron1 Ohiengrai, 3 frmn Ohiengsen,,2 from Pay::w. 2 from Lam pang, 1 from N a.n, 1 from Svangkhaburi. Phra Abhayasarada., heacl of tho sect, aged 57, presided with Phra Saddhanlmasanthira, aged 4 7, Abbot of Vat :lyiaha Bodharam. After the ceremony King Muang Keo presented the monks with valuable gifts and invited them to ordain many hundrecls of youths as monks within the boundary stones.,. "' J KM Adds the name of Nanasiddhi to the 11 Ohiengmai monks named in the Tamnan, giving a total of 23 in all. J K JJ!l adds that the ordinations took place up to the full moon and that later the King performed ali the ceremonies of the rainy season in order to add. to the merit already acquired by his father and great-grand-father. 10. In the year 1515 King Muang Keo invited monks of the three sects in Ohiengmai under the leadership of the Abbot of Vat Maha. Bodharam to aceompany him to Chiengsen where he founded a mahclcedi and viha'rn in the centre of the town. - the cedi was 30m. at the base and 50 m. high. King Muang Keo then had boats 65. The patimakor was re:moved to Lampun v. par. 12.

74 46 THE SEVEN SPIRES rnade at tho Altar-island a111l invited lor monks f1 or.n outside~ th<" city together with those who accompanied him from Chicnginai under the Abbot of Vat Maha Bodharanl to ordain novicel:l on the island t5an<1-l>ar- 22B were ordained within those watery limits; then the monks of Chiengsen met ancl ordained 370 ; the1 eafter the rnonks of Snan Dok ordained a further 4:GO- in all loll m dinations. The king antl queen-mother expended much in gifts - 100,000 tamlung in silver alone- at Chiengsen, and much also at Chiengrai. The king invited many oruinations to be performed hy the monks assembled on Sunday tho 14th <lay of the waxing sixth nwon upon his return. J KJ Specifies 23 monks of the Ceylon sect from Chiengmai, a number increased tq 108 by additions from other places, who conferred 235 ordinations at Altar-island ; the Nagaravasi sect conferred 370; the Pupphavasi of Suan Dok The presents consisted of 100,000 in gold together with countless silk robes. J K.Z confirms the dimensions of the cedi at Chiengsen (b). King Muang Keo observed one day that Vat Padeng was dilapidated owing to the absence of a chief to give directions. The King felt it would tend to enhance his own religious reputation if the Chief Abbot of Vat Maha Bodbaram, Phra Saddhammasanthira, were to be in vi ted by him to be Principal in Vat Pad eng to restore it and attract monks to come there to learn the Pali teachings which came from Ceylon. He accordingly bad the mondojj in the outskirts of Vat Padeng repaired and invited the chapter to ordain 255 youths as monks..j KM Confirms and describes the nature of the repairs which consisted in removing King Tilok's Pavilion from Vat Ohai Siriphum to Vat Padeng as residence for the Bodbaram abbot. 66. Coedes, op. cit. p. 93 notes (7} (8), p. 122 note (1). Vat Ph1 a Lnana Klana Vien(f. founded by Mengrai's grandson, Senapu, in 1831, four years after he had founded the city.

75 THE SEVEN SPIRES J KJY.l 166 concludes by adding that since the year 1511 ordinations had been held solely within the limits of the new uposuth at Vat Maha Bodharam; but in 1517, King Mnang Keo renewed the gilding, tiles and naga.s in Vat Padeng with a view to hastening the installation there of the Abhot of Bodharam and to revert to the use of Vat Padeng for ordinations instituted by King Tilok in 1452 on the site where Tilok cremated his parents. This took place in 1517 when 255 novices were?rdained at Vat Padeng with the Abbot of Vat Maha Bodhararn presiding. A brick wall round the city was begun. 10 (c). Another day, King Mnaug Keo observed on a visit to Vat Maha Bodharam that repairs were needed at the Library for the Scriptures which his great-grandfather had erected there, at the council for revision of the Scriptures. 'rhe King then took his great grand-father's golden }ata crown for -a goldsmith to convert into gold leaf for plastering on to the Library-tower. rrhe Abbot of Vat Maha Bodharam, Phra Saddhammasanthira, presided over a chapter of 4,0 learned monks who preached the Scriptures in honour of the Library ; the king, during the great. fete which lasted a month, incited the populace to do honour to t.he stupa his father had set up as a shrine for King 1'ilok's ashes. Phra Abhayasarada died in ;be year of the rat; his crema tion was celebrated in the year of the ox. 67.J Kill 168. States that the ancient Nagarakuta of Tilok, of his father and of himself was converted into a Library. J KJ.l!l 169. Confirms the death of Abhayasfirada and his cremation between the years 1515 and 1517 and adds : "And why? The reason being that it was I who made the great fete with the permission of the chief abbot of Vat M aha Coedes, op. eit. p. 129, note (2) and p. 130, note (1),. e4plains the apparent inconsequence of introducing the reference to Abhayasarada's date and cremation by suggesting that the fete, like the disposal of the crown, was a device for raising money for restoring the ruined Library.

76 48 THE seven SPIRES Bodharam, whose new pavilion at Vat Padeng was not finished and in consequence I had spent these two years ( ) in composing the work of this nature entitled.j nakala'lnalin' " 10 (d). The king then invested the mahathera, Phra Saddhammasanthira, with the office of Chief Chaplain and invited senior m.a.hather rt from Haripnnjaya (Larnpnn), Khelanga (Lampang), Chiengrai, Svangkhaburi to a 1neeting in Vat Padeng together with 120 monks to recite the Dhammacakkappavatana, Manga.laparitta and Mahasamayasutta during three days. He invited the Chief Chaplain with 80 monks to a feast in the palace and, in the afternoon, to ride in procession in a decorated howdah while the 80 monks went into the rnondop in procession with processional objects of great value. 'l'he king also had the Chief Chaplain's names engraved on a golden plate and read out alond.... J KJl ' Confirms with sundry additions in the year 10 (e). In the same year the king built the principal Vihara, and added it to the Ph?'rt-cedi at Vat Bodharam J KM 174. Makes no mention of Vat Maha Bodhararn, but states that work was begun this year on great viha'l'a at both Vat Phra Singh and \!at Cedi Luang. 10 (f). King Muang Keo had the Sandal-wood Buddha brought from Phayao and placed it in Vat Ohai Siribhum ; but on the arrival of an envoy from~sri Ayuthia, it was removed to Vat Suan Dok as Vat Chai Siribhuni was under repair. The envoy from the South paid obeisance to the sandal-wood image at Vat Snan Dok and it remained there some years. J K Confirms that tho statue came from Phayao, but says that it had been brought from there once before in Tilok's reign and taken back..j K.~.tf omits mention of Vat Obai Siribhum.

77 tu'e SEVEN SPIRES (a). In the years 1!>22 King Mnaug Keo had the pa.t inutko'l image of Bnddha from Cambodia placed in a fine golden pavilion in Vat Maha Bodharam and had the Owriyapitaka recited by 3G thera versed in the scriptures and presided over by the Chief Chaplain. The King attended in person from the 8th day of the waxing moon to the full moon. JK... 7J of image. Confirms and slightly amplifies ln1t omits name 11 (b). In the year 1525 King Muang Keo had the sandal-wood Buddha transferred f1 om Vat Suan Dok to Vat Maha Bodharam: on the 9th day of the waxing tenth month (tlmtya) hc-1 had the big image of the sandal-wood Buddha made by King Senapu and brought from Cbiengsen transferred from Vat Snan Dok and placed in the Dhammadesanabodi hall which he had built to receive the sandalwood Buddha in Vat Maha Bodharam. The same year on 'rhursday the tenth of the waxing moon in the 5th month King Muang Keo died. His eldest son succeeded him (below in llc)..t /{ lvi 185. Merely states that the great statue of sandalwood was set up in the ttposoth at Vat Maba Bodharam. No mention of Senapn's model..j K.ll1 agrees that Muang Reo's son succeeded him (c). On the 5th day of the waxing moon, Wednesday, of the 8th month 1526, the Chief Chaplain died in Vat Padeng. The new king, Phra Muang Kes Klao, 12th in 1\{engrai's dynasty; appointed his personal chaplain, Mahasarabhanga, Chief Chapt'ain, first in Vat Maha Rodharam and then in Vat Padeng, wit.h the title Phrn Sangharaja. rrhe title, Mahaswami, was giv~n to. the the1'a in Vat Mahadeviyarama. King Kes Klao ruled Lannathai with justice. J KJV! 186. Confit'ms. 68. Coedes, op. cit. p. 139, note (4) TVCY. supports JKM against PY. p. 277 assertion that King Muang Keo died childless and that Kes Klao was his younger brother.

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90 (j3 v..;. v rl.4v ~ 1-!r'J~ l-l ~1l V'J'fi1T1l-J t Lrct r'ji'l4 'll VI tl1!1'du 1V'J:f~l-J'VIrll tl:ffl 'lfl Vl :fv'j :r: l(ll 'J1J U) n rl..:!:... t "' v ~ "-~ J.rl m o fl'lf1 l-jvjt:l-j VI1T16Ji fit Llll-! 1J:r~ "D1'W l VI bl ~~\I "D :fjj,j l VlV'hJ.1fll-Jfl :rw:r: = ~ rl ~ 4' l:::: I J!:. 2 ~ ~.:!!, c{. ~ 1 ti11j ~ n: W r: tj\l fl~ ~ li'w -:Jrl.:J l Lf11L Wltl '\.1''] I-! ~ fl1 rl! TlJbi\l L~t:I'Ul Y'J 1:~.::> d. v..:!:. I..,;,. J::l OJ A ~.:JL~TI'l4 1J6Ji1~r'JtiW:J"'~~I"Jj my.> fl bl\l1j!:n1 ~rrlflfl11<] ~~r;d WT~ll-ltl\l '11 :11 '\ 1/ V..t "-',;::,.r/ 1 f.-' I!l../ rl~~~ ll fli"j ej LlJ 'U. W 1 ~l-l 'VI 1flfl'(?l 1 tl VI fl1!1"fi'u 1W :r:'wvl "D11JL L ll'u l'l4 U 'Vl'U b JJJ.J r:- = '11 ~2..- d,.,_.. ' ~ 1.bl.,_.., J. ~.,_.. J!:. = ~Hj11-! bij'vlrj~l-jv\1 LYJ'TI1!1l-J \J.1J'J~fl1fi'fl'J16JllW\tl'lll'W LW\tll.l 1t1 o Vlf1ltl~ ~I-! d ~11~tJ1:f1"D'U1WT~WVlliT1hL~Uii., ~Vl~tl'l~1'VItli tluw:r:tra;;ll~i-!11, ~ :11 ~;;-:! l~l-j11'l41 fl L ~ tl-:!ll ~~\.!~ tltlfl~1fl~~llll kj1!1l-j ~rl'l-!witlfll~ ljj, 1J1:; ~~1'W 1~1 u "111:fl-lL~'W11J~" ~ ~1r t1., ~~;;-J 1~~1,rQ_u J!~~uVl~ "= r;/" rl~1.,_. ~ 1 AI "--'.bl..:!:. W'l-JW t:l.:jfl\.1 UIJ~l-JV\1 LW"D111l-l \-!1J:f~fl1 ~'C1~fl116Jl ddbd 1Jlt9ltlrJ ~.:!!. ~ ~.,_...,_.. d, d., "--' =.tl,!!, v 'WI-! LWlflU <i ~'U 1t1o fl1 IJ'Ui"JtfV\~lJ~ ~j.jl~~i"j:f:l-l'v\1'flfl'rr11tjl'l-ltl~ll'fli"j d. I ~ ~f.-'.b) I ~,!\, ~ ~ L~Wlli~~IJjjflrrJLVlrJ Lrctfl YJT:t]\.lj.j1tl ~(91 lid lj tjtll-ll'fi.:jl~tji-! d ~\.!!S. f11 '11, 'll 6 lur. f1l'ul-i'v\1~'v\11 f!l4!11, ~ '11, IJ~i"l"fi ~lifl ~rc~vtl.,_..nr16j! r.jdd wr:l-j'vi'l'j16jlflr l-j:rru~~._u~.,_..u ~ 111 ~ v == ~ "'*'""" <V ~.,!!, ~ =rl..!. flj\1yj'j:l~lf'i!'d1:fl-jiif111j(?lf1lfl:1fl1j'u(?lt1111i!1t] fltl Hl~li!J'Ull-l'EJ-J V c{. I 1 V t!j. 1 LLflf"JL~WIIi~LVlr'J rctflllrctij WJ'~flljflJVJ:fli]'EJ.:JWJ':tJ\lfl :WW!~U1l-l1J!1'fl~I'J1 J!:. jj v v ~ cv dr! "'*'.!!..:!. WJ'~L :Wfl\ll flbl flrt:11lt91 L:U'U}J'V\lfl~l'l!tl L~IJtljlljf th-iui'jll VlU 1 ULj.jfl\lL t]tl.:! '1 ~ ~-t r/ I 1,}.1.:::0 LLV1\J.~j~jljf1J~1 '"'" 1 t1j\j.,1:1! 1-!'1:11\1\.11 bvlti'ij!~lvlfl LUU!l~IJ.:!~ d..4. rl ~ '1.J..,_...{ = ~ L:W.:!!ltiVl ij\m W1~tl'lfli11-:!'Eltl '\-!Vltl'ULlJWfi:fjj.Jf1!16Ji L~IJtl!11jf~l-JlJ~ ~ = 1 J:l ~~v..,p ~ t!~t..t l~tltll'l'fi!:fl-1. buljwj~fj.:!fl bt91l~r'jtl!1 6.lf~l-llJ!11'U'IJ VIJ1:f.l-:lfl bl?lf.l11tl:1y1 ~ ~..t tl ~ :W~1~ l:ffl~fll fl!tlu Ljj\J.flf u ~.:JW! :;;tl.:jfl tj'lu 'EJ~1 Urlfll-l'MllW 'fi'l:fl:wiu :u :II b1 ~flj~~1fl11tjntm'fl ~T:;;j.j'M1~1!Yl~fl Lbl:f 1 ui~'ul-jv\1~'\~lj' ~ ~biij1tl

91 64 Y-J :r~u 1:Wf'J1 Yrr~~<L~ 'JJ:f1jj 1~r m nr LL~fJI11~'W1l-JW r~"wvi1t fl:ftj~'utn.l1 u ~ "" "-' I= 9..!!, ~ I "" A "-' ~ rjl?ll-jvn LVFnnr ll-j'tl'w tj't.lvl rlv\ UL VIIHJ'Wii f'j1 w :r~l-jvl1 ~r.j1l-j l:wtl~rct Mn:r16Jf ~ ~,!::/ ~ "-' "-' ~._, c::.tl )!, :v 12,.,1 r.jdd 1Jfl'U ":n~ t.n fl1 rju~uvlt WT~l-J'Vl1fl15'!11!tlW:f~Lj.JtJ-:JLfl:fi'Lflrct1 ~ fl1ttnu ~wr~n nm'~ -:J ~tj~~~ rtru~ rj"--'~1-a~-w~ lj IJ~jffl rct1j!l!tvh:nu :r tj tl 1 ~ nr~~tr.njrcrl-j uvlnrrl-j ~ v «!' = ~ ~ 11 "-' tl LlJ 'Ufl fl B Jl1r.J~ l U VJT ~ 'WVI ij fl1 ~'U1r.J 1 Urct -:J fl11j-:j M ~ ~ ~./ ~ LL~~:WL~~'WT~ t~tj-:j L f!bl nmt~'w fltw -:J~L ~tl-:j l11~ ~1 ~tl1t1'tiu1w!~ 'J..I~1~tJ:r:rrul15l.J1flTfl"-'1-!wr~!1'11 ~ Wl~;;~1~1wt1luranrJ~l-1~1lWii111l-J ~, L~tl~L ;U.:J 1 VI~ LL ~LlhJr~~B. J1i-! l~1 U~IJT!utiJ11~1Vl~1l-lflrcl1-:J'W:f~, ~,11 1 UL~tl'l ~Tdi'QJ'1l., tl L~fl~"--n 1 ~ T115'VJ!Wrt11J~'WW rcll~t:l-:j l~~q1u~'1l ~ "--' ~ v :v.:!!. 1/jv """ v ~ 1v "'J\.A'TI"Jl1f'Jfll!:'\1~~.:!1l-J 111'EJ bl91 1lf~Vl1flfl'Cit:lfii11VIU1JUTil-l~ nnrl:f1jiiji1 'M, 1 1 'U Vl~ l1l LL~t11T1i.iU 1'Wr:::l-JVI 16!) 1tul-.l-:lfll!:'l L nr CJ~tl l~rntll-il~tj'lvlt r1, ij.) "-" 11.-'.,f 1 1 tf "--' tf o l1j pj. 'jjtj'wfit VH1JU1lT:::1iT\J. 'UVI'J-1 -:J:JJib'l-:lfl'VJ-:Jfl 6Jf1T~ra::;~1-:JWT::: blll111vjfl ~ J ~ flfl~.:jilltj-jwci,_...fl1 u w r~wvl'dfl1~'w'1 nrct: t1il rc.hjuv1nr:rl-l ~j.j1~'l-ll-j~, ll, V 0,;!; ~ "-' :t:::: I 2J 0 )!, '>.f->o..-,;!; Urc11J111L 'W 'QJflfl'C1L1J, 'UTJL U flu UY 'U flrcl 'lf'j~ rn.ji'll\.11'14 VlTfltlT~rJ!llrJ~t~ ~lutwl &.! ~~ o~d.v ~ 'f1 VI'J..I ~ l 'W tl-.'1l'v11'w L f!ij nl-jl9111tl1l! ~1111 IQ ~i,\ N.B. It 1's 'rerpetted that the origin.al SlJelling of the earliest mss. e:x:tant is not altogethe? trust1cotthy. StanclaTd spelling has therefm e been adopted here. ED.

92 TI-fE SEVEN SPIRES APPENDIX I NOTES ON PAGAN (Extract from Notes by G.H. Luce ) There are certain peculiar features about the Pagan tt~mple ( Mnhabodh'i) some of which may not be original. It stands in the heart of the old city of Pagan and has cloubtless been "repaired" many times, sometimes clumsily. 69 It is freely modelled on the old Buddhagaya temple' in India which itself was twice repaired by the Burman::3 of the Pagan period; once in the reign of Kyanzittha ( 10R A.D.)?0 and again at the end of the dynasty in In recent years the Burm aus have again repaired the temple... but photos taken of the ruined s~:khara ~ repairs show a typical Pagan arch and relieving arch. of I rulo-arywn C?:vil1:saUon). (V. Plate XXV of Harvelli's SLtuly Note t.bat the radiating arch (usually poh1ted, rarely square) is in variably found in all arches, roofs and corridors of the Pagan period, except those of very small dimensions, e.g. niches where corbelling occurs. rrhis use of the radiating arch, which first occurs in the Pyu shrines at Sri-Kset.ra (I-\mwawza) and one or two Mon cells at old Pegu - possibly antedating the oldest extant radiating arches at Nalanda.,... is a hallmark of Pagan architecture,... but by the time the Bnrmans conquered Chiengmai, they themselves seern to have forgotten the radiating arch... After~he founding of Ava in 1365, its use hardly ever occurs in the plains of Burma. 69. In the absence of definite records, it is impossible to estimate how often the temple has been repaired. The last time was probably not much more than half a century ago, at most. To preserve a stucco-surfaced monument in good condition in the tropics, an overhaul is probably Tequired every century. Buddhagaya, after five centuries of neglect under the Mogul dynasty in 1880 was in the last stage of decrepitude, as the photos show (E. H'.H.'s conment). 70. V. Epigra.phia Bi1 manica Vol. 1, pt. 2 Old Mon Inscription VIII: face ' a ' lines ln8c"tiptions of Bnrrna, portfolio III plate 299.

93 66 THE SEVEN SPIRES There are quite a number of temples at Pagan with overgrown silcha,'rrt of the Buddhagaya type- i.e. sikha'l'a which dwarf everything below it, compared with the nsual large cubic block, surmounted with three receding terraces leading np to a silchara ( a comparatively minor feature, rarely more than approx: 15ft. high). One of these overgrown silchara, the Kubyank-nge of Wetty-in, on the east bank of the Shwe Ohaung, is in other respects a typical l\fon temple. Snch temples were common in Kyanzittha 1 S reign, hut after his death Burmese models soon triumphed over the Mon... The ;_1![ ahabodhi: On the west side of tho upper storey is a lower crenellated terrace with no obvious way of access, about 15ft. below the main terrace. It drains towards the centre, where there is a catchment tank for a eircular well which goes down to gronnd level and issues through an arched ljrick outlet leading to a small sq na.re brick reservoir in the nc.:n tl.l-west corner of the enclosure. At the west end, one can pass through an arched passage under the ''well" Owing to the short vaulted corridor at the west end of Vat Ced~yod terminating in the wall behind the Ph1 a Tanca.i image, tbere is no exit on ground level for the terrace pit which at 'Pagan was used as a well, though its place in the design, as at both Ced-yod Chiengrnai and Chiengrai, was undoubtedly a reproduction of the terrace~pit for a fig-tree, as at Gaya. (E, liv.ii".'.s comment).

94 THE SEVEN SPIRES 61 APPENDIX II J, V. Claeys on the Radiating arch. (L'AJ chbolog'ie dn ~'::Jtiarn, p. 445, JJ. 446, 1.8) "The most striking feature in the conf:ltruction of the semicircular vaults (at Vat Ced.yod) is the adoption by the builders of the Roman Arch-stone ( wedge-shapod vousso 1:r ). The only other instances of this in the whole of the Indo China peni.nsula a.re the two already mentioned in the course of this Survey. 73 'l'he sole alternative to this systnn h:1 (corbelling); i.e. the C<.wbe1s, to use corbel-steps -whether bricks, laterite or sand-stone blocks, - are laid horizonally in successive layers, each layer ovm -stepping the one below and, there by, forming a series of cantileve1 s which are held in equilibl'imn by the masonry of the super-structure. keeps the resultant thrust practically vertica1. This form of construction 'l'he vaulted arch, on the other hand, brings into play the ho l'izontal components in the paralle lograrn of forces ; to counteract them, a massive wall, abntments, or buttresses are necessary, so as to make sure tha.t the resultant of all forces (in the parallelogram) lie well within the compass of the masonry foundations. w estern architects, with a view to reducing ~he thickness of the abutments, had recourse to a device which consisted in piling up a mass of masonry on top of them : the effect of this upon the ver~ical component is to narrow the angle of inclination considerably. As the object of the device is to increase the weight vertically, it bas led, since mediaeval and renaissance times, to a gntd ual iucrease in spires, pinnacle~, belltowers, and sucb~like buttresses (and roofs) of our cathedrals. architectural ornaments crowning the 73. Vat Phray'U.n, Lampun and Cedi luang, Chiengmai.

95 68 THE SEVEN SPIRES Incidentally, this digression upon the static equilibrium of an arched vault is not entirely valueless, since it, demonstrates that the corner towers at Vat Ced-yod fulfilled the function requieed of them according td the standards of architecture in the 'West. It is difficult even to hazard u. guess as to how it came about that the builders managed to adhere so closely to the laws of equilibrium: from the aesthetic point of view however onr feeling is that they have satisfied onr conception of what is harmonious and logical. According to General de Beylie, this vault was built on the Persian or Mongol system practised by the Chinese in TurkeBtan, which requires no timber supports for th arch.', 11 for the arch."! I I t Corbel-steps in corbelled arch I :! i I 'f' vertical I resultant ' f,j mediaeval 'f ~~~9lt"ant L. Cambiaso ~ L~ ' I I I I l I ' I I :

96 A!='FIXION IN SIAMESE* By Dr. E. Gehr Despite their considerable importance, affixes (apart from Sanskrit~ Pali prefixes and suffixes) are not even mentioned in the more than a dozen Siamese grammars and manuals written in Latin; English, French and German I have so far seen. 'rhe subject is h eated by Siamese grammarians, but neither fully nor systematically. As will be shown in the following pages, aflixion in Siamese follows the Khmer system throughout, thns demonstrating the truth of Aymonier's dictum: ''Il est difficile de connaitre scientifiquement la langue Siamoise sans une etude prealable de l'idiome Cam bodgien". PREFIXION Siamese uses the Khmer systen1 of affixion in its entirety; it has the same methods of reduplication. It employs, furthermore, certain prefixal forms derived from elements of compounds, and others that are nothing but en phonic additions. Pinally, Sanskrit Pali pref1xes and suffixes are used, almost exclusively with Sanskrit, Pali roots. Khmer employs as prefixes: Corresponding to Siamese: the vowel a (always nasalized) ti 1 the guttural k forming adjectives or participles fl "ll ( fl) the palatal the dental the labial the dental the labial the liquid the sibilant c t p d b r s forming nouns forming nouns forming the causative tl [4 (always nasalized) forming nouns (always r.1,asalized) forming the causative (and, as a variant, l) forming nouns *I can ver y m'uch 'indebted to P hya Anwnetn-Rachathon for elucidaung several do'livtj'l,tl p01~nts, \>1 (W) co?" tecting sorne m. istakes ancl inaccu?~ncies, and helping 'lne with his invaluable advice tlwmtglwut..

97 br. E. GEHR Of these the labial prefix is most frequent. The nasals, ''n'', "m ", "ng ", se1ni-vowels "y ", "v ", the liquid "l" (except as a mutant of "l' "), and the aspirate "h" are never used in vrefixion. Prefixes may be used 1) simple. 2) nasalized. a) hy nasal increment (n, ng) b) by "am" (da/tnleu) 3) followed by r. A prefix with subsequent "r" denotes the reflexive or reciprocity. In Siame:::le the distinction between the simple prefix and the. '' r" form is scarcely felt; there is a tendency to insert "r" after t1 and fl in writing, whereas it is rarely audible in speech. The simple prefix is as a rule aspirated in Khmer; aspiration is optional before semi-vowels ("y", "v"; u, 'J) and the liquid "l" (") and never occurs before ''d'' and ''b'' (r~, u). 'fhis rule is discarded in Siamese, non-aspirated simple prefixes being much more prevalent. In some instances, however, the aspirated form survives, used interchangeably with the non-aspirated: 'tl for fl:: (fl-a~); N for tl~ (tl1~), etc. Aspirates lose the aspiration if nasalized v. i. p. 79. (Only the aspirated. surds 'll, fl, ~. w, etc.- not fl, u, \?1- are here considered "aspirated"). Simple prefixes are not permissible with root-words beginning with a consonant of the same class (fl or 'tl before fl, 'tl, fl, etc.) These rules do not apply to reduplication; cf. p. 77. Nasalization is obligatory \Yit.h the prefixes ''a'', "cl" and '' b" (u, r~, u) and with all pl'efixes used before a consonant of the same series. " 1' '' may follow every prefix with the exception of "d" and "b" (r~, 1J); it is always allowed after "p" (u); after ''k'', "c ", '' t" (fl, 'il, \?1) only before a non-aspirated labial. the semivowel "v", the liquid 11 1 '' and the aspirate "h ''. restrictions are neglected in Siamese. r:rhese latter Theoretically each root-word may in Khmer form derivatives with all existing p1~efixes. One :.:md the same root can in principle

98 AFFIXION IN SIAMESE 71 form with one and the sarne prefix four derivatives (by using the simple prefix, the prefix with a nasal, with "am" or with "r"). Actually even in Khmer more than two derivatives from the same root are comparatively rare; still more so in Siamese. Khmer does not form derivatives by prefixion from derivatives by infixion and vice versa. In some rare instances, an infix~derivative ma.y form a sub-derivative by nasalizat.ion: kctng~krctnk-kam'rctng. Examples in Siamese are: ' 0 ' "li'lij, "lil':i'lfj to help. 'llh1 to be torn, defective, absent, '11~ 01~, n r;\"~ to expel, disperse, to drive away. 'l'wo rather exceptional examples of multiple affixion to the same root will illustrate the Khmer system: in Khmer: in Siamese kat cut, carve, decide th-kat bodily pain s-kat cnt, erase bang-ln-~t cut, carve, clip sang-kat range, division dam-kat pain kh-n-at rule, measure k-amn-at slice, fragment bek t.o be broken, explosion pra.. bek to be divided bam-bek to break kam-bek broken p.. l.. ek changed ph n-ek part {l':;n"'~ ff~fl"'l?l "'l'l.t~ U~fl mjafl 1HJUfl chisel out, chip limit, confines, boundary series, small piece, measure to be broken, divided changed, strange division, department p.ran-ek crash b.amn-ek fragments Siamese has adopted the Khmer system of prefixion. The different values of the prefixes tend, however, to become vague or are disregarded, being recognizable only occasionally; the euphonic rules are no longer. strictly observed, aspirated and non.. aspirated prefixes being employed side by side with the same root-word; inany

99 72 Dr. E. GEHR prefixes, and especially the four forms each prefix may adoptwhere they occur-are apt to be used interchangeably, often without distinction of meaning or function. confused or applied indiscriminately by analogy. In some instances prefixes are Similar tendencies appear, however, in modern Khmer as well. l\:fany of the following examples are of Kinner origin; others are Thai or Chinese, treated in exactly the same way by analogy, just as Khmer may form derivatives from Chinese, Sanskrit-Pali or Thai roots. PREFIXION IN SIAMESE The vowel "a" The "am'' prefix is doubtful in Khmer; according to 1\tiaspero possibly always originally ''ram" en, CAun), e1nn (?) to bid farewell, take leave. The guttural series m~, n n*, il1, fl'j::, "'I ~HJ, "'l'il.,\?l'tl"ii11j, fl::-;l\?lfl~"iihj, f1h:'il... \?lfl'j~'111u, to distribute, disperse, scatter.... :uuiju, 'ti:u1j'ti~1j, ns::'i1:uljfu::'i-11j1j, to twitch, pucker, throb. " " " d 0 Li!l\Hl~, n::1illfl~hll?l, fl'j~1i11fls~ilej~l, angere, 1rr1tated. Uil to screen, conceal, nluil to cover, make a shelter, fl::m shelter. UCJril to go alongside, fl':i'ju"lf\1 nearby. fl::u'vifl, fls:a1l'lfl, fl'j:iuvifl to hit, collide. ~ is rare: m~ (to spread do«rn, go around, cruise), mn~ (to be separated, to slip, miss); fhll (to go away, withdraw), from tt1 (take leave). The palatal series ~g:, ug:, 'lf~, ~1,.;,, 111~, 'lf'!i:: ~ ehj near the edge, "ii~ileltl extreme tip. ~ tlhl tottering, threatening to fall, "l:f~j ElW overhanging (rocks). 0 UC!~, UU!'I~, 'lf1u'i1-n::: to cut, carve. UCI, "l:foa:::!'l to perforate. lj..,il to ~onceal, ~ni~ (this form is not considered correct) to hide, secrete. W'lfl, ~1W'Jfl group. * I jail to understand why the "an" p~refix sho~tld almost invariably be spellecl with n in S iamese.

100 AFFIXION IN SIAMESE 73 'iljjfl, 'il'n::wfl nol:lc (the root has disappeared in Khmer; it is preserved qj in Mon: ''m.nh"). lj..'j dim, '1!1~J1 dawn. ~')..! ' worrwd,. 'l!'.l~~'l..! ' to be perturbed. ;~ to take a short-cut, 'l!':i'~c\.. ~ short-cut. The dental series \?1~, ~1, \?11~ "' 'W11 projecting roof, \?l~!'wi1 ledge, overhangmg rock. t 'J')..l in turn, \?l~l'l'w, \?l'a~ld'\.j to Pct.trol, he on guard. chl~ to pass through, \?1C\e)~1, \?l'l'~!hl~ throughout (?) UlJ'\.1 flat, ~l'j'~ulj'\.j to throw down (?) to commlt, plan, ~1':i' to consider, resolve, plan. 'Cl'l~ to boast, display ostentatiously, ~1D'H1 (~1v1\?1) clown, ostentatious. Occasionally interchanged with guttural prefixes: i?l~lfl";i, fl'.illfi'j, n"'t.~ifl'j' scissors. \?l~lhh, fl-s::1je)l1 club, truncheon. V~':i'~U~, fl':i::u"~ instantaneous. \?l':i::t"l'\.1, fl1::11')..! to patrol. The labial series 11, 1h, u-s'd, u"'')..l, u11, u1, un:, I!J 11 contain, full, U~'il, U':i'::'il, lj':i''.l'il to fib. ;,lj flat, level, 1.h 1~, ih':i'l~ to l~ve1. l'l 0 d LVH~ ful, 1Jll'Wblj fulfil. 1fi~. U111fl~ to be born, originate, occy.r..nu, 1h1u scatter. 1tuu smooth, well-arranged, compose, lu~uu compare. fl')'j', u""l1fl1':i becoming, suitable. vhj able, daring, bold, u"'~al'il bold, daring. "Htl, 1.h~'l!JJ, N'l!lJ (t-t~"lfll) to assemble. ~'ill1 ('W~'il ~), U;'il\1, U':i~M, 1J~HI1 elegantly, neatly. ~na to rnake, create, U')..l~la to originate, produce. t~hl, Uh!L~')..l to walk. t~~ (1.U~) beautiful, 1h::t~ft, lj'l''h~~ to beautify. 1~:\J origin, beginning, 1b~1~lJ, t-t~l~lj to begin, initiate. Occasionally interchanged with guttural prefixes: v"').,\1~, n~i~, m~1"' stairs. to place side by side,

101 74 Dr. E. GEHR 1-h:::in, n:::wj"'n, n~~in goad, spur. Sometimes w is used instead of ~: 1~~lJ, W~1UlJ to flutter. "'' '"I LWCltl)t!VHll.1J accidenta 11 y. The liquids 1~, ':i"'~, ;,, rt~, ii 1 ~no rough, irritating, s~mu angered, peeved. tl~ to remain, sg;tj"'~ to restrain (?) ~. ~ rh to stop, destst, ':i~tl \1 restrain. 'Ylel\?1, s::yjej\?1 cast off. tfeh.j, iw~eju to hang down loosely. flfl impetuous, ll~~fl to hasten, accelerate. 11~ draw, sketch,!1~11\?l resembling a drawing. enu, fltellu ashamed. 1"'111 measnre, 1... \1",1'\?1 teu\1, ~118u\l inclined (According to Maspero the root. "ieng'' bas dis~ to survey. appeared Khmer-it is still in current usage in Siamese-whereas several derivatives ["pa-'' or 4 'pha-", "ro-", ''lo-'', ''lorn-ieug"] survive). The sibilant ffg;, ff\1, ftl (a-3j), ft's~!y.!y. uu portion, piece, ff~uu to be broken, in pieces. ool 1.., ool 1 nuu revo ve, encircle, ft'l111 tju arena, enc osure. ':i1l.l to collect, gather, 'fh 1"J3J regulate, control. 1~11, ffl11\l cheerful.., ~fl think, imagine, ftlufl retlect, recall. el~\1 indicate, call as witness, crl-a"l\1, ft'ljej~\1 claim falsely, offer oneself as a witness for money accomplice. i'l~, ff1~ll:i: abancfon, forsake (?) ~ 9.1 ff~vjejlj, ff1::'vi ejl.j to rebound. Sometimes interchanged with gutteral prefixes: ff::;tl'lfllj, "' f11:i1'vlejlj "'' to shake, tremble. fl'::vi'flu, t11~vi'e1u to rebound. ff::,ej, m:iej, t11~iej to cough. Apart from these there are in Siamese several prefixes derived from frequent elements of compounds, especially in names of plants and animals. Then again, the apparent prefix may be nothing but a euphonic addition preserved by analogy with genuine prefixes.

102 AFFlXiON in SIAMESE Thus :m: is derived from 'rujlfl meaning "fruit" in :u~j'l-l, lj~'w;n and other names of fruits or fruit trees. _In other languages of the Thai group (Ahom, Shan, Lao, Tho, etc.) and in old Siamese texts names of fntits are invariably compounded with "mak", e. g., ma};; :pao (coconut), male kuei (banana). In Ta Blanc "mak" is shortened to ''ma,'. On the stele of Rama Kamheng mango (l.l~~'lil) ir spelled 'l1'ljlfllj1\l ' (in Ahmn it is sur],h'i8ingly rnalc mo-mvng), tamarind (:u~ tn:u) 'V!JJlfl'lll:IJ. wt~1't1-low1'u has both spellings: '11lllfl'W"a~1, hut :IJ~'Ill:JJ, ~ l.l:;;!fl'g1e:j, etc. Prefixed "m" is not perjnissible in the Khme1 system (c. p. 69); there are a fe\v cases of an apparent :IJ IJrefix in Siai.uese, as also in Khmer. 1V1aspero explnin8 the latter as corrupted nasalized prefixes (''am-", ''r<un-'', etc.). Instances in Siamese occu1 apparently only before initial 't1 (and are never spelt m:). 'l'his suggests that some cases at l("nst are rea1ly infixed ll, as in 1~~.-m~~; r:! tr:l~ being an abbreviated form. Ahom has "m]-" and ''mr-" as initial groups: mrctt (camel)! mleng (white ant), mlep (lightning), mlen (to open the eyes), mlon (mulberry, egg), mleo (cat). Others, a!:l lj't1'w, :IJ't11'W, are perhaps originally couplets ('ljci'w :IJC!lh!), the euphonic prefi.xes of which seem often quite arhitrarily chosen (cf. p. 77). The reduplicated fol'in a~c~w!l~'c'l"l'hl also occurs. ljcllf1 and 'ljifl are obviously derivatives of 'ljlf1 and :IJ"'n, not of Cllfl and. Cl.,fl with which tlwy became associated afterwards. lj't1ltl m.eans ''to be destroyed'', the supposed root Clltl (striped, stre~lwd, of diverse colours). Khmer leay 1neans "to mix'', rorn.leay "to rnelt, to disolve". 'rhus Siamese Cl~'cllf.l and lj'g11u might conceivably both he corrupted forms of a lost derivative ;1Cl1U or ~lcllf.l. Actually, however, the root is not n1u at a.ll, but oa1u (to scatter); Khmer reay-ro-l-ea.y.. (to dissolve) 'rvm-l-eay (to scatter, disperse), with infixed "1 ". " and 1 vary in Siamese as in Khmer, thus 'l'o-l-eay becomes lo-leay=!l~~nu and ~rom~l-eay is corrupted to ~a1f.l. A secondary association with vhmu (from the root 'VI~l'l1U) seems probable. Similarly tfn-l.l;l\1: Khmer has leang (to wash)- 9~om-leang (to cause to disappear). In Siamese, ;H means ''to wash'' or "to destroy" ljcl~-:1 and lj~\l have only the, d 0 ')I ')I tl. latter significance. :JJal-l could be corrupte "al!lh; 111 3JN 1e!l ls lost. Dropped 't1 and -a is common enough in spoken Siamese antl is the rule in the nort.hern group of the Thai languages, if preceded l>y

103 76 Dr. E. GEHR another consonant. "Scalding'' is in Kinner r olealc, with a derivative ro-m-leale (to hnr11, s9ald). Cl';lt1 appawmtly is the root, (lost in Khmer) JJCl'Jfl the relic of the nasali:~.ed form. rrhe same explanation gl gl ~ ~ }' might account. for m-:mn; 'Cll.HJC11-L I cannot t. 1m~ k n f any pro 11"1 Ja) e explanation fol' Cll1-:IJCl11. \?1~ is shortened \?11 (eye) in ~1:n"'u (snn; always ta van in other Thai languages; cf. Malay mata hrt'l~i); \Ol~U (crah-eyo) =nail (alternatively spelt. \'llu) and, accordiug to Siam~ se authors, ~w (t1 ee) in ". gl names of t1 ees; ' (body) in namrs of animals, e.g., \?1~!'11 later changed to "il"a~l'u; \?l~uljfl becomes fi'j~uljfl or fi~uufl by analogy \Vith Kluner prefixes. A peculiar origin is claimed for prefixed fl in some cases: Siamese dislikes consonant groups atlll is apt to insert a short "a.'' (sirnilarly in Sanskrit cornpounds the final consonant of t;he first term is vocali:~.ecl, hut. is mute when t.he word is nsed alone: '<ll'llfl'l'j is prtmonnccd 'J1~'ll~fl1'J; 1J'VI'i1'J'-1J~'Yl~'il'J, etc.) 'iifl'il~1-.! and ~?tm1\?lh! are most1y pronounced (ancl sometimes written) ''ll.,flfl~'i1~'w and lfi'fln::u~'w. rrhus h!fl"il'llj becmnes 'Wfl Ot'illlJ and 1-.!flfl".f~"illlJ, in the same way 'Wflfl::'iltlfl, fl::~u, n::tll\1, etc. The vocalized final consonant of the first term is pr eserved and added to the second term even if the first. tenn is dropped. In m:v~l.j, m:iu, m:1v~h! the p1 efix would he the n nf 'lfl; ' similarly ~... flfl~!i!wi, fl~ 1u:u, etc. 'l'a.i Blanc clrops t]w final "k" of "mak" and "bok'' (flower) prefixing it to the following wol'd (? ): rna ka t urn (strawberry), bo lea drw (rose). The same prnfix is used with nmnes nf birds: nolc lea yo (magpie) and insects: 'fneng lea rlo p (cock chafer), perhaps by analogy. mechanism in Siamese :JJ~flal, ~. Phya Anuman discnve,red a similar originally 11:1Jlflc-l1. However, these explanations seem doubtful if one considers the fact that names of plants and animals beginning with ''k", "kh", "kra." and "t'', "ta", "tra" are very com1non in Khmer, which has neither 'Wfl, ~fl, ~.rfl nor i'j and does employ "deum'' (dom) with names of trees and other plants including vegetables. Khmer has no difficulties in pronouncing consonant groups; so that the iflfl~u\'11-j mechanism would not arise. rrhe following are a few examples: 'II

104 Siamese ~::uun, ~nuun, ~ :nuun, ~::11U11 \01Z1'11'1Hl flt'iihl, fl'a:o:'illwi f1 tvli!, fl';j t~i!* 1 f1 1 tvi:ij'y! 11 \01 ::n1 ~1, 'il ::n1 V1 "'l:l.l')'u AFFiXiON IN SiAMESE 'fltuljfl, 'flauun Khrner dom t~ra.bctc dam. tbeng tnot kdat khung khtom t1 a.knot, takuot khmu01 (?) 'rhe question requires further study. In poetry f1 or a is often added to monosyllabic words for the sake of met.re or euphony, as in ' v 9) U '11 'lflu '\'H'llU ff':it'v'l'hj:ij ' ')} J, ' ll'\1 "1111 'ClellJ 'fl'':itw':iil (<11::1-clil'WlU) ')} J, where ff':it is added to WHll.l to make it corresponf! to ff"awh 77 Reduplication Reduplication of the initial consonant (denoting freqnency or intensity) should not be confused with prefixion. 'I'he former is possible with whatever consonant the root-wol'd begins. In Khmer only non-aspirated consonants are reduplicated; reduplication of "y'', ''v'' and "r" is not found. These restrictions are not applied in Siamese..q q....q q ll-:l.lt:ij; im-m:t:ai'l':i; 1~1D:IJ-<f17::l<fi'H;:IJ; tl~-tl~ll~; Uti-UtU:IJ; 1'Hlii-'H:1'Hli!; 24 ~ fl':ijj-fl'jtfl':i:lj,!ii ~ "'.II Couplets Reduplication of the whole word is only considered here in cases showing prefixion. Maspero notes the following phonetic changes in the formation of euphonic couplets: The last vowel of the secend term is lengthened or changed or both; sometimes a final consonant is added if the first term ends on a vowel; the final consonant is dropped, modified or supplanted by "y''. The same holds good for Siame~e: * SPelt fl~\1 on the stele of l'v"t:ljl11til~.

105 78 bt. E. C:EHR,, II \?l::lpj\?l~1jllj "' "" CY:::eJ~Hf:::tEJl'J'U 1htutl::11E1h! ll:::~~ti:::~c) th:::r~"'uth::fltl\1 ~ ' fl'j:::uljfl'j:::u tl\1 fl:t lj h! Cl:: l,jf) ' :JJ "'... U'l~lil.1tl'IJ 1h::'ii fllh:::u i fl~eltlljfl~ufl:jj " " "'l fl'j:t'i"!:jj~fl'j~'i1:1j~ o:! t.;! 'J:::'\18\I'J:tU't'!ll I fl ':i::: fj ()II fl'j ~11 tl II.. 'II:; lj CJJJ'Il:::Ul.JlJ 'Yiti'm'ILCI I fl1~1fl'l'~11~ "" tl~'jhj'rllj " ' YI~Hifl'YJ~fJl'W 'JI.. w ~ 1 'W 1 w ~hi \1.t \?l:::fl'ah!wj::fl'.itl 'Cl~HHl~H'I~ElEJ "' Ql " a:::~fhl~u~ "' ~ El~CiflHl~Hl ~ fl~tj'wfl~tjf) 'i'l~!l " v1j'cl:::tm 01 I n-a:::mjfl 'r~'fflt'j 'll'it~"ll'illf.j?i, tl ~ ~JJ ej rt em n ~WlJfl ~.W1u 'J~'J~~'j~l:l The prefixes used in these couplets are quite often employed for purposes of euphony and rhythm only, sometimes apparently in their turn produced by reduplication (as in rt::nn~ m:'clcjii). In several instances prefixes are used that have no place in the regular system of affixion, e.g., :u~, EJ~, 'YI::, fl:::, 1'! Sanskrit prefixes Siamese authors note a few old exceptions to the rule that Sanskrit-Pali prefixes are used only, \'ith loan words from these languages: Vl'.l' (bad) added to Siamese 't! '11h! meaning ''hard of hear..: ing'' and "a difficult or dangerous way'', respectively. INFIXION Maspero distinguishes infixion by nasalization of the initial consonant of the root-word and infixion by infix proper. r. Nasalization The most common infix is am (ell), the so-called ''damleru" infix (forming verbal, causative, or substantival derh'atives in Khmer). fl'l'lj, ~l'a'u If the root begins with two consonants, i1 alone is inserted: complete. thhh1, ffluci\l harmful. fl11u, fll'.l'l1j to do obeisance

106 AFFIXION IN SIAMESE 79 Khmer initial ''cr" is sometimes changed to Vl:i (alternatively spelt "JJ) in Siamese. With "am" the ot iginal spelling re-appears: tti'i'hl to insert, '11111'H1 to penetrate, permeate. (cf. Khmer crek, c-cun-rek). If the root begins with a single consonant, it is nasalized by "drunleu/', the second syllable beginning with u having the original vowel of the root-word: 1ft\?l, ftllij\?1 originate. 1~ht, ~11iht walk., 0 ' '\llr.j, llll'pl'i.jlu distribute. ~ to censure, reproach, ~1'11lJ fault, failing. U~\1 arrange, appoint, assign, ~1uml\1 position, rank. lll"'u, 'ilr11u"u ( ~ntu) catch, arrest. "' 0 "' J. 'YIUU, i'lll'i.jt:l'u compare. ('PI before infixed. 'W seems to have the function to preserve the J original tone ( 'J'a':itll~fWl) in Siamese, which is, however, even without it often unchanged as, e.g., in rlll,j\?1). In Khmer, aspirates lose the aspiration if nasalized, or else the aspiration is shifted to the second syllable. in Siamese are: "llci'\1 strong, fiui"\1 strength. 'ii"u to eat, 'ii'\1'\,ru food for monks.,. thh'i (l:l~fla), ~lfl'c\ to establish. ~1\1 straight, direct., ~11\1 to straighten, stand, direct. t'\110, i-l11u givel, present. Ut'l'C\\1, ~111 a\1 tell, announce. Remnants of this rule In Khmer the nasal infix is "n" (exceptionally "m") if the initial consonant of the root is single and 1 'k", "c", "t", "p'', or "s"; "y" or "v''; or if it begins with a vowel. If the root begins with two consonants, ''ng'' is inserted before a vowel, guttnral, "v", ''r", or ''h''; "ft." before a palatal; "n" before a dental. In Siamese the following occur: u "ll\?1 to coil, roll, "'lll~ crookedness, being curled, twisted (?) U'lfl, [.JU'Jfl to add (Non-aspirates al.!e aspirated if they become

107 80 Dr. E. GEHR part of a consonant group). 1J1'lf, ~h!1'li to enter the priesthood.!ljfl, &~tjfl to open. U~tl broken up, divided, U!Nh!fl section. l'11j flat, level, s:;u11j to lie flat or level. lj... d k nw~ ev1atmg, 'litllju~ to oo away. 1lJ to fumigate, a~lj fumigated. lnfixion proper In Khmer only the labial "p" (Siamese u), the semi-vowel "y'' (u), and the aspirate ''h'' (11) are never infixed. All the other consonants of the original Khmer alphabet (''k", '' c'', "t", "d", ''b'', "v", ''r", "I", "s") occur as infixes. They form as a rule the instrumental, the ''m'' infix denotes the agent. In Siamese we find: a l~u~ deviating, lll~tl~ oblique, inclined. ttfl, ttcifl to :flay, skin. ~vu, lj~e:ju drowsy. 'J L~U-J deviating, m1u~ leaning to one side. 1J ;, to dance, 'a'tul a solo dance.. l'ltlj, illjltlj to fight. t:' "... ~, CI~U~ to sprout. L~UlJ in good order, smooth, l'~l~uu order, method. aej, C~::tm to be rumoured. l'llj, atlljlj to caress. :r i fhl to go, fl1::,ci to go away (?) ' 0 ' 'ii'jv, 'ii1'j'hj to help..!!. 11u, ( <J::J1) s::ffhj to scatter, be scattered (Khmer: reay, ro-s-ay) "il 'Ill~ to lose, be torn, lacking; '11~... ~ expel, disperse; ftl';j.. W~ (Khmer has khat; kh-c-~t; ings). k-ame-at with the same rneanp Cases of more than one derivative from the same root are comparatively rare in Siamese:.

108 AFFIXION IN SIAMESE ' QJ... fl1l'ih1; 'illu-'ihll'fl -'ill1h!1u; tf:!t1fl-{l' aflfl-'ll'l..!~; u~ -ihu"~ - n::ull-~lu\1;.. ott.. tl 0 ll~-ll~'ljwi-'lf~:l:i:l'?l; ~11J- 711J-'1Jl'l'11J-'J':;'I..!11J. lllcn spread down, go around; YHnW~ slip; fllihl be separated; ':i::'ljlw~ be scattered (Khmer: leat to spread; ph-leat slip, glide; lck-leat to move away; lo-bat explore, go around). Only before the liquids 1 and " (and the semi-vowel 1) does Siamese allow non-vocalized initial consonants. common Chinese root?) (Is Diui piat [to slip], a coincidence or is there a Maspero finds traces of suffixes ("k", "ng", ''r", and ''s") in Khmer, giving as example: leu (on); leuk (to lift) (L~t1); le,ung (rise) (a1~"); Zeus (more) (1~rr, 1~W~) be (deviate) (uu); belc (separate) (u~n); beng (divide) (au"); bes (gather, collect); ca, (engrave); cak (pierce); car (engrave) ('ill'l). This method of forming derivatives is, however, entirely lost. Similar systems of affixion are widespread in Austronesian and Austro-Asiatic langtuges. Blagden gives the following snrvey: PREFIXES Verbs of action, causative intransitive INFIXES Verbs of state, intransitive Substantives Achinese pe, pu me, mu -em-? Cham pa moe -en- -moe- -moe- -an- Khmer p, ph? Mon p, ph, b, ma ma? -m-,.amn- -n-, -an- -m- -m- (-~m-?) Prefixes ' 1 m", "b", "p",' 1 k", "t", infixes"-in-'',h-m-'? less widely spread "-1-" and ' 1 -r-?', are common to Indonef:lia (besides snffi:ces ''.n" and "-i"). ''P" is everywhere a causal prefix, "k" forms verbal adjectives and abstract nouns. Infix "-r-'' denotes duration or intensity; "-1-'', plurality, reciprocity, etc. ThuS also Sakai: l~t (ex-

109 82 Dr. E. GEHR tinguished); per lot (to put out a fire, cf. Mon: plat to be extinguished; palat to extinguish). Again Mon: lcawng (firm); palcawng (to make firm); pawt (break off); thapawt (to sever); lclon (to work); kamlon (work); klot (to steal); kamlot (thief). Bahnar has the prefixes ''p'', ''k", Ht'' ("k'', as in Malay, giving a passive nnance) and the infix "-n-''. An infixed "-d-" occurs before ''r''. According to Maspero, the derivative by 11 damlen" often follows its root (in Siamese it may precede it) in poetry or improvised recitation; similarly in Malay: gilang.gemilang; turun-temurun; silir-semili'l, etc. Reduplication and cou'plets are also found in Cham and in Malay; gasing-gegas'ing; lnyang-lelctyang; berapa-beberapa; bengkang.bengkok, etc. BIBLIOGRAPHY Ws~mm.Jn\?lrT 1ti'Cf11: el 1 fl'll'5~n 1948; tihifhl1' flll11:j1lvltl 1946 r!... 'UtJfttJ'YI'JlllH~: UlJlJ(;leJlJL'Jtllfl:iW,VJIJ 1939 ~'i1~u w"'tjliujbl et al.; m1nl~'i!j"lf~i'l~:wa 1948 W'.iZ'J':i11'VItl~ff~: ttct"'flll1lil1hlt'.j 1933 v ~ tl "' "" 01 lj 1~an~ "ll llj'vleh1: MaflflllillL'VItl 1940 UYIH-!fl'5~fl'l:W~l '.ilfl'.i::'vin-j1i1s:wfll'.i 1927 Maspero, M.: Grammaire de la langue Khmere. Paris Pallegoix, J.B.: Grammatica Linguae Thai. Bangkok Pallegoix, J.B. SiameseMFrench-English Dictionary. Bangkok McFarland, G.: ThaiMEnglish Dictionary. Bangkok Halliday, R.: 1.\fon-English Dictionary. Bangkok Winstedt, R.O.: Malay Grammar. Oxford 1913~ Lewis, M.B.: Malay. London Schmidt, P.W.: Bull. de l'ecole FranQaise d'extreme Orient (1907/8) Grierson, G.A. t..inguistic Survey of India. Calcutta Blagden. 0.0.: J. Royal Asiatic Soc. Straits Br. 38,1 (1902) Guesdon, J.: Dictionnaire Oambodgien-:B,ranQais. Paris Bernard, J.B.: Dictionnaire Oambodgien-Frangais. Hongkong Moura, M.: Vocabulaire FranQais-Oambodgien. Paris o.j Aymonier, E. et A. Cabaton: Dictionnaire Cam-Frangais. Paris Aymonier, E. Le Siam ancien. Paris Diguet, E.: Etude de la langue tai. Hanoi Ooedes, G.:. Recneil des inscriptions du Siam. Bangkok Minot, G.: DictionnaireTai Blanc-Frant;.ais. BEFEO XL, 1 (1940).

110 REVIEWS Ind-ia In, Maps, 44 pages, 11 statistical appendices The Indian Ministry of Information and Broadcasting is to be congratulated upon the publication of a great deal of interesting matter relating to the cultured and materialistic heritage of India, among which is the collection of maps and statistics under review. As stated in the preface: "The visual method of conveying the essential facts about a country is often more effective than the descri ptivo one... beginning with the physical features of the land, the political, economic, scientific and cultural aspects... have been portrayed... '' As to individual maps, it is noticeable that the races of India ( p. 9) are now to be classified along ethnographic rather than the former popular linguistic lines, thus: the former Rajaputana, which is now Rajasthan, is peopled not by Rajputs or Sikhs but by Mediterraneans, Orientals and Proto-Nordics; Assam by Palae-Mongo. loids; and a considerable part of Madras by Palae-Mediterraneans and Proto-Anstraloids. Prehistoric sites occupying a map to itself ( p. 11 ) are fonnd mostly in the south; whilst historical ones ( p. 12) cluster along the valley of the Ganges and its tributaries. The new political divisions ( p. 13) have of course been laid down in the new Indian Constitution. For historical comparison the map on page 14 'Integration of States' is interesting. A great deal of attention is devoted to edncatfon and culture ( pp ), to agriculture and produce ( pp ). Communi. cations occupy pp and tourism is provided for on page 23. Statistics are given in the appendices of newspapers in the various Indian and English languages (also in map on page 19 ). Most of the rest of the figures deal with product1on. - D.N.

111 Lee R. Y.: Commun~:st Th1~eat REVIEWS London, February 1951 vol. V 2. to ThaUand, in the Eastern vvo~rld, This is an interesting article and should be read although the reader is cautioned against being misled by the somewhat inaccurate opening statement that "Besides the two official papers belonging to the Chinese Communist Party CCC P) (the Chuan Min Pao, or ''People's Paper") and the Thai Communist Party (rr C P) (the Mahaxon or "Masses''), most of the other daily publications in Thai (namely the fortnightly Maitrisarn, the daily Xieng 1,hai) as well as in Chinese (fer instance, the Chung Nguan Pao) are definitely influenced by extreme left wing ideas.'' The author refers of course to Communist inspired papers and by the phrase ''most of the other daily publications in Thai" does not mean the majority of the Thai press which is distinctly non-communistic whatever other faults it may have. The Communist threat, according to this article, consists as yet of only propaganda, without large scale demonstrations, meetings, strikes and sabotage. "But,'' the author asks ''is this dangerous silence an indication of the weakness of the Thai Communist parties or just a question of party strat~gy?" Mr. Lee goes on to give the history and comparative strength of Communist forces in the country... The Thai Communist Party numbers 5,000 with some 300 well-trained militants; its progre ss depends largely on the Chinese Communist Party in Thailand... The Chinese Oommnnist Party with headquarters in Bangkok has a membership of 50,000 with about 1,000 well-trained militants. It controls the Central Labour Union and organised secret armed units in N.E. and S. provinces. It is the most dangerous threat to the security of the nation in view of the predominant place occupied by the Chinese in the economic sphere in Thailand. The Indo-Chinese Communist Party is strong in the N.E. where t.here are large colonies of Vietminb war refugees. Its membership is believed to be only 3,000 with a few hundred real militants.

112 REVI:EWS 85 'Phe threat, the author concludes, is real, due mainly to the existenc~ on rl'hai soil of the two most dynamic and best organised communist parties in Asia. the Chinese Communist Party and the Indo-Chinese Communist Party. Bangkok 29 June 1951 D.N. Victor Purcell: rp he Pos1'tion of the Chinese Zn, Srntlheast Asla 1950, 7t:\ pages. International Secretariat, Institute of Pacifi~ Relations, 1 East 54th Street, New York. Study submitted for 11th Conference of IPR at Lucknow, India, October (Paper based on the author's book, The Chinese in Southeast Asia. Purcell is Lecturer in Far Eastern History at Cambridge University and author of The Chinese in Malaya.) G. William Skinner: Report on tlw Oh1:neBe 'i n Southeast Asia ' December 1950, 91 pages. SoutJJ,east Asia Progt'am, Department of Fat Eastern Studies, Cornell University. rl'he Chinese in Southeast Asia have long been regarded as holding a position of major importance in the economic life of this region, but it is only in the last few years, since the rise of a militant and aggressiv~ regime on the mainland of China, that the political role of the ChinE:lse in Southeast Asia has come to be regarded as of equal significance. True, the overseas Chinese have always he en politically important in relation to internal Chinese developments. Their financial support of Sun Yat Sen, for instance, helped overthrow the Manchu dynasty in Byt the pressure of Communist China to expand beyond its geographic boundaries has centet'ed attention on the politieal weight of the overseas Chinese in relation to their host countries, for in certain nations of Southeast Asia their numbers and economic power can help to determine the success or failure of Red China's efforts to dominate this part of the world. Two short studies published in latter 1950 provide an excellent description of the position of the Chinese in Southeast Asia. One was written by a British scholar who has had a long acquaintance-

113 86 REVIEWS ship with the snbject, the other by a young American researcher who collected his material in the cotu se of a quick survey trip through the area last fall. Both studifs are preliminary in nature: Dr. Purcell's is a forerunner of his book, The Gh inese in. Smttheasl Asia, published early this year; Mr. Skinner's is derigne<l to provide basi<! information for fnrth('r research under Cornell University's Southeast Asia Program. 'rhe two studies complement each other very nicely. Dr. Purcell furnishes the essential historical background and minimum of current detail, while Mr. Skinner purposely neglects history in favor of concentration on the detailed picture as of the time he wrote the report in December Those who are able to get hold of both studies would clo well to read Dr. Purcell's paper first. It begins with an excellent eleven-page introduction, particularly valuable for its comments on the effect which the rise of nationalism has had on relations between Ohine'Se and the local peoples and govern. ments. There follows a te-dious analysis of the population distrihu tion of Chinese in Southeast Asia which is entirely too detailed and lengthy (33 pages) in proportion to the rest of the booklet. The remainder of the paper discusses the Chinese in Southeast Asian politics on a country-by-country basis, with the greatest attention being devoted to Malaya which the author maintains is the ''political key to the whole of Southeast Asia''. One may be inclined to take issue with Dr, Purcell's assertion that as Malaya goes, so goes Southeast Asia. He writ.es: "Above all, interest and anxiety concentrate on Mal~ya. The snccess or failure of the bandits in that country woulrl without doubt have a decisive efrect on the future of Communism an1ong all the countries of Southeast Asia.'' Almost all of Mr. Skinner's study is concerned with a detailed description of the sitnation in each country. He sets down his material about the Chinese in Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Burma, Singapore, the Federation of Malaya, Sarawak, North Borneo, Indonesia and the Philippines under eight uniform headings: population, occupations and business, regional and other organizations, education, the press, the political situatfon, relations with local peoples

114 REVIEWS 87 and governments, and research materials and facilities. The final ten pages summarize Chinese population estimates for the area, Chinese Communist policy regarding overseas Chinese, the policies of Southeast Asian governments toward the Chinese, and Chinese political opinion. Considering the short time Mr. Skinner spent on his study, it is remarkably comprehensive and accurate. 'rhere are a few factual enors, but none of any vital importance. There are few opinions with which to agree or. disagree, since Mr. Skinner's purpose was simply to present the facts, not to editorialize on them. The only serious drawback-and one for which the author can he held in no way responsible l-is that the paper is already out of date in certain respects, owing to developments which have occurred in the last half year. The increase in general interest in the Chinese in Southeast Asia, as reflected iu the publication of these two studies, is well placed. For the Chinese are destinild to play a critical role in this area for years to come. G.S. The T hi'l"d Yea'l", ( Pnblic::ttions Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. August 15, space 378 pages.) The attainment of political freedom on 15th August, 1947 by India immediately involved the newly formed national Governments in that country, both central and provincial, in th.e adventure of translating a long sought and nobly realized abstraction into the happiness and well being of a sixth of the human race. The task would have been formidable enough in the best of circumstances: what it beca1ne when complicated by the unforeseen refugee pro~ blems arising from the uprooting of mi1lions of people as a result of the partition of the Indian sub~continent is now a matter of history. In the circun1stances, a factual review of the progress of Indian administration has.much of interest to students of affairs, particularly those in the ueighbm1ring Ash'n countries. 'rhe present book,

115 88 REVIEWS rcdat.ing a~ it dot s l11 tl11. third. eal( nd:u yt at nf lht Ill'\\' Iudia'H lift'. :ml:lwerk t.jl]k th ed in a emupaet and r uadablt> forlll. 1 ''l'hc Third Yt al''\ llrihui11g as it nt c~< H::;:arily it-i witlt r:wt\'i awl figul t~k'', hah nn lit.prnry or arti:..;tie Ill't~h nhions. Hut it~ Yahtf' lit ~ in its heing an ohj1 et.in ::-;nmmary of t hl' t argvts l-it!, and t ht rn n gre88 math~ towartl.s their al'hit~n nh nt, in all flh uwn imjllll't ant dc.partruen!h of pnl>lie :ulmin.if:!tration in the variow~ (}ovi'l'iltnt nt~ of India, central and Htatc. It is a h!'iof lmt rp1iahll lmuk of rt fl'l't'ill'.e for thn8u intprcst.t~d in the eomparat.ivc Ht.udy of tlw t.~t ouomi<' awl soein.l tlc volnpnwut of the eonntrit H nf this rt gicm. Sueh l't. adt I'H wilj find inftu Ination on tho multiplieity nf maf.ters falling \t.:ithin t.lw svju.'l'l~ of t.lv~ eentl'al Iwlian GovermnPnt in thl fi1 :-;t Jmrt of the book, srtch ah <I dunce, foruign relalion:-:, eothmmlieat ion:-~. r<:dtahi I it a U on, indnht ry, ute. 'l'lw third part. l'l'1at.ing to l':lnbjt (,th in tht pm~ vineial Kphm e, dualt; wilh snch nmtters as agrarian t eform, KiUtita" t,ion, villagu solf-govurnmc ut, o~.,~. 'fhe lay l't~;ulor will pc~rhaph fi.nd tltt' Hneowl part. tlloht inlt~r H! i ug, (or it is lllit<lu up of Hnnw It a! f <lnx!'h H[H'<~iall y <'Olllt'i hut t. d m t.ie]t\h by woll-lo,;own lndiam;, lhr(.]j ollieials awl uon-ofli<dalh, on Hlwh snl>juels iu:l UH IH'VHH, Iudi:~'s <atlt.ur:d <.outaetr~, Uw pt ogrt. HK of t.ho H<H;allod "deprohi::h.!tl elilsuh, '' (!te. 'l'hc pnhlieal ion of this ruvh~w, on Lhn <'VI' of tlw <'XJH'<~h d appuaraneu of a Hl!e(5Uuding volnuw on "'l'lw l!'onrth Yt\:tt," may, it ih hopud, rthkih(, l'l ad<.\l'h to HHKel:\H J'or t.lwlljkidv~>h tlw (ll'oi.l'j'('hh of tlu~ efforth of thch:ie gl'appliug with onu of t.lw uloht. faheinatiug H t xad ~ ing elmllungos <lic lnmmn hiht.ot y--uw ru<.oukt.ruef.ion o1: Ow ~:~eeond m.ost populous conntry of tho present day world. B.D.

116 RECENT SIAMESE PUBLICATIONS 58-G2. Correspondence between the Somdech Princes ('rheir Royal Highnesses Prince Naris and Damrong (rl'l~ufflll~lfl) Vol. I. published on the occasion of the cremation of the late Phya Manopakorn, 216 pages, 1949; Vol. II. published on the occasion of the cremation of the late Phya Mahindra. 193 pages, 1950; Vol. III. published on the occasion of the cremation of the late Phya Sri Dharmadhiraj. 130 pages, 1950; VoL IV. published on the occasion of the cremation of the late Mom Ohoem Diskul na Ayndhya, 239 pages, with an index, 1950; Vol. V. published on the occasion of the cremation of the late Mom Wan Ngonroth na Ayudbfa, 80 pages, In.JSS Vol. XXXVII part 2, mention was made in the Review of Recent Siamese Publications No. 34 (p.159) of the correspondence between their Hoyal Highnesses Princes Naris and Damrong~ thus: "The brothers were separated by force of circumstances from 1933 onwards, the latter taking up a voluntary exile in Penang most of the time. As may be expected, the correspondence contains much interesting material for the student of Siamese history, customs, art and archaeology. Such matters should be catalogued and perhaps separated fr<j..m the personal side of the correspondence.'' The above~qnoted remark was made in reviewing a magazine called VaTasctr SUpakorn, or Fine Arts Journal. Since then the five volumes under review have been published in hook form, though the subject-matter has appeared from time to time in the Journal since that first number reviewed as quoted above. My criticism as above quoted still applies with the exception of Volume IV which contains a much desired improvement, namely the index. I know for a fact that the improvement bas been due to the initiative of

117 90 RECENT SIAMESE PUBLICATIONS one of the mourners on that occasion who happens to be our Hon. Secretary. Picking up a few examples of the sort of matter these letters contain, let me give a few interesting points: In philology, the Siamese language is passing through a phase of extensive developments in such a way that many old words have become obsolete and unintelligible within one generation. The generic terms by which old naval craft were designated, for instance, have become very difficult to understand. Even scholars like these P1 inces wet e beginning to discuss the exact meaning of the names of classes of old warships. What, for example, was the Rna King, or th~ Rlia Jai? The subject is covered in VoL I, p, Philology, in fact, is among the subjects taken up by these letters. In customs and usages, discussions of Burmese Palatine Law which were translated by instahnents by Prince Damrong and sent.. to Prince Naris (from the Gazetteer of Upper Burma by Sir George Scott) drew forth many interesting conclusions and parallels (Vol. IV, pp. 65, 78-, 97, 107 and 127). Choreographic art, in which Prince Naris was to a certain extent an expert, received a very fair share of treatment (Yol. IV, pp ). Prehistory is a subject now and again dealt with in successive letters in several parts of these "\J''lurues. Ceramics and a somewhat guarded attitude towards the findings of Phya Nakon Phraram regarding his finds at Kalong, forming the subject of a long illustrated article in the JSS (VoL XXIX, ) are worthy of note (Vol. IV, pp. lt'4 et seq.). These examples of what the four volumes contain by no means exhaust their contents or their more interesting points. No one, however, can be expected to read through these letters exhaustively, especially when in want of reference. Indices or tables of contents would be the natural solution. As usual with cremation books, each is prefaced by biographical notices of the deceased in whose honour it is dedicated. Volume I contains a photograph, a biography, and two dedications by his

118 RECEN-t SIAMESE PUBLICA!IONS 91 colleagues Pbya Deb Vidura and Phya Sri Visaravacha. Born in 1884 of a Bangkok fami.ly, Nai Kon~ as he originally was, '\vas called to the bar at the age of 19 and entered Government service in the Ministry of Justice. He was created Lna.ng Pradist Picharnkarn in 1905 and then sent to further his education in England, where he was called to the English Bar. Among the higher posts in \vhich he served were those of The Under-Secretary of State for Agriculture, His Majesty's Private Secretary for Legal Affairs, Legal Adviser to the Board of Commercial Development., Judge of the Supreme Court of Dika and finally when the Revolution of 1932 broke out was entrusted with the leadership of the first Democratic Govei'mnent. Phya Mabindra Dejanuvat., to whose memory the second volume was dedicated, was a civil servant in the Ministry of the Interior, in which he rose from humble posts to the governorship in succession of several provinces, finally attaining to the highest post in the service-that of the Lord. Lieutenant of a Circle. His circles were successively those of N akon J aisri and N akon Swan. A photograph, of course, accompanies the biography. Phya Sri Dhn.rmadhiraj, to whom the third volume is dedicated, also rose in the administrative service of the state. After serving in the Public Health Department of the Ministry of Local Government he was promoted to the Under-Secretaryship of State in the same Ministry, where he remained "until his retirement after a long service. He was known to be an ideal Under-Secretary of State for he was responsible for the general routine work of the administra. tive service, He was moreover a connoissenl' of ar\ and known to be a man of high taste. The volume contains at the end some 28 pages of the history of the deceased nobleman's family, which traced its descent to a high official of the Royal Household in the days of Ayudhya, whose son, Bnneod, served King Rama 1 in various important capacities, was finally created Chao Sri Dharmadbiraj, Minister of State. It is natnrally fitting that one of these volumes should be dedicated to Mom Ohoem Diskul na Ayudhy a for obvious reasons. Born of a family which also traces its ancestry to the founding of

119 RECENT SIAMESE PUBLICATIONS the present dynasty and ita capital of Bangkok (that of the Sandbiratna) the deceased lady was a daughter of a former governor of Prachin. Becoming the consort of His Royal Highness Prince Damrong, she was known and respected by all who came into contact wit.h the Prince whose fortune she shared all her life. A noteworthy photograph of a gronp containing her own portrait with her six children and their families, totalling 14 in all, a single portrait. of herself and one of the two royal authors standing together in Penang make up the pictorial side of the volume. Her ancestor Nai Son (as he originally was) was the secretary to King Rama I, when he was Chao Phya Ohakri, Prime Minister of the Kingdom at t.he time of the King of Thonlmri. Nai Son, when his chief acceded to the Throne, was 1nade First Minister of the Iu terior -or Prime Minister of the North-succeeding his chief in the identical post. He was also created Chao Phya Ratnabibidh. Two of this nobleman's sons became., successively Minister of the Royal Household and Chao Phya Dharma, ft om one of whom Mom Choem was descended. 'rhe choice of a further instalment of this correspondence for publication at the cremation of Mom Wan was almost as fitting, fo~ the deceased lady, a nonagenarian by the way, was mother-in-law ~ ~ to one of the two Royal authors, Prince Naris. 63. H.M. King Rama VI: Asurend rachrit (ej'!!"a'hll'l:i"ill~l?l), wri.tten in the style of khampak 45 pages, 2493 (1950). In spite at. the fact that the complete whole, if it ever was accomplished, has not been found, the commencement of what would have been a voluminous metrical translation of the Uttara. kcmdct of the Rlt.mayana of Valmiki has now been published by the Department of Fine Arts, sponsored by the mourners of Nai!Goy Klaipongpandh, to whom the volume is dedicated on the occasion of his cremation. In a preface, reproduced in the original beautiful handwriting of the King, it is pointed out that the aim in writing these verses was to supply for Siamese readers that part of the Uttarralchnda which dealt with the origin of the Yaksha dynasty of

120 RECENT SiAMESE PUBLICATIONS 93 Lanka, to which the demon-king Thosakanth (Ravana) belonged. Stray and inaccurate stories of the demon-king exist in the Siamese RiunaJcien but they are not told in the systematic way in which the story is reproduced in the ancient Sanskrit classic. Unfortunately, out of the whole 14 chapters mapped out by the King in that translation only two and a part of the third have been discovered. King Rama VI excelled in this khampak type of verses. Being a Siamese Buddhist, the King kept to the tradition prefacing his work with an invocation to the Buddha and then went on, like a liberal Buddhist, to acknowledge the cultural debts he owed to Hindu literature by paying homage to the Hindu deities. 64. Vajiranana, H.R.H. Prince: A Biog1 aphy of the Buddha, Vol. II (WYiliU'a~'l.. ~ll a:u ~), G6 pages ' 'rhe author was Supreme Patri:rch of the Kingdom during the reign of Rama VI. Following in the footsteps of his illustrious father, King Mongkut, the Prince was a great reformer of the Buddist Church of Siam. One of his most spectaculaj.' reforms was the re-organisation and modernisation of learning, lay and clerical. He broadened the clerical cunicnlum and changed the method of clerical examination from.an oral to a written system. With such an object in view it became necess::try to write modern texbooks for the use of monastic candidates for graduation in the Buddist Holy Scriptures. The texbooks he personally wrote ranged from Pali grammar, a manual of Buddist Lore for novices called the N avako~ vztd, an elementary rear.ler in first aid, an English primer and the Biog'raphy of the Bttddht:t,.of which this is the second volume. Of this latter work he published at first the first and third volumes but, curiously enough the second was not available. It was th~.:~n understood that he had not finished it. Quite recently parts of this second volume have been discovered. On each anniversary of his demise for the last 30 years, his disciples headed by the present Patriarch of the Kingdom have been publishing mementoes for the occasion in the form of booklets on

121 94. RECENt SIAMESE PUBLICATlONS religious snbjects, usually compositions of the late Prince. In 1950 there were published these newly discovered nannscripts, consisting of three commencing chapters, dealing with the history of the Buddha's mission from the first year of his career. The account is presented in accordance with the successive localities through which he went in the first flush of his wission-magadba (modern Bihar)' where he enunciat,ed h1s theories after the enlightenment and won an ally in the person of its King Bimbisara; Sakka, which he turned to next probably because it was his homeland, and Kosala, the great state in the north of India. The relation of the story is then abruptly ended and it is only ob'vions that the chapter on Kosala is nowhere near being concluded. rrhe treatment adopted throughout in each of the three chapters is uniform, first a description of the country in which the narration takes place and then the incidents in their sequence. One cannot help thinking,.that could some historian, especially among the monastic communities, find time and leisure to complete what the royal scholar bad planned to do that man would be rendering immeasurable service both to his Oh urch and to the great scholar's revered memory. ~.II J 65. Sthirakoses: The Story of Heaven ( l'a"eh1ujt!hf1'shl ) 95 pages, One wonders how many people have managed to read and digest that wonderful relic of XIIIth century Siamese scholarship, It popularly known ns the Tnt,.ibhft1ni Pht n Ruang. Its original title as given by the royal author was the Tebhitmikath(i, the "Story of the Three Worlds''. It is believed to have been written by Lithai, fifth King of the Sukhothai Kingdom. It is indeed a prescribed book in the syllabus of Arts course of Ohulalongkorn University, and, one presumes, the bachelors of art of that seat of academic le.arning.would he conversant with it. ~t any rate an ordinary man-in-the-street like the reviewer, though ever interested to know what it contains, will have to confess

122 RECENT SIAMESE PUBLICATIONS 95 to not having got through what looks to him like a regular stodgy pudding which is absolutely unnegotiable. On coming across the little volume under review, without being aware of its connection with the famous old classic, he began to read it only to find stated right at the beginning that here is what be has been in need of all this time-a summarj 7 of the three parts of it. of the Tebhilmilcatha J.;_or at least of one According, then, to Sthirakoses, the best known or most frequently mentioned parts of heaven form a series of lands super~ imposed one upon the other with the Mount of Sumeru as their pivotal support. Sumern rises out of the la.nd of men which is surrounded by seven sets of oceans and mountain-rings. Beneath the level land of men, in the manner of Nibelheiro of Germanic mythology, is hell, a place of torments like hell anywhere else in the minds of men. Above it, like Walhalla, is heaven. The best known heavens are those of the Fon~ Guardians of the Universe,and the land of the 1'hirty-three (Dawadings- the Pali is Tavatinsa). Over the former rule the Four Guardians, Indra, Varuna, Yama and Kuvera, each in his own quarter. of the former, rules Indra, the Paramount Lord. Over the latte.r, which is on top it One would like to call to the attention of the author (Sthirakoses) the fact that these four Guardians are identical with the principal Vedic gods. It would therefore show that this he:tvenly system is nearer to Vedic than the golden age of Sanskrit litel'ature when Buddhism had gone out of India; which finding would fit in with the chronology of Indian History regarding the Buddhist era. Other heavens above this snperstnctare are somewhat cursorily descl'ibed. They include the spiritual and forr.nless Brahma world. This presentation of the subject by Sthirakoses is, as usual, lucid and simple. It is however, marred, now and then, by topical and humorous comments which make it somewhat difficult to sieve the real subject matter. If read as a diversion, all this might add to the lightness and charm of the whole presentation. Very few however, one would imagine, would pick up a book like the Tebhumikatba and read it for pleasure. Most wo~ld probably read it with

123 96 RECENT SIAMESE PUBLICATIONS a view to literary comparison and for them such witty interpola. tions are not desired. 66. The Constitution of Thailand (Siam) 2492, with an English translation. ( t~:o:i :i:u~i:jl!t ~hr:n'lhll'illl'\l... fl 1h!f.J [!mld o kn] u 'i'l~~ luurl f\una"'~ flt"j1:1) 2l/63/8/45 pages In honour of the late Phya Deb Vidura, a distinguished jurist, especially in its academic aspect., this valuable volume has been published for distribution to guests attending the late nobleman's cremation. 1 he volume is, as is usual, prefaced by a short bio. graphy of the deceased, who after a distinguished career at Gray's Inn, was admitted to the English Bar with first class honours. His career back home was no less distinguished. He becan1e finally President of the High Court of Appeal (Dika). When the Revolution of 1932 broke out, he was amoq.,g the elder officials ontsid l the circle of promoters of the Revolution who was invited to join the first cabinet, in which he remained as Minister of Justice for a year. Vicissitudes of politics having ended his legal career, he continued to serve in various posts, the last of which was as a senator in Illness and death intervened. The Constitution of 2492 was one of the last of his legal works and it should be mentioned in this connection that the deceased was an active member of the Constitutional Assembly which drew np the present Law of the Constitution of Its English translation was the joint work of three jurists-chao Phya Sri Dharma- ~ dhibes, Phya Sri Visaravacha and Dr. Saiyad Saeng.Uthai. They had the co-operation of the man-of-letters, Phra Rajadharm, now Speaker of the House of Representatives. 67. Devi Vhsavadatth (l'vl~ 'Jlff'JVI..\?1\?11), a Sanskrit play in 6 acts by Bb as a translated into Siamese by Dusdimala, 104 pages This being a review of the Siamese translation of the Sanskrit classic, it will only call for an indication of the merits or oth9rwise of the translation and not of the original play itself. The translator

124 RECENT SIAMESE PUBLICATIONS 97 mentions in her introduction that she has attempted to render her version as accurately as possible from the English translation of the original classic by P. Charandas, B.A. Wher<il the original Sanskrit was in verse it has been faithfully reproduced in Siamese klan. Without comparison with the Sanskrit original, it seems reasonable to accept her statement for DusdimaH1's painstaking translations are well-known. Her Siamese diction both in prose and verse, is more eloquent than former works. The reviewer must however, repeat a reservation. The rendering of Indian and western verses by the Siamese klvn does not convey their full poetic significance, for the Siamese klon has a different structure. Its main consideration is rhythm and not quantity, Both systems have their advantages and disadvantages. In Siamese prosody, however, the Chanda also exists. It would be a true correspondent of these verses, 68. At'ts (!tehlrlrnj) 50 pages This volume, dedicated to the late Phra Saroj on the occasion of. the cremation of his remains in April 1950, consists of five essays on art and kindred subjects. Some of these are from the pen of Professor Silp Birasri, formerly C. Feroci, of the University of Arts, Bangkok. They are prefaced by~ val~dictory matter dedicated to Phra Saroj as well as a short biography by the late Phya Sarasastra Sirilakshna who was, until his death, Senior Vice-President of the Siam Society. In the first of the essays Professor Birasri bemoans ~he increasing tendency of the times, especially in this country (and,'may I add, other lands foreign to western culture, which are trying to a(!.opt it piecemeal?) to neglect the foundation of our own culture in favour of western materialism. This protest is not merely critical but offers constructive solutions which are worth the attention of the powers-that-be in the Siamese world of culture, The second deals with unity in art with illustrations in the traditional style of the national art. It is a technical subject.

125 98 RECENT SIAMESE PUBLICATIONS The third discusses the line which should be drawn between the artistic and the obscene in painting and sculpture, for the traditional art of our people, like mediaeval western art, allows of no :t;latnralistic portrayal in this matter. 'l'he fourth is again a technical discussion of outline, illustrated also with Siamese designs. The fifth is a critical description of some of the sculptured exhibits of the annual exposition of 1949 staged by the Royal Fine Arts Department. All these essays, according to the introduction of the Royal Fine Arts Department, were translated into Siamese by Phya Anum an Rajadhon, the recently retired Director-General of the Department. Bangkok. 29th June D. N. 69. Anuman Rajadhon, Phya: A Brief Survey of Cultural Thailand. illustrated, 6 pages Surveys first the history of the land and the peoples which have successively occupied it; and proceeds to touch briefly on various branches of t.he national culture, namely: architecture, sculpture, painting, music and drama~ the shadow play, literature and the minor arts (lacquer, silver and gold work and pottery). It is judiciously and artistically illustrated. One passa~e is noteworthy and is perhaps an ori{jinal finding which is worthy of the author's erudition (p. 2.) [ fi'c;hl\1 ]. 12th June D.N.

126 ANNUAL RE:PORi The Annual General Meeting terminating the year 1948 was held on March 9th,1949 at the Society's Home, No. 60, Asoka Road, Bangkapi, with the President, His Highness Prince Dhani Nivat, in the chair. 'rhe Council for 1949 was elected as follows : H.H. Prince Dhani Nivat Phya Sarasastra Sirilakshna President, Senior Vice-President and Leader of the 'rravel Section. H.H. Prince Prem Purachatra, B.A. Vice-President, H.E. Chao Phya Sri Dharmadhibes Vice-President, Mom Chao Ajavadis Diskul Hon. Secretary, O.F. Grove Hon. 'rreasnrer, Mom Rajawongse Snmonjati Swasdikul Hon. Librarian, Olcott H. Deming Hon. Editor of the Journal, U.L. Gnehler Leader of the Natural History Section. Mom Luang Pin Malaknl, M.A.., Sanya Dharmasakti Ohaloem Pnranananda, M.D. Ariyant Manjikul, Phya Anuvat Vanaraks, Phya Arthakariya Nibond, W.A.M. Doll, Colonel Elliott H. Thorpe, Luang Jamni Kolakarn, H.E. Mr. Bhagwat Dayal, Lauriston Sharp, D. Sc. rrhe new Council upon taking office appointed the following standing committees ;

127 too ANNUAL REPORT i949 FINANCE: The Senior Vice-President (Phya Sarasastra Sirilakshna), Chairman, The Honorary Secretary, The Honorary Treasurer. EXCHANGE: The Honorary Librarian (Mom Rajawongse Sumonjati Swasdiku1), Chairman, The Honorary Editor of the Journal, U.L. Guehler, W.A.M. Doll. EDITORIAL: The Honorary Editor of the Jonrnal (Olcott H. Deming), Chairman, The Leader of the Natural History Section, H.H. Prince Dh ani Nivat, H.H. Prince Prem Purachat.ra, Colonel Elliott R. Thorpe. 'rhe following changes were made on the Couneil during the year: Colonel Elliott R. 'l 1 horpe and Dr. Lauriston Sharp resigned from the Council owing to their departure from Siam for the United States. Mom Rajawongse Sumonjati Swasdikul resigned from the Honorary Librarianship of the Society but still remained on the Council. rrhe position of the Honorary Librarian was taken over by Miss Mary Anglemyer, who was co-opted in June During (I} the year under review the Honorary rrreasurer was absent on home leave for six months and during his absence Mr. H.G. Frandsen was in char"e of the Society's accounts in the capacity of Acting Honorary Treasurer. There were three other co-options as members on the Council, namely, Mr. J.J. Boeles, Phya Anuman Rajadhon and Mr. C. M. An* derson, the first two to flll the vacancies caused by the resi~nation of Colonei. Elliott R. 'fhorpe and Dr. Lauriston Sharp as already mentioned.

128 ANNUAL REPORT The Council held eleven business meetings during the year. Five meetings were held at the Society's Horne in Asoka Road and six meetings at th President's house in Pechabnri Road. At the close of 1949 the Society's membership was as follows: Honorary 17 Corresponding 10 Free 4 Life 22 Ordinary 275 Associate 36 making a total of B64 as compared with 343 in 1948, 292 in 1947, 207 in 1946 and 160 in The number of members keeps growing month by month and it is again with great gratification that the Council is able to report that this figure is the highest on record ~s compared with the previous years. 'rhe Society arranged the following meetings during the year : Ordinary General J\ieetings: On Febrnary 11th, 1949: Att8l1Ytlia.n films supplied by the Australian Consulate-General were shown; On March 9th 1949: R. Lingat, Ph. D., of the Faculte de Droit de l'indochine lectured on The Evoltttion of the Concept of Law in Bwrmr.t and S1:am''; On March 21st, 1949: H.l-1. Prince Prem Purachatra, Professor of English of Oh.ulalongkorn University, lectured on "Learning without 'I' ears''; On May 17th, 1949: Nai Kamol Janlekha, Lecturer -of the College of Agriculture, Kasetsatr University, lectured on "'The Siarne8e Rive F a,rrmer and His Economic Problems"; On May 20th, 1949: Siva Narayana Sen, Dr. Litt. (Paris), archaeo~ logist and anthropologist, formerly of the British Museum and Victoria and Albert Museum, London and of Nepal Museum, Nepal, lectured on "Nepal and the Nepalese''; On May 26th, 1949:, Indian films supplied by the conrt~y Indian Legation were shown; of the

129 io2 ANNUAL REPORT 1949 On June 14th, 1949: Mom Hajawongse Seni Pramoj, lectured on "l(ing._7jfonglc-ut as a, Legislatm ''; On July 22nd, 1949: Aust'l alian. Injo rmation filmb were shown for the second time: On September 27th, 1949: Professor Ralph E. Turner, Sociologist and Durfee Professor of History at Yale University, former Professor at the University of Iowa, University of Minnesota and the American University in Washington, D.O., lectured on "The S or:,ial Pro j ec Uon of ~9 ci ence"; On October 28th, 1949: Mmn Luang Xnjati Kambhn, Acting Direc" tor-general of the I rrigat.ion Department, lectured on Something about TV ater in 'Tlwila11.d"; On November 29th, 1949: Dr. Amiya Ohakravarty, D. Litt., Visiting Professor at the Howard University, Washington, D.O., lectured on "Oultura.l Relrtiionshi rps bettoeen India and Sican" ; On December 30tb, 1949: Professor Harold H. Fisher of Stanford University, California, U.S.A., Chairman of the Hoover Library on War, Revolution and Peace and Director of the Civil Affairs rrraining School, U.S.A. lectured on "R ussia''; On January 20th, 1950: Sir Eugen Millington-Drake, K.O.M.G.,Vice President of the Poetry Society,, London, Representative of. the Royal India and Pakistan Society and formerly Chief Representative of the British Council in Spanish America, lectured on ''The Poetry oj Asia and the Arner1:cas"; On January 37t'h 1950: Btin Aung, Ph. D. (Dublin), Barrister-at Law, Fellow of the University of Rangoon, Professor of English and Administrator of Rangoon University, lectured on ''The Burmese D1nama' '. Natural History Section's Meetings: On September 12th, 1949: Colin C. Sanborn, Curator of Mammals at the Chicago Natural History Museum, U.S.A., lectured on "The Er.r:pedition of the Ohicctgo Natu1-ctl HistoTy Museu,m in Siam''.

130 'l,ravel Section's Meetings: ANNUAL REPORT On July ihst, 1949: Excursion trip to Wat Sai and Wat Raj-Oros on the west bank of the Chao Phyn. River; On August 21st, 1949: Visit to Wat Bovoranives. One publication was issued in June 1949, namely the Journal of the Siam Society, Volume XXXVII, Part 2. Another Journal has been completed, namely.journal of the Siam Society, Volume XXXVIII, Part 1, and is now being forwarded to members. The financial position of the Society remains 9atisfactory as in the former years, showing a surplus of Baht 5, over the expenditure at the end of 1949, which enables the Society to transfer Baht 5, more to fixed deposit account in the Siam Commercial Bank, Ltd., bringing the total of fixed deposit account to Baht 27, as compared with Baht 22, in It is to be noted with some sat~faction that the work of the Siam Society is being geadually realized by a wider circle of learned and International Institutions as evidenced by invitations to their Conferences and similar courtesies. Unfortunately on account of our members being mostly men who have their individual business or calling to attend to, most of them had to he declined. One act of great courtesy should be recorded. The Rockfeller Foundation, of its own accord, suggested giving a grant-in-aid to our Society for the support of an American scholar, Mr. William J. Gedney, doing reseacrh work in Siamese literature in Siam, on condition that the P1 esident of the Siam Society made a forg1al request in that scholar's favour. This was duly complied with and Mr. Gedney has benefitted by a substantial grant-in-aid to last for a year. 'l 1 he Library received 132 copies of books and periodicals from local as well as foreign institutions during the year. Among the donors it should be mentioned that the Yale University presented a gift of 14 books to the Si am Society's Library through the courtesy of Professor Ralph E. Turner, who passed through Bangkok and lectured to the Siam Society on September 27th, 1949 on tlte subject of ''The Social Projection of Science".

131 104 Sundry Creditors: Liabilities Subscriptions prepaid per 31112/1949 Consignment Account : Otto Harrassowitz, Leipzig Reserves: General Heserve Balance as at 31/12/1948 Add reserve for Home's Electric Wiring Repairs Balance as at a1/12/1948 Set aside dudng 1949 Book Purchases Balance as at 31/12/1948 Set aside during 1949 Less Pm chases during , ()4.40 3, , , , ,000, THE SIAM Balance Sheet as at 8, G,OOO.OO 3, Further Printing of Craib's Ifilorae Balance as at 31/12/1948 1,f Publication of "The Sancttutry of the Sacred :E'ig-rrree" Contribution received durin$ , Excursions Set aside during 1949 Surplus: Balance as at 31/12/1948 Less 'rransfer to Reserves during 1949 Add Excess of Receipts over Expenditure during 1949 Baht {)71.10 t , , , , ,618.9ti 12, Audited and found to agree with the books and vouchers. L.F. Sequeira. Honorary Auditor. Ba/lL{Jlcolc, 28th February ,860.75

132 SOCIETY 31st December 1949 Fixed Deposit: Assets rrlle Siam Commercial Bank, Ltd. Cash and Bank: Cash in Hand rrhe Siam Commercial Bank, Ltd., Current Account Sundry Debtors: Orienialia, Inc., New York, U.S Accrued Assets : Accrued interest as at 31/12/1949 Consignment Account : Otto Harrassowitz, Leipzig Baht 27, , , , ,860.75

133 106 THE SIAM Financial resume Receipts Subscriptions: Ordinary Members, Current Year Ordinary Members, Overdue Accounts 5, 7~2t).00 l,u;>(l,oo Life 11:embers 1, 9i)2.~>0 Baht 8, 70~.!">0 Sale of Publications: Journal of the Society Sundry Receipts : Bank Interest Foreign Exchange Adj ustme~ Snrplus from Excursions... 5,59(i.GO 'l'he Bulletin (Nat ural History Supplement ti76.00 Le May: Coinage of Siam... : Catalogue of the Stamps of Siam 7.00 The 1\Ion Dictionary 1! B'l R4:5.iHl fhi5.10 G,liG3.60 1, Bangkok, 28th February C.F. Grove Honorary Treasurer. 17,342.87

134 SOCIETY of the year 1949 Home's Maintenance : Wage to Caretaker Fire Insurance (Baht ;300,000) Electric Current Water Supply White Ants Control Library and Stock of Publications: Salaries to Clerks Expenditure Insurance of Library and l!,urnitnre Misc. Expenses and Delivery Charges Secretarial and Editorial: Printing of Notices and Stationery Supplies Postage and Revenue Stamps and Misc. Expenses... Printing of Publications to Baht 1, , , EXCESS OF REOEP'rS OVER EXPENDITURE 1, , , ,342.87

135 108 Property and Sundry Assets of The Siam Society as at 31st December 1949 i3 rai Land as per title (teed No. 3458, book 33, page 58 1 Brick Building situated on above land 25 pes book-cases with glass panels 2 pes book-cases with glass/wooden panels 6 pes wooden cabinets 1 pee writing desk with book shelves 2 pes writing desks 1 pee desk 1 pee meeting table 1 pee table 4 pes wooden chairs w/arms & back 2f> pes wooden chairs w/back 100 pes rattan chairs 1 pee black-board 1 pee document chest 9 pes ceiling fans 20 pes ceiling and wall lamps 3 pes table lamps 1 pee duplicating macj..ine t!"_

136 ANNUAL REPORT 1 '9 50 The Annual General Meeting te1 minating the year 1949 was held on Sunday, the 12th March 1950 at the Society's Home, No. 60, Asoka. Road, Bangkapi, with the President, His Highness Prince Dhani Nivat, in the chair. rrhe Council for 1950 was elected as follows: H.H. Prince Dhani Nivat Pbya Sarasastra Sirilakshna President., Senior Vice-President and Leader of the rrravel Section, H.H. Prince Prem Purachatra, B.A. Vice-President, H. E. Chao Phya Sri Dharmadhibes Vice-President, Mom Chao Ajavadis Diskul H.G. Frandsen 1\'Iiss Mary Anglemyer Olcott H. Deming U.L. Guehler Mom Rajawongse Sumonajati Svasdikul, Mom Luang Pin Mulakul, M.A.., Ariyant Manijknl, Chaloem Puranananda, M.D., Phya Anuvat Vanaraks, Pbya Arthakariya Nihond, W.A.M. Doll, H.E. Mr. Bhagwat Dayal, Luang J amnf Kolakarn,.J.J. Boeles, Phya Anuman Rajac1hon, C.M. Anderson. Honol'ary Secretary, Honorary Treasurer, Honorary Librarian, Honorary Editor of the Journal, Leader of the Natnral History Section, The new Council upon taking office appointed the~ following standing committees:

137 110 ANNUAL Rli:PORT ld!>o FINANCJD: 'l'he Senior Vice-President (Phya HaraHastra Sirilak::;hnu) Oil airman, rrhc Honorary Secretary, The Honorary 'l'n asnrer. EXCHANGE: 'rho Honorary Libt arian (Miss Mary AnglemyE\rl, Cl.mit uwll. 'fhe Honorary Editor of the.journal. W.A.M. Doll, U.L. Guehler. EDI'l'ORIAL: 'l'he Honorary Editor of t.he.journal (Oleott H. lhnuiug), Chairman, 'rhe Leader of the Natural History Hectiou, H.H. Prince Dbani Nivat, ~ H.H. Prince Prem Pnrachatra,.T J. Boeles. Phya Sarasastra Sirilakshna was appointed the~ 'Pravel Section as in fonner years. Le:i!ler of the One clwngo was made on the Couneil during th<l year: owing to Mr. U.L. Gnehler'!:l depat ture ff'i om Siam on homo lcavf~ iu 1\1at eh 1950 Dr. Hobert L. Pendleton wa!:l co-optc~d to the Uouneil on Mar1!h ;zoth and at the same time appointed ah the r..~c~a.dell' of the Nat-ural History Section in place' of Mr. Gnehler. cr rrhe Siam Society suffered a great loss by the death of one active member of the Council, namely Mr. U. L. Gnehler, which occurred in Hamburg, Germany, on August ;Wtb, 1.9GO after u.n un successful operation for brain turnonr. 'l'he late Mr. Guebler had served the Siam Society strenuously and ha.d been on the Council fot many years in the positions of Vice-President as well as the Leader of the Natural History Section. Several valuable contributions of research t6 the Siam Society Journal were from his pen. To fill the vacancy on the Council caused by the late Mr. Guehler's death, H.E.

138 ANNUAL REPORT Mr. Edwin F. Stanton, t,he American Ambassador, who is reputed to be a scholar of things Siamese, was invited to join the Council and was co-opted on September 14th, 1950 'rhe Council held twelve business meetings during the year: seven meetings were held at the Society's Home in Bangkapi anrl five meetings at the President's house in Pechburi Road. At the close of 1950 the Society's membership was as follows: Honorary 17 Corresponding 10 Free 3 Life 26 Ordinary 351 Associate 36 making a total of 443 as compared with 364 in 1949, 343 in 1948, 292 in 194 7, 207 in 1946 and 160 in It is with great satisfac. tion that the Oon11cil is able to repo'n that this figure is the highest on record. The Society arranged the following meetings dnring the year: Ordinary General Meetings: On April 30th, 1950: Films showing the coronation ceremonies and the Society's excursions to Wat Sai and Wat Raj-Oros on the ~ west bank of the Chao Phaya River on July 31st, 1949 and to Wat Bovoranives on August 21st, 1949, a commentary on the coronation ceremonies being given by H. H. Prince Dhani Nivat; On June 21st, 1950: Films showing various events s1nce His Majesty the King returned to the capital, arranged by Mom Oboo Sukaravarnadis Diskul; On July 21st, 1950: Films showing the Royal Cremation and other, educational films supplied by the Ministry of Education; On Novenaber 13th, 1950: Mr. A.S.B. Olver, Far Eastern Research Secretary of the Royal Institute of International Affairs in London (Chatham Ho'use), lectured on HThe l~vorlc ol the I 'i~stitute of Pacific Relations";

139 THE SIAM Balance Sheet as at Sundry Creditors : Subscriptions prepaid ~onsignment Account: Otto Han assowitz, Leipzig Reserves: General Heserve He pairs liabilities Balance as at :n/1:!/1949 less repairs during 19GO to Home's e1ectric installation Book Purcha1:1es Further Printing of Craib's Florae Publication '' rrlw Sanetnary -.>f the ti,ooo.oo Publication of tho work on the Florae of Shun compiled hy the late Dr. A.l!'.G. Kerr contributed during HHiO Bxcursions balance as at ih/12/1h4h !i.02B.:JH t;nfi.lo ~:mrpl us from excursions in ~ ~);>n ~Ll x. 77 expenses in 1!H">O Surplus:.. Balance brought forward from last year.. Bxcess of Heceipts over Expenditure in 19fi0 ~~.xa7,.1s 1 /!'">!">.00 1,41 ~tkl l,f>ufi.oo Baht 1,1 f)( 1.00 Baht 1' Baht.u,t;oo. iti -- W- 0' Examined and found to agree with the books and vouchers. L~F. Sequeira. H ono'l'a'f''!j A'ltditcw. Bangkok, loth Febrttnry ~.~.~~-- ~~... ~

140 SOCIETY 31st December i5 fixed Deposit: Assets 'rhe Siam Conuuerclal Bank, Ltd. Cash and Bank : Cash in Hand The Kiam Commercial Bank, Ltd., Onrn nt Account Sundry D lbtors : Orientali.u. Inc., New York : US$ 20/00 Consignment Account: Otto Harrussowltz, Leipzig Baht 27, , Baht 12,1;)9.06 Baht 1,690.GO Baht G71.10 Baht 41, H.G. Frandsen. " H onorarry Treasure?".

141 i16 THE SIAM.,. FINANCIAL RESUME OF S~bscriptions: Ordinary :Members, current year... Ordinary Members, overdue accounts Life Members Receipts 11, , , Baht 17, Sale of Publications : Journal of the Society 'I' he Bulletin ( Nat ural History Supplement) Le May :Coinage of Siam Catalogue of the Stamps of Siarn Craib's Florae The Mon Dictionary 1, Baht 2, Sundry Receipts: Bank Interest,. / //,/'./ Baht // Baht 20, Examined and found to agree with the books and vouchers. L. F. Sequeira. Honorary Auditm. Bangkok, loth Feb'rUa'ry 19/51.

142 SOCIETY THE YEAR Home's Maintenance: Expenditure Vvages to Caretaker Fir e Insurance (Insured value: 300,000) Electric Current Water Supply \Vhite Ants Control Baht 1, Library and Stock of Publications: Salaries to Clerks 1, Insurance of Library and Furniture (insured va1ue: 10,000) Misc. Expenses and Delivery Charges Baht 1, Secretarial and Editorial: Printing of Notices and Stationery & Office Supplies... Postage & Revenue Stamps and Misc. Expenses Printing of Publications 4, , , Baht 12,G56.05 Sundry Expenditure: Expenses for Lectures and Exhibitions Representation Expenses... Excess of Receipts over Expenditure : Baht 1, Baht if, Baht 20, H.. G. Frandsen. H onm'anj TTeasurer.

143 118 Property and Sundry Assets of The Siam Society as at 31st December H rai Land as per title deed No. omia, book i33, page!>8 1 Brick Building situated on above land 25 pes book-cases with glass panels 2 pes book-cases with glass/wooden panels 6 pes wooden cabinets 1 pee writing desk with book shelves 2 pes writing desks 1 pee desk 1 pee meeting table 1 pee table 4 pes wooden chairs w/~trms & back 25 pes wooden chairs,... w/back 100 pes ratten chairs 1 pee black-hoard 1 pee document chest 9 pes ceiling fans 20 pes ceiling & wall larnps 3 pes table lamps 1 pee duplicating ma~hine

144 U. L. Guehler

145 OBITUARY NOTICE U. L. Guehler The Society regrets to record the death of Mr. U.L. Guehler, age 5~), Inember of the Council, which occurred in Hamburg, Germany on 26th August In the meeting of the council of the Siam Society held on 14th September 1950, the President, H.H. Prince Dhani Nivat, recalled that the late Mr. Gneh1er had served the Society strenuously since 1929 and was on the Council for many years in the function of Vice President as well as Leader of the Natural History Section. The Council then rose and observed one minute of silence in respect of the deceased. The Society greatly benefitted from Mr. Guehler,s scie1itific research concerning Simn in the tie!ds of Natural History, Archaeology, Nnmismatology and Histor~r. and the results of his work were published mainly in the.journal and in the Bulletin of the Society. 'rhe bibliog.eaplry of Mr. Gnehler's scientific work contains 13 papers of which 10 were published by the Society. Mr. Guehler was a t1 ne friend of Siam. Bangkok, July 29th, J. J. B.

146 BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORI<S BY MR. GUEHLER 1. Antlers of the Malayan Sa1nbar.J.T.R.S. Natural History Supplement Vol. XII, No.1, Another Note on the Schombnrgk-Deer J.T.R.S. Natural History Bulletin Vol. XIII, No. 1, 19.: Ueher rflu=ti Spl'ichwoc~rter J.T.R.S., Vol. XXXIV, Pt. 2, 194i3. 4. Studie ueber alte Meta1ltrmnmeln.J.T.R.S., Vol. XXXV, Pt. 1, Further studies of old Thai coins J.T.R.S., vol. XXXV, Pt. 2, 19 4:4. 6. Some investigations on the evolution of the Pre-Bangkok coinage J.S.S. Vol. XXXVI, Pt.. 1, The travels of Indovico eli \Varth.ei:na and his visits to Siam, <"\ Banghella and Pegn A.D J.S.S., Vol. XXXVI, Pt. 2, Notes on old Siamese coins J.S.S., VoL XXXVII, Pt. 1, Syrnbols and xnarks of old Siamese coins J.S.S., Vol. XXXVII, Pt. 2, A letter by Sir Robert l\l Schtnnburgk.J.S.S., Vol. XXXVII, Pt. 2, Buddhistdscl'e Plastik in Simn Ostasiatische Zeitschrift, Neue Folge VIII, Heft Beitrag zur Geschichte von Oervns (Rucervus) schomburgki Blyth Zeitschrift fuer Saeugetierkuncle, 11. Band, Studies of precious stones in Siam Siam Science Bulletin Vol. IV, No. 1, 1947.





151 THE TROPICAL FAR EAST AND WORLD t:-iistory By_ J.S. Furnival1 T m ld Hi.r;tory I neell hardly say that I rega1 d it as an honour to have been invited to address your Society. It is not only an honour but a debt of honour. In Burma we have a society with similar aims: the Burma Research Society. r:chis is in fact a spiritual child of your Society. Somewhere about I came across an. early copy of your Journal, and it inspired me to set about founding a Society on the smne lines in Burma. So in addressing yon this evening I like to feed Htat I am helping to.repay the debt which every chilli owes to its parents. Naturally I want to talk about some subject in which we have~ a common interest,, nncl we certainl: have a common interest in the history ni: Lhis part of the world, the Tropical Far East, comprising the lands from Bnrma to tho Philippines and frorn the borde1 s of Ohina dmvu t«j Jndmwsia. In Burma the popular conception of history is dm ivecl frmn tho Chronicles. Bnt these, apart from tracing t.he Hprea.d of Bucldhisn1, are mn t owly confined to Burma. On the other hand, modern st,ndents of history may read books on the histnl'y of England or perhaps of Eu."'rope, but these contain little or nothing about Burma. I mn told that it is much the same in this country, and probably in neighbouring lands. Even boolts on world history are written frmn the standpoint of an observer in the West... But if history is to come home to people here, they should read it from the st.andpoint of an observer in the 'l'ropical Far Eab't,. When I was invited t.o address you, it seemed that an essay along these lines 1night be of interest. rrhis is an a1nbitious, perhaps an over-emlbitious theme. An atternpt to treat it within the limits of a single lecture requh es drastic shnplification and must risk the charge of superficiality. Por such defects I must apologize. ancl plead for lenient criti~ism. But the task does seem worth attempting. At the pl'esent t.ime the

152 J.s. Furnivali whole of the 'l'ropica1 Far East is obviously and. dangerously entangled in world history. Often it is suggested that t.his is quite a nmv thing. But I hope to show that our entanglement in world history is nothing new, but is as old as history, and that. th1~ he without lessons for the present. due. past. may not On still another point some of yon may feel tha.l a.n apology is This country is riow known as 'l'hailand,.but l usually refer to it in th~s paper as Siam. 'l'his might seem justified on the ground that yon sthl call yourselves the Siam Society. But thm p is another reason. I must go back to a time l6ng before there were any 'rhai in this country or BnrJneRe in Burma, and it is convenient to m:w the names Sia.m and Burma Inerely as eonventional term~ to sig nify the areas now within their respective boundaries. Key:;; to HiBtory History, of F.lOUI'S(', ih more than t.lw nan atjon of n. scn ieh of events. One must seek for lan11marks ancl a guiding thread. rrhese may be found in t.lu: masterly treat.ise by Professor Ooedes, Les Etats Hindm~iRe8 d'indochin'l et d'lndonesie.l After pointing out that these Htates derive their eivilisation from India lint fall within the pohuca] orbit of China, he summarizes.the consequences: "MoRt of these st.ates have' reacted to Ute greut, shr>eks that. hcwe clistnrbed tho Indian peninsula and the Middle Kingdom. The conquests of Samudra.gupta in t;he Gauges Valley and Son lh India in th(:"l 4tl"ta century, the CXl)ansionist. policy of Chola errlperors of rranjol~e in the 11th century have had their l'epercnssinns on the other side of thq, Bay of Bengal. Even more markedly has the history of ~.,urt,her India been influenced bv atfairs in China. The. ~. Chinese have never looknd favourably on the growt.h of strong powers in the southern seas, and it deserves notice that Fu.nan, Cambodia, and the Javanese and Sumatran rba.ln1s reached the zenith of their prosperity during just those epochs when the great dynast-des of 1 In this paper I am greatly indebted to the worlt of Professor Coedea, and also to the comprehensive collection of references to Chinese authorities 1n the article by Mr. G. H. Luce in the Jou,rnal of the. B11.'rma Resear; ch Som:ety for August 1924.

153 THE TROPICAL FAR EAST AND WORLD HISTORY 121 China Wtlt'e ont\wh1ed. A1so the countries of Fnl'ther India are mutually linked togethet by nnmerous ties, geographic and economic, and every revolution in any one of them. by clist"tll'bing the whole region, hab had repercussions on the othe1 s: the collapse of Fu-nan, t.he birth IJf the S1nnatran Kingdom of Sluivi:jaya, the appem~anco of Anawratha in Pagan and Suryavarman in Angkor, the foundation of the 'l'hai kingdom at Sukhothai, haye all made themselves felt far beyoncl the frontiers of the land where these things happened. rrhus in the history of Further lnclia there are critical dates, corresponding to true turning voints, which make it possible to delimit certain epochs, each with its own characteristics, marked by the imprint. of a strong personality or. the political supremacy of a. powerful state.'' Similarly Dr. N.J. Krom in H'indue Ja.valt-nsche Gescldeden1:s suggests links between the course of events in India and the spread of Indian settlements over, the Tl'Ol:-Wcal Far East. I wish to show that., for an explana,t,ion of the l'e1ation::; bet,veen the Tl'opieal Far IlJast and the outer world, we must 1ook in the main to ecollomic geography. This supplies us with two master keys: the China 'P1 ade and the Spice 'l'racle. Por China there have always been two main linel:l of communication with t.he West : the land route across centra1 Asia, and the sea route round the coast.. 'rlu(mghont " the ages traders have followed whichever route seemed easier. Both routes, however, ~re liable to interruption. The land route is expose.cl to wild hordes in centra,l Asia and t.o the results of po1itical catastrophes in. the Middle and Near East. The sea route can easily he blocked at its main gateway, the Straits of Ma 1 ace a. Yet, when both these twn main routes are blocked, there is stil1 a byway. T1 affic can still find a way clown t.he great rivers of Southeast Asia-the Irrawaddy, the Salween, the Mekong, ancl the. Red River - diverging when convenient to the shorter rivers, the Sittang and the Menam. Time and again these rivers, and especially the Irrawaddy, luwe played a part jn history~ For the tj'ade in spices fl 1 0ID the Moluccas, the Straits of Malacca al'e of supl'erne importance ; thel.'e is only one main rm1te.

154 122 J.S. Furnivall But this narrow channel can easily be held against, outsiders. When it is blocked, however, there are two byways. One byway is through, the Snnda Straits between Java and Sumatra; repeatedly throughout. the course of history we find mention of Bantam under various names, and of places close to Bantam-.Jakarta or Batavia, and. Benkulen. There is also a second byway, from various points along the western coast of Burma and Malaya cutting across the mainland to the Gulf of Siam or continuing further to the Mekong and Annam. Here, then, is a point deserving of particular attention. The Tropical Far East is of mino1 impcn tance mi each route; but it is significant as a hj7way along both routes, and it is sensitive accordingly to convulsions affecting the course of trade along eit.he1~ route. This significance is clearly apparent in the hist~:n ical records of the past few centuries, and we are not exceeding the legitimato bounds of hnaginative reconstruction i:e we use these keys for an understanding of the past dm;j.ng periods when the data for a conclusive proof are still inadequate. It is, then, to the course of traffic along these routes that we must look for an explanation of our past. Perha}is it 1nay seem that the sonthcrn route to the Moluccas has lost its importance. rrhe cloves and nutmegs of the Spice Islands are no longer so highly. valued, and Java even imporh; cloves from Zanzibar. Bnt what about Australia? In the modern world Australia occupies much th~ same position as. the Moluccas in 'the old world, and just now Australia is keenly interested in the New Gnine'"as and Indonesia. It is the old story in a revised edition. Another c~ue to our history is more elusive. Everywhere throughout the region we find traces of a great variety of Hindu and Buddhist sects, and it is often suggested that formerly the same people worshipped at all these sl11 ines indifferently. That was almost certainly true in some cases, but not always and perhaps not usually. On, much the same evidence future historians might argue that the Europeans..in these lands were all one people, indifferently Roman Catholic or Pt otestant, Anglican, Baptist, Wesleyan, oi Adventist. We know, of course, that. this is not the case, and that difference of creed often.points to a difference of

155 FAR KAST AND WORLD HISTORY 128 Prt ~nma1'1? t hih wa.k trut. alt-~o fm t::\al'ly A 1mtil ret ent1y all th(. sdtlers '\vere Fm flw1 :::.tndy hnt-:i revt!alcl1 that t ;uu frnm ahu11:;;t tlw wlmh of India, thongh mainly from ~!11 i"i'hf h. A~ ~ t t, ltn\\"1'\'t't', uur knowledge is intlnjlicient to track ~h '' iw -;~~m t,, pf IwHan inhmmc( :-;: hnt I want to snggest that th~ t'i1'1t.~ fah Hf ~ " iu the 1'ropical Far JiJa~t are closely in Uw 1'11111':-it~ of trade, an<l that hy working Htws WI' can ph 1 r to~etht-r in hroad nntlinl' the relations i11'tw1 u thi:-: r~ ~~inn <HHi '1.\ nrld hiktory. ("J*'w ad nwl \Vu~! g-oms hack very tar - beyond da\\'h Hf q ~. At cnrding to Sir fhllwrt :l\hn ray, i~ piece of ''hih U phrit.- {a kind 11f jach ) found in the HvcmHl city on tho site ft nn ahnut :.!,000 B.C. mn~t. lwvu conw from did il :.:1'1 I lu rt : l Ill ink wu taut find a due in,vhat ;II t ht tm ~ n! da). In partk of Burma market~ "'. h ld fifth dnr iu t:unvpnieut ~ ~ ntrt~s. 1n village A tl aders :&HPU f fl'l m : imila.. r uutrkt!t t'l'llt.rpk b.t vi llagc~t' B, (), D, and FJ. 'f'rad1 l!'ph! Vi /J Hta~ takt J-l(ll'U( J.(IICH!H fl'oj11 aji th<:se YillageS t lt~ i!' ~~wu lltal'k.-l t hpld tu t haph t ht nuxt; day, and ii.jicmded by l'ad!'l'- fl ~ w }!', (/~ awl 11. Hu the IH'lleeKH goe~:; on, over a.n PV~ r l'adiu:-;, until gut1dh fl'olll thp m:u lwt a!..:'1 lhul their \\'a~ tu Z and fttt'tlu r. N1.4t impmlml>jy it washy thi~:~ kind nf 1 audow t t ad that. thu pie<'l' of jadp rmwhc{l 'rt~o;v f1 om China. huwpy!'t'1.:..~omlh fnl' wld(dl t.lwre ih a tlenwnd.in widely :-ll~tliu'ah <l t ~tul tu pahf! nwre or lm;:-; d.ireet.ly from one centre t11 :mnth1 r ; tit HnitP t md( rnntn; ('lnergo hy a proct~ih uf: evolution. B~ ahu111 ::?00 B.C. thor~.. \V( rl~ t.w(l Huch l'ontes in A1:1ia: one l'unning ft um llilt l h t n lit1hth h~r '\Vhieh gold from Siberia reacht~d India, the othl'l' taking ~ilk tt'ih!1 China to the Enropean border. These two rontt~s ernhst~d in tjw ancient hu::mal'h of Bokha.ra, Samal'kaud, and Balkh in Baet.riu. Ahout 200 B.C. both routes were closed by wild trihr>a in eentl'al Asia. It is to thh~ remote region at this early date tha.t wo nmst louk fnr f.ho first light on the history of the Tropical :E'ar J!Jast. lfur it was owing t.o the interruption of these ~igh roads that traffic first sought lt byway through Southeast Asja,

156 124 J.S. Furnivall The subsequent. eoursv of history may eonvonient1y be divided into three chapters: the Age of Discoverie~ ; the Agt of Contact through India ; and the Age of Direct Contact between East and West. In each chapte.r one can trace a succession of turning points when changes in China or the West syncln;onized at least appt oxilnately with new developments in the rrropical Far East, suggesting the possibility, or even the probability, of a causal :relation between the two series of events. rrhat is thn outline of the st;ory I wish to tell. Obviously,..,To must tly through the centuries at supersonic speed. I~,or much of the time we must tly above the clouds, with glimpses of the land ht.:low only at infrequent intervals when the clonds are broken. But. I hope tio show t.lmt tlw eourse is clear upon the chart. The Age of Discoveries 1l1 ilestonesof P'l'O(Jre8s After the barbarian hor(~es had severed tht~ main lines of conunuuication::;, the channu]s of trade were gradually restored in a s.eries of distinct phases. Tho first step brought Enrope nearer to India and central Asia by land. This was followed hy an improve~ ment in the communications between Europe and India by sea. During the ensuing phases tl10 new route was carried beyond India. to China, again.first by land and then by sea. Finally it, was extended to the M.oluecas. Let flus tj'ace lh'iofly the discovery of these ne\v channels as they are revealed by Chinese historians, 11(-dian relfcs, and Western geographers. 'The Nea?~m Land Ru ute When \Vn-t.i, the Han Empm oi of China (14~)-89 B.C.), found that he needed help to guard his western frontier, he sent a mission, probably in 128 B.C., to obtain the cooperation of Bact,ria in suppressing the wild tribes between their borders. ln the bazaars of Bactria the delegates SRW p1 oducts of China that must have come by some unknown southen1 ronte t.hrough Burma and India. Wu-ti contemplated opening this route, which might he more secure against baf.barians. 'rhi~ first project of a Burma Road reinained, however, a 'Vision of the future. 1\Ieanwhile the paci:ficati01; of,..

157 THE TROPICAL FAR EAST AND WORLD HISTORY 125 Ct"nt 1 al Asia allowed representatives of Romo anrl China t.o rnef~t iu 104, B. C. in Part.bia, the ancient Persia or Iran. 1,hen for tlw first. time these twn gt eat empires hecame known to nnn anothtw. ~"l'ht:> sequel was an extension of the n1d silk road until it reached the Rmnan E1npire along a cuntinnous highway linking up East mhl WeHi hy Ia111l. rrhe Latin authors of tlw classical age frequently mention the remote 8ere8 as the hmut~ of silk. But they knew only th< land l'oute. 'l'ht! NutJ'CJ' Sea Route RomP could now get silk from China; but India was still shut nff frout Siberia, and it made good the deficiency of percious nwtals by obtaining t.he1n from Rome. 'l'lwy becamn n:vai1abll' in bu get quantities when, about 50 A. D., Hippalos. a. GroPk l)ilot., discovt:'l't d the secret hit.herto known only to the Arab~: that by nsing tlw monsoons vel:h.jplh could travel sujply nnd l'f'l.fnlar ]y bt\twpen the Roman Etnpire and India. 'l'he cnus~qnent d.rainagn of hnllion r1'0ln Honw was RO alarming that, VespaHian (69-79) placed an en1hal'go on its ~~xpm t. Ynt, despitie r et;t.rieti<ms, Ute nmnerons Rmna.n coins of tlw next two ecmt.nrieh round in Snllth lthlirt demonr;t,j aj.,~ tlw const.ant. tratlic along t.lw 1ww SPa route. Beyond India, however, t;he t.rade to China, Kt.ill went, np t.he Indus to join tlw land rontf~ am oss mmt1 al Asia. Tlw Pulrthcr Lrt/nd Rfntte.. I nclians may already have t.nrned t;oward t;lw furuler Ea.st tn Hnppl,~ 1nent their stoek of gold a.nd silver, hut the dec.rpc~ of V espasian must have stimnlate!l new expollit.i<ms to Burrna ; ~1d beyond : to Suvannahluuni, Uw Land of Gold, and Snvannadvipa, t.he"goldon Island; the Golden Chersonese, Ohryse and A1 gyra of Ptolemy, and Chin-lin, the Golden Frontier of the Chinese. across Burma or followed the eoaet of Arakan. led naturally to the development of trade. At, iirst they eut.. 'rhe Hem ch for go"ld 1Vleanwhile China had been extending its control ove1 the t.ribes along its sontlnvest border, and by about the micl\ue. of the first century Wn-ti's vision of a road through Burma to India and.. 1lo

158 126 j.s. Furnivali the. West had been realized. Apparently it was a.long this route that in 97 A. D. an expedition from the Roman Empire reached China. 'rhus the earliest incident in the history of t,he 'I'ropieal Far East to which a datr~ can be assigned is the opnning of the first Bm. ma Road, important. then and fm the sanu rpasnn as in the latest chaptm of its history lwfnl't-" the reeent war. A St cuntl Pxpod i tion of 120-:21, taking jugglers, daneprs, and musicianh.from tjw Rmnrm Empin to the Imperial Court, probab1y followed tlw sanh. route, thoug-h H Jnay h.ave reaeht: d t.he Bn1 ma Rnad by fmiliug 11p the lrt awaddy The FwJ'the't' Sea ltmtte 'l'hc n.wuntain road through North Burma was diflieult. and dangerous; wit;h seaworthy vessels it. is easier and saft r to sail (lirect. from South India t.o Malaya. Su\ a.mutbhmni lay on or npal' the coast.. Dul'ing tho first eent.ury Inllian and Chinese nlariner:-; learned front t.hp Persian Gulf the\ art. of building htrgc jnnks ahlt to ca1 ry 600 or. 700 passengers," ancl with these vesscds it was pohrihlp to reaeh Chin;t fron1 South India by sea. Aecordh1gly thp nc xt stage> in the p1 o< r ss of discovery brought voyager~:~ t.n JYialaya, Siam, <UHI, rather later, Anna1n. A mission :f:r01:n Hom<' in lih A. D. went lry sea at. 1vast as far as Malaya; and a subsequent. mihsinn in lthi, ascl'ibe<l to Marcus A1u c lins, landed in 'l'onkin ajtr~r ]'mssing t;lll'ouglt t.ho Strnit.s of Malacca. or perhaps by cutting aeross tlw Jwuin~:tula an<l l~eloading on the f:1uthel' sidf". rflhe J1folttccas It s~ems improbable that t.raffic' had ns ypt rnnehe<l the Moluccas. 'rhese islands were the only ~om c:e of cloves and nntn1eg. Up to 250 A. D~ there was a. brisk tl'adn lwt,w(.~en South India and Rome, but appa1 ently cloves and nntn1egs were unknown in Rorne. Trade between the :Moluccas and South India would pasb naturally through the archipelago, and especially by way of Java. Yet, although bot.h the Chinese. and Romans \vere well acquainted with the mainland coast, they knew little or nothing of. the archipelago beyond the bare existence of tt:wa. The em. liest inforn1ation about Java dates from after 350 A. D., and we may pprha:ps assnme that only then wab" regnhn comm.nnication bet\vren India and the Molnreas first established.

159 I.... the TROPICAL FAR EAST AND WORLD HlSTORY 127 Contact with the West through India Mrtin L ines of 'l 1 9Ydfic. During the Age of Discoveries the search for gold led to the foundation of trading centres at convenient sites along the coasts and main rivers of the Tropical Far East. In their subsel!uent history one may distinguish four periods characterized by diversions of the main lines of the t.r affic. Dul'ing the first period, up to GGO A.D.,. contact was chiefly with South India by sea. 'l'here seem to have been two main waves of Indian colonisation: the first about 150 A.D., and the second about 350. After that the Indian settlers were gradually absorbed in the local population. 'l'hen a new era in the course of world relations originated in the birth of Islam in ti:-'>8 A.D. During the second period, from about 6fi0 to 1;2f>O, contact was largely by sea with North India, though new development.s in Sonth India n.nd Chinn. about 1000 A.D. bt tmk the period into almost, oqnal halves. 'fhe third period, from 12~0 to lbf>o, -,saw the reopening of the land route across eentral Asia nnder the Mongol powet in China. 'rhe fourth period, from lbf>o to 1f>00, is dominated by t.he expan.. sion of h;lnm in t.he 'l't op\c~al 'Fa.r East and t.lu~ revival 11f the sea route, mainly t.hrough or al'ound South India. [n(j.irtn 0 olon i.wthon 100-fJ,i().- 1 /). The "great circuit indus trial and com mercia1 int.ereonj se'' about 100 A.D. has been eomp~::'l ed to the world market of the early 20t.h century. 2 Rnme communicated with t.he other great. empire of t.he Hans in China by land up t.he Inau13 tlprongh the dominions of Kauishka and across central Asia, and by sea through or around South India hy way of Malaya and the ~~toa.sts of Indo.. China. In "the 'rropi~a1 Pat East Indian settlements were developing into pett.y ki:pgdoms: in lvial ayaj in Fn.nan at th~ month of the Mekong, and in Lin.. yi or Champa in the southeast ni: modern Ann~ l.id. rrhese WPre ports of call on the way to the ChinesE; markets in Tonkin and Canton. :From the Chinese records it appears that all these settlements were ~xclusively Hindu or B 1 ahmauist; they make llo mt-ution of the presence Df Buddhism. rrhe records suggest also that, the settlers came from Sonth,.lnflia. 2 P. Vinogradoff, Omnbridye Mediaeval Histo? y, i. 547.

160 1.28.t.s. Furniva11 \Vi th free intercourse along both tbe main routes by land and sea, there was little need for a byway through Bnrma except for pnre1y local products. But this region produced 'lnalabaih?,on, the source of the noblest Roman unguents. \Ve tn e told how Rome got its supplies. Every year wild hill men from the surrounding neighbourhood gathered near the borders of soot,hwest China for a festival, bringing, of course, their bedding. Doubtless, like hill men of the present day, they filled and emptied the flowing bowl, and apparently they forgot all about their bedding. It was collected however, by traders better acquainted with its value, aud in due course it appeared in the Rornan markets as mnlabath'l'on. ' his probably explains the rout,e taken by the t>xpedition of 97 A.D., and also why the Burma Road continued in nse even after the opening of the sea route. It was along the Burma Hoad that Buddhism reached Yunnan during the seconcl century, and a party of Chinese mon ks took this road to India at the end of the third century. But how far was there cow.munication by land through Burma between India and the. coastal settlements? 'l'he Chinese mention a Buddhist country Lim-yang, apparently in central Hnrma on the way to Suvannabhnrni. The discovery of a Uraeeo-Rom:m lamp of t.he second century on the road between Burma and t.he Gulf of Siam suggests traffic along this road at a very early date, though the lamp may have been import;ed much latel'. 'l'he oldest su rvivii1g inscrip~ tion in the rrro pi cal E,ar East, at Vo.danh in Champa, was formerly supposed to be of Buddhist origin, dating from 250 A.D. or even earlier, and some authorities identify the seript with North India According to Cl1abra, J"o_ziJTnal of the Asiatic Society of B'engal, J[J.)5, this Sanskrit inscription is not Buddhist~ but records ccan orthodox Bhramanical sacrifice". Majumdar's view (BEFEO xxxii, p. 127) that the script is. North Indian has not found general acceptance. Sirkar (Jonrnal of the Greater India Sodety, 1 rj39, VI) remarks that, unless the script is North Indian, the use of Sanskrit points to a date much later thari 250, and that the inscription is not wholly in prose but, at lea~t partly. in a metre that did not come into use in East India until after 320 and in South India until after 375. Coedes appears at one time to have accepted the view of Majumdar, but subsequenty agreed with Sastri (BEFECJ xxjcv, 234) that the script is South Indian. As regards this particular inscription, r the arguments of Sastri do not seem to me convincing, and unless the points rais~d by Sirkar can be met the date tof the inscription must be much later than was Jormerly accepted.,

161 THE TROPICAL FAR EAST AND WORLD HISTORY 129 Relics, seanty t.hough widely spread, show the inilnence of Amara~ vati at the mouth of the Krishna, where a. school of Buddhist art flourished fl'otn the 2nd to the 4th century. But Amaravati influence was still strong in Ceylon and elsewh~re up to the 7th century. Along the Irrawaddy a:ncl the Menam, Hiuayanist Buddhism v.ms 8o strongly entrenched by 500 A. D. as to suggests that it must have arrived nmch earlier, probably in its Sanskl'it form. Beyond this, however, there is no satisfactory evidence of Buddhist. penetration or of inlluenees from Northern India <luring the 1il'st phas'e of Indian settlement; and on the other hand, the coastal settlements seem to have been exclusively Hindu. The pet,ty kingdums that grew uut. uf these oarly t::ettlellumt.s, Hke their snccessor::5 all th t uugh the eeuturies, were i:requemtly at strife in an endeavour Lo monopolize the trade. Liu~yi was at a disadvantage t,ht ouf4h its riva.lt y with '1\lJlldu, and the outstanding - [eature uf the Hrcl ceutnry was the emergence of Fn-nan as the "' earliest seat of empire in the 'I'ropical ],a.r East. 'rhe King equipped a fleet awl conquered "more than ten isla.nds", including apparently a la1 ge part o.t the Malay Peninsula, then and long afterwards regarded as an island. Here there was an important trading centre, whel'e ten thonsand Bhramins, married t<j native women, engaged in profitable commerce with rl,onkin on the east and with India and Parthia on the west. ''Precions things, 1;are merchandise/' say the Chinese, '\here is nothing that is not tbet e.'' Prom the peninsula t.he King led his armies against Ohin-lin, the Frontier of Gold, but owing to his death the expedition failed. It may not be too l'ash to speculate.. that, having obtained command over tbe se'a rout.ejl!the was aiming also to control the land ronte connecting Southeast Asia wit~ Bengrq t,hrough a region where Buddhism prevailed among settlers from North India along the Irrawaddy. It deserves 1'\otice that t.he expansion of Fu-nan coincided with the end of Han rule and renewal of trouble along th.e land route through central Asia. This first empire. of Fu-nan faded out towards the end of the century, when India was relapsing into anat chy, the trade bet\veen South India and Rome was declining, and the Roman E'mpire was hegining to break up....

162 lso J.s. Futni all About 350 A.D. tllet u was a sncowl wavt~ not impt'()lmbly eonnecte<l with t.he risn Hntl t~xp:msion uf Indian!Wttlezuent. of tlw finpta power in India. Pallnvan::; from Sont.h lwlia pl:ty1 <l a largt! part, in this uew movement, and architeetural r ls cnmh et them closely with Pu-llan, which once again beeallle predominanl in the archipelago aild seejns to have controlled tho Straits of \falacca. But the extent of Pctllavan influence in thu TrOJ>ical F'ar l~ast a::; a whole has certainly been exaggerated. Emigt'1illti:i from Kalinga have left a more certain, wider, a.nd more lm:lting imprint. 'rlwy gave their name to the 'ralaing regiou of Burma a.ud to Ho-ling in,ja.va; in the form of 'ralaing it long snrvivetl as the uame hy which the Mons were known to the Burmese~ as Kli ug it is still the name generally applied to Indians in 1\Ia.laya antl Cambodia, and Intlians from Orissa are known ah Coringhia in Burma. Not impt ohahly the Kalinga tribo in Luzon derives ith nanh~ Crow the Ha.ri~P l:lotlj'cf', ancl the survival of IndonE~s\.all tt aditiorh! anwng tlh Anst.ralian aborigines snggests the possibility that Uw suburb of Brisbane, has a s.imilar odgin. nanh. of Kalinga, a One feature of this period i!:l the heginniug (apart from Vo-canb) of the epigraphic record. In Burma and Ma.laya the inscriptions are predominantly Buddhist; elsewhere they an~ ahuost exclusively Hindn. Despite tht~ lack of Hpigraphie pttiof, the numerous Budclhlat images and o'ther N~lics of the Anmravati and Gupta schools provide ample ovidenetl of tht> wide difl'nsiou of Buddhism."' Chinese records also testify to the spread of Buddhism in its Hinayani~t forn1, and by the end of the tith century there were flourishing Hinayanist schools in Ho-.ling and at Malayu and Palembang in Sumatra. In Pu-nan Buddhism was not unknown, but Shaivism predominated. Another point worthy of attention is that the early Hiudu inscriptious in Java are! situated close to the Suncla Straits, just where centuries later the Dutch made their first settlement It is not, perhaps, fantastic to suggest that thl1 Hindu Kingdom in Fn-nan maintained contact with India tbrongh the Straits of!lunda in order to avoid 1\{alaya where inscriptions almost contemporaneonli! with those of Java show that Buddhism was

163 THE TROPICAL FAR EAST AND WORLD HISTORY 131 favoured, presumably thl'ongh a link with some ot,hrn part. of India. Fa Hien, about 41 L and Unnavarman, a little late!', hoth reached Java by t,he Snnda Straits. But uue L'eason for preferring the Snnda passage to that of Malacca may have been that Sumatra was reputedly the home of cannilals. ''In P'ich'ien (identified with Sumatra) they dt1 not receive foreign merchants; if any happen to come they kill and eat them." On the whole the evidence seems to suggest that Burma, Siam, ~1nd Malaya. still retained a connection by land with Buddhist India, and that elsewhere contact was closest, wlth South India by sea and 1nainly with Hinduism in the fonn of Shaivism. ~,rom aboul 400 onwardo Buddhism iu India was giving plac~ to a Hindu renascence imposing more strictly the rules' against oversea travel. It was hom about this tiwe also that Indian!:!eltlement declined. In the North of India, however, Buddhisnl Htill ~urvived in its Mahayanist fq,rm, and there seemh to have been contact, perhaps overland, with Burma. 'l'he <leeline~ of Buddhism in South India would seen1 to explain t.he g1 owing eontact between Buddhist Ceylon and Burma, of which thet e is ample evidence in their common use of Pali in inscriptions; elsewhere the earlier inscriptions, even if Buddhist., ar~ all in Sanskrit. AnotlH!r fea.tut e of this period, also due presumably to the lack of new arrivals from Ind:!ta, was the gradual as::;imilation of the Indian settlers in t.he local population. 'rhis final phase of Indian colonisation is clearly indicated in the use of' the local dialect in the inscripti,ons; about tioo there is an inscription in Ohcun, the vernacular is fir::;t used in Burma. about"" the Bame date or earlier, and in Snmatra old Malay first appears in 68a.,. The Rise of Islam., The land route across central Asia that had been closed since the middle of the 3rd century was reopened during the early part of the 7th centtu y when the restoration of order in China by the T'angs allowed free access through the domains of Harsha to Byzantium. In the rwrth of India Mahayanist Buddhism~flourished under Harsha, and it is just about this time that we find the first '

164 182 J.S. Ftirnivall clear traces of Mahayanit:nu in the archipelago and also a conneet,ion with the north t ather than the south of India. In Souto India Buddhism was practically exti11ct, and the trad!i! by sea appears to have been largeljr round the south of India in Arab vessels, which had reached Canton as early us the 4th century. rrben from li38 onwards a new era in world history opeued with the birth and rapid speeacl of Islam. The first effect must have been at least a temporary dislocation of, the court:;e of. intel' continent.al trade at its hea<lqnarters in the Near East and un occasion for it to seek unaccustomed paths. By 751 the Moslem t:orces reached the l>ordt rs of China, where they inflicted a shattering defeat upon the Chinese army. Contemporary with the spread of Islam, itud not improbab 1y as an indil'ect. result, was tbe collapse of Harsha's empire and the decline of t.he rr\1ng power. Ont of the ensuing anarchy new powers arose and the channels of trade asst1med a new pattern..:enrmoil in China elosed the land route, and from 7HO the PalaH came to the front in North India; Tibet and Nan-chao emerged on the southwest border of China; and Shrivijaya and the Shelendras achieved mastery over the archipelago. The diversion of trade along new routes is reflected by the spread of l\iahayanist Buddhism. East., Early Buddhisrn was Hiuayanist throughout the 'l't'opical Far Mahayanism may have reached Burma from North India about 600,t\.D., and a snrviving inscription shows that by that time it had also penetrated Malaya: In Sumatra and :,throughout the archipelago, MaJaayanism is associated with the Shelendra dynasty, which at one time ruled the whole region from Shrivijaya (Palembang) where it commanded both the Snnda and Malacca Strait.s. From this centre it dominated the whole archipelago up to about 1050, leaving the magnificent Mahayanist temple of Borobudur as evidence of its temporary rule in Java; at the sa1ne time it controlled the mainland coast as far as Champa, and its influence may have extended to the Philippines. It certainly ha.d close relat~ons with the Palas and with the Bnddhist University of Nalanda in vvest Bengal.

165 the TRQPICAL FAR EAST AND WORLD HISTORY lss 'rhe Palm:1 were not only in toueh with 8hrivija.ya l>y sea: they were in tonch also with China hy the land route. During the early stages of the decline of 'l''ang power there were new developments in the l'egion north nf Burma, the emergence of the Kingdoms of 'l'ibet and Nan chan. Since G7~) 'fihet. had been at war wit.h Ohina. Further south the tribal ehief:tans of Thai race between China and Bnrma had re<wnt.ly been consolidated, with the approval of the Chinese emperor, as a single state, Nan-cb ao. 'rhis new state eame to the help of China against 'I'ibet. But in 755, presumably ag a result of the Chinese 'disarter in 7:>1, it turned against the Emperor. During the next century H maintained close relations, amicable or hostile, with Tibet, where spiritual authority was hegin~:ting to dominate the seeular. power as M aha:yanism wafl; gradually transformed into Lamaism. Nan-chao Stf,od aeross the Bnrma Road between China a11d lndia, and hpfore long it gained eontrol over the Irrawa<ldy route ah fa.r :-!onth as Prome and thereby J eopened the road between Chhm ~nd t.he country of the Palas. IIaving thns ohta.inhd control ovt~t t.he land 1lyway it; invadpd Anuam, pregumahly with the ol>.ied. of 1evying toll on t11e prot1th 0 r t;bc~ China t;l'ttde hy sea. 'l'h is, h<nvever, \VUS heynnd H.~':\ strpngth. Aft.er ea.ptut'ing Tonkin it was :40on dl'iven nut and relapsed into insignificance. 'l'h(:\ most permauont. result of all tllih <'<Hlfnsion on t,he bm derl and het;ween China, Tihet, axhl India was t.he mit:n ation sonthwards of the Bnrmese into tli'e ln.n<l that now hea s t,}wi l' name. \Vith the power of Nan-chao bro1{en and the int.erio;e of China under the later 'l'~ang a prey to rival war.. lords 1 all the 1irafl1c between India and the Chinese seaboard as well a~ that with t,be Mol nccas had to tl'averse the Malayan archjpelago and pay., to11 to the Shelend.ra Maharaja, who was known to Arab merchants as "Lord of the Isles" and finds a place in western nurseries in the tale of Sinhad the Sailor. For over two hnndred years the Shelendra flourished exceedingly nn.til th.eh' power was challenged from a new quarter. From the welter of internecine strife in South India the Oholas eventually emerged triumphant and about 950 A.:Q. marched northwards against the Palas. At that time the Pal~it rule extended

166 J.S. Furniva11 over Aralcan along t.he west coast of Burma. years of eclipse the Palas rallied from the shock, permanently their bold o_n Arakan. Although after a few they lost 'fhis suggests a dislocation of the established trade route which may bave contributed to a decline in the Shelendra power. When the Shelendra. in turn were attacked by the Oho]as shortly after 1000 A.D., the l'esult was the same as with the Palas: a t.empor ary collapse follo'\vecl by an incomplete recovery. rrhus 1000 A.D. may be regarded as a turning point. in the relations between the 'fropical Fal' East and North India. It is not without significance that tbe decline of the Shelendl'as coincides with the rise of Pagan. 'rhe Anawratha dynast.y reopened the bywa:y bet ween China, where the Snugs had restored a measure of order after the an~-nchy of the Five Dynasties, and Nol'th India, where the Palm; had re-established their ascendancy. At the same time, although Uw Shelendra still held t.he \\'PStern gat,e into the archipelago, Java and Cambodia, the heir of Fu-nan, stood out,,. togethel' with Pagan, lis the leading powers in the. Tropical Far li}ast. Another point of great interest. is the adoption by Anaw1 at.hn of Hinayani:-~m as the St~tte R.eligion in plaee of the Maha.yanism formerly predominant in Upper Burma. In view of the long contact of the Bnnnese wit.h Nan-chao and 'J'ihet. during the rise of Lamaism, it. is not impossib1e that Anawratha appreciated the danger of Mahayanism to secnlar,rnle. The ;l1nn(jol Intm lude, ,.J'he b'alancq of power in thf~ ~l'ropical Far East lasted with various local upg and downs until the first half of the 13th century tr> when t.he 1\fongol advance in central Asia introduced a dist.nrbing fn,etor. "'ln 120G Gt nghiz Khan estahlished himself at Karakorum, sonth of LakE' Baikal, as Khan of all t.he. Mongols. By 1214 he had broken t.brongh the G1 eat. Wall of Ohin:L Althongb the Snngs still held the south of China, the north was governed by t,he Chin dynasty of Kitan 'f~rtfll's, from whose name Europe came to kno'y North China as Cathay. His successors ravaged Europe as far as flf' the Adriaiic and at the same tirne penetrated further into China, where Kuhla was chargc~d with the conquest of Yunnan. 'fhir gave

167 THE TROPICAL FAR EAST AND WORLD HISTORY 185 a new impetus to the!:lontj1ern migrat.iou of the rehai into Siam, Burma, and Cambodia. In 12f>9 Kubla succeeded to the Mongol leadet ship as the Great Khan, and moved the capital to Kambaluc, the Oit.y of the Khans, horn whieh in 1279 he eom pleted the sub:juga:lion of the Slangs. Fot the flrstr t.iwe ::;iuee t,ht> days of Harsha and the early rf'angs, the land route between China and Europe was op(!tl thronghont its lengt.h. Num0rons mh;sionaries and merchants fonn1l thoi r way along I his ront.e, an(l the impol'ta.nne of the tt ade is suggested by the fact that a single tnerchant might carry goods to t,he valne of 12,000 to be exchanged for the precious silks of Cathay. Marco Polo \vas only the most famous of a large company, and never again until t.be 19th century was :E~urope well informed as to the interior of China. Bnt eont;rol ovet the land route did not satisfy Knhla. l;nl he sent to demand the submission of Pagan and later, after defeating the Sungs, backed np his demaud with an army. so In The outcome of thif:! expedilion wa::; tlw temporapy annexation of Uppe1 Burp1a. Between 1;278 and 1287 he invaded Cambodia and Champa, and soon aftenvards sent n pnnit\ve expedition against.ja.va fot' its temetity in encouraging Champa t.o resist.. 'l'he Mongol inenrsion Wt1S only a passing episode, lmf it had lasting c(msequences; for by shaking or dest,roying the t nling pil.wers, it left the mainland to he parcelled out among petty 'I'hai princes, and a long heritage of anarchy. In Java, by a strange accident, it restored the ancient,ine wllich,.., gathering new st;rength, foun.ded the empire of Majaphit. Although M repeatedly harassed by Mongol forces from China, Majapa.hit est.ab~ lished itself as master of tbe a1 cbipelago and, by conquenng the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra, gained command over the sea route to the West. With the death of Kubla Khan in his empire began to crumble. After 1350 few Europeans reached Cathay. In 1368 a natianal movement in China cast out the Mongols. and the Ming dynasty attempted to reconstruct the country on its former pattern. But the land route to Europe was agai..n clo~<~d, and a dark mist descended on the furtb er East.

168 J.S. Furnivall The E::cprmsion of I.~lam, /.~ 'l'he elosun of the land ruut.e.' and t.he deeline of Mongol po\vtll' gave a new impetus to t.rafnc by sea, and H wah from 1 ;~;)0 that Majapa.hit. rose to the zenith of it.s powf'.r. It. was 1n Lhe same year that R.amadhipat,i fonmled Ayu t.u.ia and unified Siam. An essa~r in Obinest expansion between 1,100 a.nd 1430 was merely a passing episode. "Aynt.hia and MajapahH became the two poles, the first continental, the second insnlal', of Fnrther India of which the greatf'r part was divided between t.he8e two ~t.ont~s of infineth'('.''4 Siam reached out towards t.he Malay Peninsula by land at, the same time that M ajapahit \Vas cnnsolictat.ing its hold over Sumatra. 'l'he twn powet s rnot. along the Stmit.s of 1\Ta.lacca; hnt it \Vas the Moslem Arabs who profited by their contention for this gateway. During the snccessive hegemonies of Sbri vijaya and 1\fa.ja.pahit. Moslem tradth's played a leading part in linking up Malaya with the West. rl'he first. reference to Islam,.. in Sumatra is in 1281 when Malayu sent, two l\:ioslems 011 an embassy to China. In 129:2 Marco Polo found a tiny Moslem kingdom in the extreme northof Sumat.ra. By 1400 At ab merchants had spread all along the coast of.java. Like their Indian predecessors they intermarried with the nat,ives, formed a Moslem aristocracy, and became rulers of the petty coa8tal states recognizing the ~nzerainty of the local Hind n overlord who despised them as ~oney-grnbbing..merchants. Hitherto the St,t ahs ha.d been dominated from the southern side by Malayu (Jmnhi) or 8Juiv1jaya --(Palembang), hut shortly after 1400 a new eit:y was fonncled on the north bank at Malacca, a bone of contpntion between Majapahit and "Siam. Here, adopting a technique subsequently turned t.o good account by Europeans, the Moslems helped the ruler, a Moslem convert, to establish his. independence. In Java two Hindu kings continned t.o enjoy a nominal supretuacy, but by 1500 despite the~e survivals from the past, the archipelago had become u Moslem lake. But, like the l\fahoyanist rulers of Sbrivijaya and the, Portuguese a~d other }j]uropeans subsequently, t.he Arabs bypassed 4 Coedes, op. cit., p "

169 THE TROPICAL FAR EAST AND WORLD HISTORY 1S7 Burma and the mainland. \Vit.h fnll eoxnmand over the seh route h mn }Jnrope tn China and Uw Spice Islands, they lu1d no nnerl of byways. Thn:; tlw mainland renwined a last l'e'fuge for Buddhism. 'l'he Venetian, di Conti, \Vas one uf the two or thl'l'<' Europeans,vhn n ached Bnrma at long intervals, and his aceouut nf it eontairh:l much that was tt ne until quite recently. the first Enropean to sample a dul'ian. He se.: ms to have been Bnt be does not tell us if lh~ liked it. ''The taste vn.l'ies," he says, "like cheese.'' If the Arabs had known mon~ of Burma we might hav1. missed a pleasant. tale of Arakan. 'rhe King, they wc>t e informed, had t~1elve cities. In oach eity the Uovet nut had to select. aunnally twelve new-horn g ir1s and bring thpm up in lnxury. taken tn the King. At the age nf t.wel've they WHt'e 'rhen they were St'Ilt, well washed and in thin robes, to sit fasting in t,he fnll force of the sun until midday, '\vhol'ehy they sweat so mneh that their garments \Vere comp1et( 1 ly wet". The clothes were earried to ~,he King, who smelt them,one by one. ft agt ant t'ltnell. eonrtiers. He kept frn himself the girls whose garments had a lhn 1~atnta, ThoHe t.hat. had not a. good : nne,1j he gave to his wl'it;1ng ab<mt. lih>o, giv(:s an alnwst incredihlu p ielnro 'n[ Ll1o h1xnry in wh1ch t.hl'se uwt ('lla.nth tt avellc~d. Tht! shiph wt~re largo and roomy, etnrying a~ mauy as a t,hommnd ~ailors and llhtrine:;, living on hoat'd with th<~ir families, and cultivating ginger and veget.nblhh in. wooden boxes. :B'ot each morobant t.~er c w:ts a cahin with chamhpt'::l for hi8?.dves awl slave gil'lr;, Ho refusl d a passage on one ship because Hw cabin bad no Qrivate lavatory. '.Pravel then 1nnst have heen far more eomforta.ble than with tlw ~trict discipline of mo(let n a.il'lines. But this luxury was t~>o good to last. 'l'he rrurks were pressing on Europe. Venice was no longer sitting at the receipt of custom. 'rhe hardy Portuguese embarked on their great adve11tut e round the coast of Africa. Once again the interruption of traffic in the West. changed the course of history. in the rrropical Far JiJast. rrhe age o.f contact through India \Vas drawing to Hs close, and the age of clhect contact wl\h En rope along the main sea route was opening.

170 188 J.s. Furnivall Colonisation, Old and New Here it seems convenient to call a halt in this breathless baste through history to comment on some aspects of early colonisation. First, one may note tllat Indian settlements were typically colonial in the old sense of foreign settlement without foreign rull 'rhe settlers came as traders, intermarried with the people, acquired wealth and formed an aristocracy, gradually diffusing their own type of philosophic religion in place of, or on top of, the prevailing animism of the tribal peoples. fruit of theh own civilisation. They imparted their culture, the And they did more than that. Among these peoples organized on tribal lines they introduced the idea of territorial kingship. The local people, by adopting a new religion and by the acceptance of a common kingship, were enabled in sorue measure to transcend the limits hitherto imposed hy tribal life. ':J.1he Indians introduced not only new cnjture, lmt also civilisation in its original and e~act sense, the art of living together as neighbours. Then, as new migration ceased, tbe Indian rulers and aristocracy were absorbed into the people. In the inscriptions, the language and written cbamcters take on native forms, and the names of persons and places are no longer Indian but native. Similarly iu the religious monnnrents and other buildings a native style is spperimposed on the earli~r Indian models; the absorption of the Indran rulers by the people is placed on 1 ecord in brick and ston.e. When Vasco "' da Gama dropped anchor off Oalicut in 1498 he must have seemed like David challenging Goliath. In the tiny cockleshells, closely-packed sailoi S sustained.life on a bare ration of unpalatable food, or died so freely of dysentery and scurvy that a voyage on which no more than a quarter of the crew succumbed was reckoned prosperous. One could hardly depict a more vivid contrast with the luxury in which Ibn Batuta travelled. But the Europeans' though worse lodged and fed, were better at med and, more important, better disciplined.,.

171 THE TROPICAL FAR EAST AND WORLD HISTORY lsq 'rhe Portuguese, like their Arab predecessors, bypassed Burma and sailed round the south of India directly to Malacca, where they established their head(1uarters und as soon as possible went straight on to the Spice Islands. rrhis set the pattern of history for t.he next four hundred years. Each successive western power aimed to command the Straits of Malacca. Until it could achieve this it had to be content with control over the Straits of Sundf\. Bantam becomes a strategic post for settlement or, failing Bantam, some point (Batavia, Benknlen) as near the Snnda Straits as possible. Only when unable to obtain access to the archipelago, or when driven out, of it, did they seek consolation on the mainland where they could cut into the spice trade or hope to find a byway to China up one of the large rivers, preferably the Irrawaddy. The pattern of history that former ages have suggested, and, that may have seemed too speculative 01' fanciful, is now printed in a clear eut design. I do not, wi~h to suggest that Auawrntha or Suryavarman when subjugating the Mons~. or Nan-chao when pressing southward down the Irrawaddy and eastwards to Tonkin~ were consciously animated by the clear design of Ruffles t.o command the trade by sea; but there was loot in the rich trading centres along the rivers and the coast; and t.be commercial policy of the great sea-powers, ~ 1 n-nan, Shrivi:jaya, and Majapahit, ''ras essentially tl1e same as that of theh successors, the Portuguese and Dutch. ~ From 1500 onwards we can trace more clearly the connection between the course of events in the Tropical Far East al\d developments in the ouler world. This is well illustrated by the evolution of ideas as to the natut e and purpose of a colon.v. Formerly a colony was merely a settlement in a foreign land and the settler had little or no political connection with the home land. 'rh~ Indian and Moslem became foreign r ulers, but they did not establish foreign rule. 1 1 he Portuguese and Spaniards came as royal ag~nts and with a wan-ant from the Pope to undertake both the conquest and conversion of t.he people. The old idea of a colony as a settlement survived; there were grandees with large estates, pet mauent immigrants of lower rank who mar1 ied nath~e women, and priests spendin~ a lifetilne in t4eir parishes. But the colonies '

172 140 J.S. Ftu'nivall \vere ruled by (iovernurs frnm lt~ut upt. rl'hey were but h :'t~tth t t; a.nd l'nlers. The Dnteh e;tml! rn~"t ely as trade!'::!, lmt t lwy ~~nnld obtain twpical produce only in tllf.\ fol'w nf tl'ihutp: Acouomit circumstances reqnired thflm to accept sovereignt.y on heha1f o l' the home company and to rnle the people indit eetly through uatl'\'u chieftains, and a1so to settle poj manently, thongh on a eompat atin ~ ly small scale, to snpe1 vise native eultivati<m. 'l'hey were ywirnarily rulers and were settlers only hy fo1 ce of eircmust.ance. century the "f!jngltsh carried tlw ]'I'oCBt:;S a stage fnrt.her. Tn the 1 Hth Throngll the industrial revolution they l1ad goods to sell, and the object nf their policy \vas not. trihntt but. t1 ac1e. 'l'his reqnil'nd din~et rule, hnt. not. settlement except iu the pth'ls. li'itlally witll the gt owth nf capitalism and the opening of t.jw Snf!% Oanal. tl1e typical systen1 of colonial development was by i\huign eapi tal with ilnthn'ted labont. 'rhus there was n ppoeesh of devvlopnh.-ut frorn tlu~ old eolonial system. of foreign HettJr:ment. \vit.bnut fo1 eign rn1e to a new synten1,. of forei~n rule withont fol'eign Ht>tl.lemen t. 'l'hh~ proeehs refleeted t.he couj se of economi<~ pl'o.~t e::;:-:; iu t.lw \Ve::;t. At. t,h(l :;a.uh~ t.imf' Uw political history or t.ho Tropieal Far gaht l'eth.lctch1 thp (,~n\lt'ht uf tvestern international relation~. Ptwturya t and Spu,.in, J:WO-lfiOO., Direct Contact with Europe But we have out,run the histol'ical ~eqne1wr of t'\'(hjlh :wd must re~urn to the Portuguese aud tipauiard::;. 'fih~ Portugut>Ht~ 1 eached India. ir~ As soon as tbt'y harl secured thc~it ha~;c in Goa they went straight.. on to Malacca, the market fot spiens, whidt they took in 151 L fi 1 ortll\vith they Bent an expedition to t.lth Hph t~ Islands, founding a settlement in 'l'e1 nate in 1517, and another.im.;t. afterwards near Canton. From these two vantage point::! they could contt ol both the China trade and the spice trade, a.od they hypassed the coastal Moslem settlements. 'l'his failure to secure their line of co~mnnication \Vas one reason for their downfall Iu 1580 t<ht~ peoples or t,he east.ern is lauds t ose in a general insurrection, and., the Portuguese were driven hack on their base ii? 1\falacca. It was

173 THE TROPICAL FAR EAST AND WORLD HISTORY 141 t.hen that Portuguese adventnrers, no longer able to make a fortune in the isln.ud~, began to intervene in mainland polities, and we find them se1 ving local rulers in Ohittagong, Pegu, and Ayntbia. One of these ncl venturers in the early 17th century founded:.a pett.y ldngdom aj, Syriam in Bnrm.a. Meanwhile, the Spaniards: sailing to t.he West, bad reached the Philippines, ~aptnring Manila in Jf)Ol. They also had a precarious settlement at Tidore near rrernate. Rivalry bet,wt~en Spain and Portngal ended in 1580 wht>n Philip of Spain succeeded to the thl'one of Portugal, jut:;i. in time to l'bsolle rl'ernate from t.he rebels. 'rhe point of chief significance in this period is that only when the Portuguese were driven out of the archipelago did they expand over the mainland. Analo- Dutch R i1)nl'r1f, '700. rrhe amalgamation of Portugal and Spain led to the expulsion of the Jews from Lisbon. Formerly the Dutch had obtained frollj the Jews of Lisbon the spices which, they distrihnted over Enrope. rrhe normal line of trn.de wa.s ent, and the Dutch adventured to the Moluccas on their own account. Malacca was still strongl~~ held by t,he Portuguese, and the Duteh therefore 1 esorted to Bantarn on the Sunda Straits. 'fhe Dutch monopoly of pe~per raised it.s price so extortionately in London that tht1 English al~o formed a compauy for trading with the Indies. 'rhe l!~nglish ancl French appeani!d in Bantam at almost the same time a~ the Dutch, Only when trade in Bantam became impossible did the Dutch 1nove round the corner to found the settlement of Batavia in.jakarta. rrhey regarded it 1neroly as a stronghold and a rende7.-vous for their shipping; their real target was "the islands where the nnts grow". "'rro obtain rice a.ncl slav~s they opened up relations with Arakan, anc~ r.nade tentative essays to explore the trade with China up,the; Irrawaddy. In 162B they qnashed the pretensions of their Ji~nglish rivals who from that time onwards could only pick up such crumbs as the Dutch happened to overlook. In 1641 the Dutch captured Malacca from the Portuguese and between 1650 and 1680 subjugated lv.iacassar and completed their hold over the archipelago, <~omi:nating both the spice trade and the trade with China. Meanwhile the '

174 142 J.S. F~rniva1I English and,. with less persistency, the French had tried to maintain a settlement in Bantam, but in Hi8B they were both turned out of Bantam. Although the English retained a post at Benkulen, as near as they dared appl'oach Bantam, t.he long years of naval rivalry in the archipelago ended in the eomplete ~npremaey sea. power. Anglo-.P rcnch R'ival1 y, of Duteh rrhe rivalry between tl1e English and Dutch at sea gave pla<':e to a contest between the Eng1isb and Frencl1 on Janel. The English, like the Dutch before them, were tempted to explore the Irrawaddy ronte to China, but found it unattractive.. 'rhe main int.erest of both English n.nd French was in Siam, where they eould hope to ent into the Ohina.trade and could join forces with the native pirates and smugglers of spices. In 1680 the English sent a factor to Ayuthia and in Hi82 the French countered mo1 e effectively with a bishop. One of the earliest incidents in this rivalry w11s the episode related so entertainingly by Mr. Collis ~n his hook, Siamese vvhue. During t.h.c 18th century English sea-power increased so rapidly that t.hey conld disl'egard the Dntch opposition in the archipelago and 8iatu lost its strategical and commercial importance. But the st1 uggle hetween English and French in India involved tlero bot.h in Bnrmn. fol' th< i.r supply of teak, and they :joined on opposite sides in the Mon rebellion against the Burmese from 1740 to 17!10. Even after the Frencfh lost t.heir. hold on India t.hey continued, np to the French. Hevolution, to entertain hopes of a base in Bt~rma from which a :French.fleet could harras British power in India.. rl'he French Revolutiou contril).nted to a further development in the history o( the Tropical E'ar East. When Napole6"n established the Continental Blockade of British goods, he drove manufrictm ers to seek an ontle~ in the East for the products that, owing to t.he industrial revolution, conld now he sold in. Asia at a price that the peasants could afford. 'rhus in western relations with the tropics a new phase opened, characterised by trade and direct rule with imperial expansion as a natural c$orollary. England extended itts rule over Burma, and France over Annam.., French expansion, however, was dominated by politicaj rather than by

175 TH~ TROPICAL FAR EAST AND WORLD HISTORY i43 commercial motives. Napoleon wanted cheap laurels and also aimed at increasing French influence in China. It was the Mekong that first. attacted French interest as a byway into China, and when this proved impracticable, the next step forward was 'ronkin, communicating with Yunnan by the Red River, quickly supp~emented under French rule by a railroad. Arid then once again we find the Irrawaddy entering world politics, when French intri.gues at 1fandalay led to the annexation of Upper Burma by the British in The Latest Phase. The British, firmly seated since 1842 at Singapore, commanded the whole archipelago no less effectively than the Dutch in the 17th century. As late as 1870 the Dutch depended on English vessels for their mail to Java, and the Dutch mercantile marine in eastern waters was wholly manned \JY English, except for the Dutch skipper carried on the bridge mere\y to comply with legal require.: ments for ships sailing under the Dutch flag. 'l'owards t.he end of the century German coloni::t1 ambition aroused Dutch apprehensions and they hastily introduced effective administration over the island empire that, except for Java and part of Sumatra, they had previously neglected. As a result of the opening of the Suez Canal, the rrropical ll'ar East entered on a period of rapid economic development. Then the revolution in Russia again cut off China from the l't west by land, and when Japanese. aggression interfered with the ni)rmal course of trade by sea, we again encoun~er the classical situation involving the Tropical Far East as a storm centre in world politics. Shortly before the second World War the Burma Road came to assume the same importance as two thousand yea1 s earlier when it stirred the imagination of Wu-ti. Now,- with trouble threatening from Burma to the- Philippines and from Sumatra to New Guinea, we can with our own eyes see history repeating itself. Ii is an old, old story. Personally I have no desire to peep at the last chapter to. see how the story ends. ~,,, Bangkok, Novernbe~ 22, 1950; Rangoon, J arittary 12, 1.9lH. '

176 THE KUI PEOPLE OF CAMBODIA AND SIAM By Erik Seidenfaden 'J1he following notes are written.pal'tly in appreciation of Monsieur Paul Levy's ontstanding workl on prehistoric research which he carried out in the region of Mlu Prei in North Cambodia, and partly based on the writer's personal observations made from contacts with our own J{ ~t'i2 people in Northeastern Siam during the years of 1908 to 1919 while serving as u Deputy to the Inspector-General of the Provincial Gendarmerie. These observations do not claim to'be complete as they were made during our somewhat hasty passages through the K~ti villages when on inspect.ion tours to outlying gendarmerie stations. Still, as nothing, so far, has be.en published about the Kui people of Siam it may perhaps be worth \vhile to publish the1n, especially as o~1r Ktti are rapidly changing their language for that of Siamese (Lao) or J(hmet, a process which has been going on for a long time, and which eventually may result in the disappearance of their lij.ncient M ~n-khmer tongue. 'fhe schools are only teaching their children the Siamese language, which is required by the civil administration, and the frequent intercourse with the Thai-speaking people will hasten this process, also changing or strongly modifying the original K ui customs and manners. A study of M.. Baradat's excellent monog1 aph "Les S amt; e ou P ear''i\ populations primitives de l'ouest du Oambodge''8 should prove useful to an: understa~ing of the material and spiritual conditions of the K1,~;i.,as these and the Samre or P'iYrr (Pearr) are ethnically, as well as. linguistically, identical people. 1 Recherches prehistoriques dans la region de Mlu prei par Paul Levy, published by the Ecole Fran~aise d'extreme Orient, Hanoi pages with 65 plates and 50 figures in the te~t, a vocabula~y and an index 2 The K ui (K to be pronounced as a hard G) of N.E. Siam are by the Siamese. called Sord (f'hu) i.e., those liable to pay ta~es. 8 Vide Bulletin de l'eco]e Francaise d'extr~me Orient, vol. XXXX. ~ reviewed in J.S.S., Vol. XXX by the writer. "'

177 THE I\Ul PEOPLE OF CA!viBODIA AND SIAM 145 M. Panl Lth y, whose activities and work have been Inen~ tionthi Hcvera.l timt:s in the,j.s.s., is a young, energetic and particu larly Mifted.Freneh ethnologist who has a1su in the domain of prehistory a.nd areluwulogy contriljuted considera.bl~l to onr knowledge of things Indochinese. As will be known to readers in Siam, a.t lettst, :\L Lt'~vy has now heen promoted to the high office of, Direetor of!'ecole lfran~ aise d'i~xtrdme Orient. rr'he prehistoric investigations ca.rriecl out by 1\L I.A;vy took place~ in the region of 1\'Iln l?rd whieh lies to the north of the town of Kampong Thorn, on the upper r( aches of StUng Sen. 1'he latter is a considerable water cour::;e "whose SOlirees are found in the D01:1g Hek range to the HoULht ast of the town of Khnkhan in tlll\ southernmost part of thiiu[fl.'a I SrisakHt, Siam. 'l'he SlUug Sen flows into rrhale Sap, Both l:lidhs of the t ntire valh~y of: the river seem to be occupied hy K u i villag(~s and a few Khnwr settlemc nts. :rvr. Levy's bonk cont,ains G5 plo.teti depicting atone, hone, hron:tm aud iron implements, potsherds with their various patt<~rns of deeot~atiolll:h as well at~ archaeological uomparatin~ pattern tahloh of. ilnple1ncnts and pottery styles, ranging from Indnehina. to ancient. DPnuwrk l Among the plates are also ~J:\ plwtogr::q>hh of IH'Ot:!E:mt dn;y K n1: and of their I>Oor prilnitive dw(~llingh-werc hnvelk lo look at-lhjsi,lps sonw IiO di:awings and diagramtj'. Iu Hpite of the <liflicnlt titne::~, it. is a publication worthy, nf tho high traditions of the grca~ Ecole Fran<;.aise d'l~xtrr:mc Orient of which M. Lt' vy is such a distinguished member. M. L{wyts brilliant study is do<licated to the memory of his 1-4tte m:ninent tea.clwr, Andre Vayson de., Pradmuw. 'l'he country of the J{wi of Min Prei was explored in 187G by Dr. Harmand, a"* medical doctor, who finished his career as Governm ~Genera.l of French IQ.dochina, and, later on, by Dr. Dufoss6, both of whom mapped out the country with indications of the habitat of the various 1\:u,i groups. M. Levy adds' two modern maps showing the prehistoric sites studied hy him, and one giving the geological features of that region. Only a few Europeans have explored the thinly populated Ktti country in more modern times and it is still imsufficiently known; a geological survey may, however, prove it to contain '

178 146 Erik Seidenfaden mineral resources of a certain value. It. consists in the main of an ancient plain of quaternary alluvial deposits surrounding a plateau of sandstone. Here are found lignite, jet and petrified wood (the latter is also found in the district of Phiroun, changvat Ubon, Northeast Siam). This plateau is intersected by eruptive or metamorphised rocks composed of granite, rhyolite, porphyrite and other kinds of those stones which were used by the ancient neolithic people for the manufacture of their implements and arms. The Kui ~ountry round Mlu Prei is a poor country which bas been made poorer still by man's wholesale destruction of the forests. Only thin for~t clairi'ere (orir lchok forest) is now left. rrhis is, however, teeming with wild beasts, among them many wild elephants. Indeed it is a veritable paradise for the big-game hunter. The author asks himself whether th.is country, so full of ruins of Khmer santuaries, was not more densely populated during former times? We should thi1.1k it,must have been in view of these ruins and the several ancient highways, which starting from Yasodharapura (Angkor Thorn) almost reaehed this region. One of them, the great chaussee linking the famous old capital with qambhupnra (Ohampasak) on the Mekhong, skirted its northern limits. It must also be remembered that Sambor Prei Knk, the great ancient town of primitive Cambodian art and architecture, stands on the banks of the Stting Sen. Th~ author says that in the days of ancient Cambodia there existed here a social organization based on semi.slaver)', and conpled with an intense exploitation of the rich iron mines at Phnom Dek. It is surmised that the arms of the old f{hrne?' armies were forged by K1.,ti ironsmiths. The sandstone quarries, the hunting "'for war elephants (the Kui of Surin are still accounted among the best elephant hunters of Siam), and the utilization of water reservoirs for irrigation purposes, all tend to show that the country formerly held a much denser population than now. The grand Shivaite 'J.lemple, Sikharisvara or Phra Vihar, which, like an eagle's nest, crowns a spnr of the Dong Rek hills, was most probably built by f{ ui c~rvee labor, supervised by Khmer headmen, architects and sculptors during the loth, 11th, and 12th centuries /

179 THE KUI PEOPLE OF CAMBODIA AND SIAM 147 A.D. In spite of many hundreds of years of oppt ession by the Khmer, the Kui have preserved their own language and customs. They must have occupied vast territories formerly, and it was almost certainly from them that the Khrnerrs wrested the land lying to the west of the Mekhong and northeast of the great inland lake (Thale Sap). The first finds of prehistoric objects were made in 1938 ~ when. some bronze bracelets and reddish-brown glass beads were found in some old tombs to the northeast of Mlu Prei. M. Levy was told by a F,rench jet miner about the discovery of other tombs containing sitting skeletons with bronze bracelets still around their arms, and covered ov.er all with a great wealth of glass beads. M Levy vouches for the correctness of this which, of course, is of great importance to our knowledge about ancient burial customs. Local myths and folklore tell much about a hero who fought with a huge monster the skeletnn of which is fitill in evidence. It is perhaps the petrified remains of an extinct species of a huge animal. The myths also connect the 1uegaliths with tales about giants. M. Levy's own diggings resnlted in a rich harvest of potsherds (decorated as well as undecorated), implements (of polished stone as well as of bronze), fragments of stone moulds, and even iron implernenta, as well as a stone liammer (for beating bark cloth?). In one of the three places explored at a small~ watercourse,.there has existed a whole workshop for making tools and implements with many dwel-. lings and tombs nearby. Among the more interesting finds was a stone bracelet. All the objects found were subjected to close stndy by the author, and will be mentioned briefly here. " rrhe most common stone 1mplements are shaped like adze heads, i.e. one"' side is convex while the other is almost flat; only a fe\v are bi-convex. This is also our finding after examination of a great number of }mch implements collected in Siamese J.\!Ialaya (by the late Danish gentleman, Mr. R. Havmoller). rrhe first-named shape of these,. implements permits, of course, its use in two ways, both as an adze and as an axe. These Indochinese implements, lenticul.rr or subellipsoid in shape, with asymetrical faces, are only polished on '

180 148 Erik Seidenfaden one side (the surface of the Hoabinhian pebble); on the other side, the periphery and the part ne.arest the edge only are polished. rl'his semi-polished implement perpetuates the so-called Sumatra-type which was the same as the Indochinese paleolithic Hoabinhian implement. (We wonder whether such a semi-polished implement should not be classified as mesolithic?) The dimensions thicknesses and shapes of the implements a~re quite variable, according to the use they are intended for, as hoes, axes, chisels, or fighting and hunting tools. The manner of hafting the stone adze-axes was probably identical to that used by present-day Khmer. There are in M. Levy's book 25 plates illustrating in a clear and precise manner the various stone, bronze and iron implements, thus facilitating the reading very much. It would take up too much space to go into details so we shall here only point out some of the 1nost important features. It is interesting to no to that the type of axe shown on plate II 5, or.. a similar one, is still used by the Australians. On many of the ad:~.e-or axe-heads are clearly seen the notches made foj.' their hafting. Among the specimens collected hy M. Levy are also a number of the so-called shouldered celts (i.e. adze-or axe~heads) which at their backs are more or loss deeply notched, often at right angles, leaving a tenon for the hafting of thj,s kind of tool. It seems, says M. Levy, that in the world's prehistory Indochina has been "the center of the use of this type. (It should be remembered that. the shouldered celt is characteristic of the A.ustro-Asiatics' stone culture. We have ourselves collected a few shouldered celts at Chiengmai and in chrtngvat Roi-Et).. Among the stone implements are many scrapers, borers and graving tools a~ well as knlves (of flint).. The abundance of stone sickles, found in the three places excavated by M. Levy, testifies to the importance of agricnltnre among the ;prehistoric people here. Sickles of exactly the same shape are found in the prehistoric layers in China Quartz was employed for boring and perforating purposes, or as gimlets, just as in. modern Cambodia; quartz was also used for polishing-and rough.hewing. Other interesting finds included clay pellets, probably used in slings; stone pearls, bits of a fire-:producing.i'

181 1.'BE KUI PEOPLE OF CAMBODIA AND SIAM 149 tool (~1. fire piston), whetting stones; Htone bracelets, and moulds for casting bronz:e. 'l'he materia.! used for tool rnaldng was iiint besides hard sandstone and, sometimes, petrified wood, Other stone tools were grindera or roughly fashioned hammers. 'rhe hafting of one of Uw latter i;-; shown on pagt1 ~~G. (Vve renh3mher having seen an itinerant Lito or KU: i blacksuthh n:;ing a raw stone as a hammer during his work.) 'rhe grinding stones with accompanying slabs were nsed both for grinding corn anu vegetables; a qua.ntity of poumlors were also encountered. Among the finds were many rbntilit.ed impl<nnentfl. 'l'hn.t the prehistorie 1\.ui nhed hark elnth is proved hy t.he presenec of stone heaters. (Hueh havo al8o been fonnd in Siamese Malaya where the art of bc:.!ating cloth frorn the hark of certain tt ees has not quite died out..) lt seems that hone was also used for various in1plements during the neolithic poriod of the prehilitol'ic Ka i. Bone polishers wern thnh em~toyed in t;he ma.1dng of pottel'y for handles, and espccial1y for n.rrow head~. Arrow heads of stone havo not yet been fountl in IxHlnchina (but we take it that this does not prove their non-existence during tho neolithie age). ~l'eet,h of anima1a were m~od ah instruments for decorating pottery while n, piece of a ja.w hotw wit.h Us teeth mu.y ha.vo been tu!e<l f~a a scrateh" ing eomli! rrh.e K tti, still todtty expert iron Ininers and ironsmitha (vuatly superiol' t.o onr prirnitive Lnu:Zt wcn kers in North Siam), were quite goou at bronze casting, to wit their fln.ished products and their stone r:nonlds. 'rheir hron:r,e implements include axe heads, bracelets and artistically wrought armlets, as well as slave arm. rings.... '!'he Kui technique for melting nnd working iron was no doubt influenced by their Hindn civilizers as they still today use Drabm~tnical rites and incantations. When the Knrnbu,ja of 9arnbhn.pura revolted against Funan in the 4th century A.D., the proximity of the Ktti iron mines and their blac.ksmiths may have been of great importance to the Khmer for the arming of their troops, says M. Levy rightly. Lots of stone shuttles and spindles were also found. The prehist~ric people knew how to weave, and the late 11. Groslier, the distinguished expert on Khmer art and material culture, opines ' -

182 150 Erik Seidenfade.ti: that the K'ui received both the cotton plant and the loom from aneient India. rrhe author's three plates with samples of stone and bronze implements and body ol naments (bracelets and torques) comparing their forms and patterns with corresponding ones in Occidental Eurasia is very instructive. rro find practicully the same form and pattern for stone and bronze implements in such widely separated plaees as Finland and Cambodia; Denmark and Laos and Cambodia; Sweden and China and Laos; Caucasus, Hnnga1 y and Cambodia (or take the. ancient Danish 1'0 ndelle--a woman's circular spiked breast ornament--which is identical in shape and pattern with those found in Muang Pua~--Upper Laos), cannot possibly be due to pure coincidence but can only be explained as descending from a common ancestral type (originating perhaps somewhere in Central or Mid western Asia, from where the art spread west and east through djffnsion). A connec~!on between the Nordic culture and the Far East was already thought to exist by the great Danish archaeologist Wors6e. Professor.Janse and Dr. Siren have proved this for Sweden and China. Baron von Heiife-Geldetilt the brillia11t t.heoretician on the. migration of cultu1;es and peoples! who, crossing the Oenteal Asian steppes, went as far as to the islands of the distant Pacific, makes one believe in the existenee. during neolit:q.ic times, of a common nu~l;erial and spiritual culture which spread as a wave over the old world. 1\.f~ Levy bas also 1nade a minute and profound study of the innumej able potsherds,. which were encountered during his diggings at.mlu Prei, and he classifies his finds according to the profile of the ueeks of the earthen vessels, the form of their bodies and the p1 ofile of their supports. 'l'his examination was carried out both for the debris and the complete vessels which were of many shapes and kinds, such as cooking pots~ jars, cups and vases; large~ medium or small in size. Wit'h regard to the supports of pots and jars these were seldom parts of the vessels themselves bnt were generally separate. Very inte,esting, too, is Levy's study of the mu_ltitudinous patterns of decoration of the pottery, including the.necks as well as the bodies /

183 THE KUI PEOPLE OF CAMBODIA AND SIAM and supports of the vessels. One of the decorative patterns, called the basket pattern, was produced by applying to the wet clay a cord-rifled wooden beater (as first proved by the late learned Dr. Madeleine Colaui). ware. Other decorations were either stamped or painted on the J\:1. Levy says that the oldest type of pottery in Indochina, used together with dried gourds and the watertight baskets (in Siam called khlu) was the so-calied basket- or string-marked pottery. Later on, India (for form) and China (for. decorations) would have played an important role. Coinparative study of the Kui pottery with the somewhat supe1:ior KhrruJrr and the vastly more primitive Mo'i or Kha pottery, as has been made by the author, is of much interest in this connection. We would here add that the type of vase (No. 7), on plate XXXIX, is well known in changvat Roi-Et where it has' been found in no small quantities within or nlilar old J{hmer temple ruins, Tbis vase is there called hai lchct. 1\1. Levy also makes a com)jtarative study of the patterns of ceramic decorations of the Far East with those of the rest of Eurasia; and though he modestly calls this only a.sketch, it is certainly very valuable and interesting. 'fhis kind of study has hitherto mainly been undertaken by Scandinavian research workers, such as Gunnar Anderson, Arne, Mrs. Hann,a Rhyd, Olov Jansa, etc., and.. they ought, says M. Levy, to be co-ordinated with the recent Russian discoveries in central Asia and the Anglo.,.lndian and International researches in Western Asia. He is also of the opinion that the. ~ painted pottery of Kansu, because of its decoration, is closely related to the Indochinese. Mr. Jansa has even wond~red whether the polychromic Chinese ceramics have not entered China through Yunnan or Indochina. All this is important for determining from which. common source--more or less occidental--the prehistoric cultures of China and Indochina hn._ve come. 'rhe study of the various patterns of pottery decoration must, as we shall see,. necessarily lead to the same conclusion as that reached in the comparative study of stone and bronze implements. A great part, Jf not all, of the painted pottery was used for funerary purposes. We know, a~cording to the narratives of Chinese travelers, that the ancient J(hme'l~ had '

184 that custom. The lal ge earthenware jars found in the sand dunes at Sa-huyenh, in South Annam, served the same purpose, and both at the well-known prehistoric site at Samrong Sen, in Cambodia, and at Mlu Prei many tombs have bel!m found. Also the Chinese vases seem to have been mortuary receptacles. Using no less than seven plates the author next gives a comparative survey of pottery decorations which~ thongh hailing from widely different places in the Far East and other parts of Eurasia, are of identical patterns. To cite a few: South Germany and the Malay Peninsula, Russia and Cambodia, or that of the so-called death pattern in China, Cambodia and Denmark, etc. It is now of historical interest to see the Nazi swastika painted on a prehistoric vase from KaHit in Western India, the other decorative details of which may be found on a jar from Sa-h uyerih. Indeed, the study of ancient potsherds is a very fascinating one. (As Mr. Shipton of the British Museum, ~imself a pottery expert, said to the writer, when we were_ visiting the excavations at Megiddo, Palestine, in June 1934, "The knowledge of man's history and culture depends very much on the right study of prehistoric potsherds.'') M. Levy's description of the K tti country is short but to the point. It seems to be much poorer in natural resources, with the exception of iron ore, than the country inhabited by the Siamese l(ui to the north of Don~ Rek ra;ge. M. Levy relates a my,th, about the Tonle Mrech--the.. Pepper lake--lying to the north of Kampong Thom. (This lake is probably an ancient Khmer water reservoir and it has the ruins Q,f a sanctuary on an island in its middle, concerning which the local Ktti have a superstitious.fear). Where now lies Tonle Mrech there stood formerly a rich and prosperous village. However its inhabitants killed and ate a white barking deel' and a terrible earthquake destroyed the. village and all people with the exception of a widow and her only son. They had not taken part in what evidently was an unholy meal,' the animal being a sacred one. We have been told almost exactly the same myth in explanatt: tion of the coming into existence of the two large inland lakes, called Nong Han Yai and Nong Han Lek, respectively, in Northeast Siam, /

185 THE 'KUI PEOPLE OF CAMBODIA AND SIAM l5s r:hun(fl 1 ttl Udnrn an\l Sn.k~n N a.khon. 'rhe only diitc\ronce is Lh~t~ a white aqnirrel or white eel here takes the place of the w hite barking deer o.f rronh! l\frech. In the Sakon Na.khon rnyth it is s~tid that the eel was a son of the Serpent King, Plrya Nak. 1,he sa1ne myth is told in one of the Northern Thai chronicles explaining the destruction of the oldest Chieng Sen; and in Kashmir a myth tells how the offended Serpent King caused a great earthquake to S\vallow up a whole district with its sinful inhabitants, leaving the present great inland lake near to Srinagar. 'l,he destruction of Vineta in North Germany, and even that. of So<lom and Gomorrha belong evidently to the same rnythic cycle though in the latter case the Biblical account has been substa.nt.iated_ by actual fact. 2\L Ltjvy's photographs are the least successful of this other~ wise very outstanding publication. His description of the K'ui house is good. As a matter of fact the Kn-i houses are not worthy of the naxne "house" ~LS they a.re but rather miserable huta. In this they resemble very u1ueh. the ~ovels of the Siamese Ku/i though there m e exceptions, a.s we shall see helow. rrhe K tti women of Shnu also know how to weave, and t;he large water-tight haskets for storing water or padtly are found in Siam too. ]'rom M. Levy's photographs it will be sm~n that the f{n,: women in Cambodia still carry their burdens on their hea.ds ~ts in India and the Nt~ar East. 'l'he K1ti worncn in Sittm, lik.~ their rrhai sisters, carry their hnrdons in a yolto over their shoul<lers. rrh.e custom of carrying burdens on the head has not tlnite died ont in Sin.m (e'&,cepting t.he Malays of sont,hernmost Siam) at least not until quite recently. In..., 1919, while inspecting the district of Dfin Kh\J(l. 'rhot (formerly Phan Ohana) lying to the north west of the town of Korat, we saw the 'rhai girls there earring their water pails, called khzit- ft mon, on their heads, the pails resting on circular ~cushions. 'l"he custom ;was said to have been adopted from the Ohao Bon or Nia Kuoll jungle folk who live to. the west toward the border of Petchablln, at the ontskirts of the large Phya Yen forest. M. Levy's photographs of the individual Kni are~interesting. He remarks on the straight-set, only slightly Mongoloid, eyes of the '\

186 154 Erik Seidenfaden Kui Women and the sometimes very good straight noses and high foreheads of the men giving them an almost Europoid appearance. Other types, however, with their curly hair, broad and flat noses with deep-set nasal roots, heavy lips and short necks, indicate NQgroid blood (see the Pearr or P'iYrr on plate LXIII). We shall treat this "racial" problem later on. The maps of Drs. Harmand and Dufosse, as well as J\L Levy's own, are of great interest as they show the distribution of the Kui ~roups in the Mlu Prei district. With regard to the I<: tti ~ Upper Laos, concerning whom Dr. Dufosse asks himself whether they tnay be a branch of our K ui left behind during their migratory movements, we would remark that there is also a people called J(ui in India. They may all belong to the same Austro-Asiatic human family? We believe, however, that the Ku~: of Upper Laos are Mongols of the Tibeto-Burmese branch; this notwithstanding 1\L Levy's statement that, as the art.. pf casting bronze is essentially of a northern origin, Dr. Dufosse's idea is not too daring. 'rhe name Nanalc, as given one of the J(ui clans said to live in Siamese territory, is unknown to us, but we know that in Siam there are many Ku,i clans with various other names. The K1ti tribes, or clans, living in Cambodia along the bridle path leading from Kampong Thorn northward to Ohom Ksan and Phra Vihar are, according tom. Le'\Ty's modern mcl!p, the Kui N'tra, Kui Damrei and K ui 0 and again [(ui Darn?"ei and K ui N'lttr (the Dct?wrei live nearest to the Dong Rek range; Damrei is, by the way, elephant in Khmer, whereas in K ni an elephant is called chiam). The tribal names given by the two doctor-explorers differ from M. Levy's whose KsJ,i N'lur seem to be identical with their M noh and Malar, while the doctors' K ui Hah or Dek, Ntoh, Auk and Autor should be the same as M. Levy's Kui 8 and N'tra. The name M anile is unknown t.o us but there are Kui Mahay or M'ai to the north of' the Dong Rek range too. There is a curious feast celebrated by the Kui Damrei (elephant-hunting K~ti) during the months of February a~td March, called the elephant's feast, which commences with the d~iving away of the evil spirits and ends with a seance of.. I

187 TIll!: KUI PEOPLE OF CAMBODIA AND SIAM 155 spirit< pnsl:!etision, a syntholic dcphant hunt and rnneh 1n omismwus iatercoursa between tbe two sexes. This feast. i8, we believe, unknown mnong onr Kui f!lephant, hunters of Surin though the latter a.rc zealous spirit wm ~:~hippers like their Kw1: JJmrt'i'Ci brethren. 1 l'he wotnon sc~em here t.o he the provocat,ive element at~ among the l)cnrr and the l)' auw[.vide!\l Baradat, op. cit. In conclusion :M. L(!vy und~?rlines two facts relating to the prehh.;t.oric and protnhiotoric eultnres and their intercommunications. l~,in;tly ~ that almost the whole coastline of Indoehina is bathed by the waters of wha~ he sn aptly calls "the 1\'[editerra.nean Sea of the :b'n.r East''; se(:nnflly, th~lt thit-:1 sna made possihlo the cultural cotnmnnicatiunl{ between lndoehina. and India on tbe one hand, and by Ohinu. via the l 1 ~tlrasiatie steppes with the Ncar Orient and the 0C<}iden.t nn the othor hand. rrlris is worth remellll>ering. In an ad<litional note on the implements studied 1\:1. Levy treat~;; the principal raw mate~ ials frf)m which they were mu.de and the teehnique used t:nr their manufacture. Ho also enumerates t.lw various kinds of toolb and hnplementa found. He rernarka that, the archaic eultural relat.inns wit.h the Oclciclent were prohably established over land more f;han by sen. routes, and he comes to the conclusion that, due Lo th<.~ir nat,nre, the finds made in th<:.~ three places explored Inust ho elassified aa h(!longing to the centrn.l part o:e the neolithic pm iod of Indochinn;. Between that pet iod and thn.tt of the iron age no l<mg time has olapsed. Nowacla.Yl':\ the iron mines and the forges of tho K1.~i u.re, more a.nd tnore, being deserted. 'l'hey cann(>t--alaa 1-~ compete with the cheap Chinese or Occidental Ht.ufi imported in " ever increa~:dng <1ua.ntities. M. Levy's hook ends with a vocabulary of the N't1~rt and 0 dialects of the Kui langnage. We hav~ gone tht ongh it carefully, and found that the words therein contained differ only slighly from those in onr list of the K ui }rl'lon dialect of the Srisaket region. So far M. Levy. Hi~ book is of a great value, a. brilliant example of how such work should be carried out. We 11 would recommend that would-be Siamese prehistorians study it carefully and use it as a model when undertaking sirn1lar work themselves. '\

188 156 Erik Seidenfaden In the subsequent notes we shall tl y to give a sketch of the Kui of Siam. Our K'wi are worth studying so much the more because, as has already been mentioned, they are now rapidly changing their proper language for either Thai (L'iw V iengchan or Lao Ka;o) or Khmer, and they do so quite voluntarily, thinking that the Thai or Khmer language is superior to their own tongue; furthermore after having so changed over they do not like to be reminded of their true origin. Perhaps in a generation's time, or two at the most, there may be no K ui-speaking people left in the whole of Northeast Siam! The J( ui, whether still using their ancestral tongue or that of the 1,hai or Khmer, live in great numbers in all three changvctt of the former circle or 1nonthon, of Ubon, and that both to the north and south of the Miin river. They are found in all the ampho (districts) south of the river perhaps with the exception of that of Phimun Mangsahan. On the northern side of the Mi.in river not much of the former Ku,i population is left by now. Here they have been almost entirely displaced or assimilated by the south ward pushing Lao or Thai. l;he principal area in which the _Ku,i live is to the north bordered by the Mun, to the southeast and south by the mountain range of Dong Rek, and to the west, partly by the Lam OJ:ii and the chctngvat of Buriram, partly by the Khme1 -peopled arnpho of Surin, 'rhe "K ni country" is rolling.,and gene!ally reaches a height of only about a hundred meters above sea level. A few very low I isolated mlls are met with not far to the north of the mighty barrier of Dong Relc. A long, low and fairly broad ridge, consisting of red decompo sed basalt, called Dong Din Da.eng (i.e. the forest of the red- earth) runs almost the entire lemgth of this territory, from the northeast in arnpho Det Udom southwestward into the territory of ampho Sangkha,.where it ends. The soil of the remaining territory is sandy on a laterite subsoil, but ther~ is, in places~ a tolerably fertile sandy loam. Up to the time when the railway line from Khorat to Ubon was op~ned (in 1924) the greater part of the surface '\fas covered with thin forest and jungle; since then vast areas have been cleared on both sides of the railway line to make,

189 ' THE KUI PEOPL:E OF CAMBODIA AND SIAM 157 possible extensive paddy cultivation. The slopes of the.dong Rek hills are clothed in dense virgin forest, which during the rainy season is very unhealthful. there along the water courses. Virgin forest is also found here and Much valuable timber and several kinds of precious wood are found in these forests, such as DiptheroM carpus (mai yang), ma,.i talcien (excelle.nt for boat building), mai bak and ma i bole, as well as mai krayung, the rosemw ood so eagerly sought for use in maldng Chinese furniture. On the Dong Din Daeng ridge are growing pine trees which in a.mpho Sangkha take the form of a real forest. The dwarf palm, ton lcrcwheng, from the leaves of which rice bags are woven, is another feature of this curious ridge and in the fertile soil grow many giant tubers which in time of bad harvests help the local population to tide over until the next rice harvest. A kind of wild linchi (litchi) is also found in these forests. The countrymwe are still spe~.dng of that part which lies to south of the Mun River-is intersected by a number of smaller watercourses whic}?. are all born on the Dong Rek, run northward and flow into the Mfm. These streams, taken in order of succession from east to west, are as follows: Dom Noi, Dam Yai, Krayung (the sources of the latter being at the very 'foot. of the stupendous Phra Vihar temple), Samran (near whose confluence lies the town of Srisaket) Taptan and Chi, the list one being the border of the provinces of Surin and Buriram. rrhere are also some Kui living to the north of the Mun river; they are thus fairly nume~ous in the two c~jmpho of Khemarat and Suvarnavari, mostly living near the " :tviekhong river, between this majestic stream and the low jungleclad mountain range of Phu Phi1n. The country here is vertry wild aud cut up, trackless and unfertile.. Kui also live in the flat open country, that vast plain of Suvarnaphum stretching away westward of the Mun's large n<:>rtherri tributary, Lam Chi or Si. The!(. u1: live here in the following amph(j, taken from east to west: Kantrarom, Kham Khiian Kaeo (bqth east of the Chi), Mahachanachai, '!I ' Rasrisalai, Suvarnaphum, Chumphonburi, Phakhaphnmphisai and Vapiprachum.

190 158 Erik Seidenfaden The forests along the Mekhong, as well as those to the south are still teeming with all sorts of game. Tl:).ere are wild elephants in the jungle adjoining the Dong Rek hills; in 1917 one might meet them in the great forest to the north of Snrin. Sq,rnuha'l, eld dee.r and the barking deer were plentiful, and wild buffaloes were living near the hills in the Kantraraks districts; Gaur and lmnteng (red cattle) were numerous. In the~e far stretching fo.rests there were, and still are, many tigers and black panthers, both being very bold and dangerous. Tigers have been known to carr~r off people from inside their villages. Wild dogs ar<:j also nnmer ous and one Inight, meet packs of them hunting the sambltar or elcl deer. rrhat curious little animal, the flying squirrel (tva pa ng), is also a Clenizen of these forests, as well as the python and the cleadly cobra. Peacocks, jungle fowls and hornbilis are very common, as are large swarms of small green perroqnets. The Kui people a1 e called Soai (ft'jtl)' by the 'rhai, hi1t they call thca~se1ves [(ui (men). '!'here are pure Soa'i, Lho Soa'i ancl.khme1 Soai, D111'ing.the reign of Phra Nang Klao (18: ) a census was taken of this part. of Northeast Siam, q ' and the population was divided for taxation (1fftJff'JtJ) purposes into Lao, Khmer and Sow: (Kui). Today, or rather already more than 'forty years ago, the name LaoBoai and Khmer Sorti have com.e to signify Kui who have changed their uwt,hm tongue :for ehhm. that o:e Luo (Thai) or KhnlM', ~ While scientific research wm~k, carried out in Prench Indo-. china has done much to clear np the various "racial" pl'oblems there, vei y little has ~een done in Siam, with tho exceptioh of exploratory ~work carried out by Dr. Fritz Sarasin (1931) who found the imp,lements and traces of a former pa1aeolithic Melanesian population in caves both in Central and Northern Siam. There can, however, hardly be any doubt that the same "racial'' complex that obtains for present French Indochina also holds good for the remainder of this subcontinent. 'rhis matter will he taken np for ftn ther eonsideration in our concluding paragraph. '.Phe prehistory of Northeast Siam has 'hot yet been studied at all. In 1912 stone :implements and ancient pot,tery was dug up a.t, Ban Lamduan Yai, a large old I

191 ' the KUI PEOPLE OF CAMBODIA AND SIAM 159 fortified village lying to the south of Srisaket, bnt we had not the opportunity of seeing the finds. Fr01n the intimate knowledge we posess of the country north of the Dong,Rek range we are convinced that digging for prehistoric 1naterial would yield a rich harvest. rrhe broad stretch of country lying to the south of the Mi.in River, which we have spoken of as the country of the Ku1:, is far from being uniformly occupied by this people. In ajl the u/mpho (districts) there are living side by side with the J(rwi either rrhai or Khmer. rrhis living together of several ethnic elements has led very much to the denationalization of the 1(ui who, in contrast to their countrymen in Ca!nbodia, do not respect their own language or customs. Still, as we shall see, in 1917 there were at least a hundred thousand K tti-speaking people left. Generally speaking, the Kui give the impression of being a very decadent, dirty and n1orally low-standing ]ot with so1ne few exceptions, and their change to Lao.or Khmer Janguage and culture does nrean a. real advance for thern. When \vell nourished and, tolerably well-to-do, as a few Kui groups are, they look quite attractive, expecially tht\ young girls with their lithe well-shaped bodies and limbs, well-developed bustf:l, large masses of bluish black, often slightly cnrled, hair, and, SOJnetimes, large expressive eyes. 'rheir skili is genel'a1ly very da1 k bnt fair-skinned individuals are not rare either. As M. Levy!Jays, the K ui have very little of the Mongoloid in their appearance. rl'hey are of meclhun height, and, 'as far as we have been able to observe, tend to dolicocepnaly. From what has been said above concerning the val'ious human groups -... which, each in its turn, submerged the various preceeding populations and settled in this country, one should expect to find s01ne particular inherited characteristics in the present one (i.e., the K ui) showing affinities with their predecessors. As M. Levy and JVI. Baradat. have shown, the Ca1nbodian Kui and Samre represent a very mixed ''race"; so is also the case with our K~-t1:. Individuals with almost woolly hair, fiat broad noses, thick lips and au almost black skin colour point to a distinct heritage from their "N egrito or Melanesian predecessors. Other types may show high, narrow '

192 160 Erik Seidentaclen noses, tall foreheads and small n1onths, thus being almost "At yan'' in features. Such individuals, however, are few in number. Features. like these wit.h a fair skin colour and longish hea.ds may mean a Wedclid-Indonesian {Europoid) blood component, while a heavy build and square shoulders mem:1s the Austro-Asiatic M on-kinner 1nixtu re which represents the majority. The K tti are all agriculturalists and, generally speaking, not very diligent ones, though they understand well the breeding of buffaloes anc1 cattle, as woll as pigs and pouhry. Some of t1h'l11 are clever and bold e 1ephunt hunters, as we shall see further on. Besides paddy some of the Kui grow sugar cane, cotton and mulberry bushes (for the silk culture). ".rhey take up such activities generally only upon becoming Lao or Khme r-soai. 'l'he J(u honsu, or hut, is in n1ost cases a low, badly constructed building thatched with grass, the walls being of the same 1naterhl.l or bamboo wattle. These hovels at'e very dirty ancd.. full of vermin. rrhe girls know how to weave both comon and silk, and in some vihagt: s the m '.n are clever lmsket makers who not only n:utke the water-tigl1t baskets (lthl,u) for carrying water, hnt also very large ones for holding considerable quantit,ies of paddy. The 1nen dress like the Lao or Khmer bnt the won1en all weal' short. (kneelengt.h) ph'ix-sin or skirts rrhil ty years ago it wns qu.ite a common sight to SPe \vnmen with uncovered breasts, when inside their villages, whel'l:' young girls might be seen running around qnite naked! Still the f(tl' were not... pnrticnl.arly lax in their sexual behaviour, much less ~o than the neighbouring Li1o. rrhe food of the K ui consists of rice, both the, ordinary and the glutinous kindf dried fish and pepper sauce, and also freth fish, when obtainable. Meat of game snch as deer~ wild pig, hare, various birds, and even iguanas, snakes, frogs, toads and larvae are a welcome addition to an otherwise simple fare. The many kinds of eclibje tubers in the forest have already xne.ntioned. Some of the Kw1: know how to make sugar with which they do a little trade. The canes are cl'nshed between two upright standing cylinders -.set in n10timi by a buffalo n1oving around in a circle. The juice from the crushed cane~ runs down into wooden troughs,,

193 THE KUI PEOPLE OF CAMBODIA AND SIAM 161 afterwards to bo boiled in large open iron pans. product is llhtd.e np into Sinall cakes. good. bullock carts were built. 'l'he ilnished In some K ui villages quite Speaking in general the K ui are but 1nediocre farmers, non-traders and rather p1 hnitive artisans and craftsmen. It is our impression, frmn the experience we had with hundreds of K ui gendarmes (rwivates as well as non-commissioned ~ officers, under our orders) that this human group is far fron1 being unintelligent, and that schools and sirnple instruction in better house building and personal eleanliness would effect a distinct iinprovetnent in their lives. rrhe K ui are, however, llluch prone to drink and illicit gambling, and in many districts they had a bad reputation as thieves and cattle lifters. In religion the li. u i are Buc1dl1istl:l, like their Lao and Khul.e'J' neighbom:s, hut up to 1919 the great majority of their villages were without temples or monks. Their real religion is animis1n; the are zealous spirit worshippers, and.. in their forests and hills dwell 1nany powerful and redoubtable spirits who must be suitably propitiated in order not to call down their anger on the poor Kui. Taln-IJ exists among the Kui. A woman may thus be declared lra? JUtl, or untouchable, for some tiuw, and we have heard o:[ one case rosem bling couvade, where the father shifts with the mother of the new born. babe to lie on the ''fire-bed''. We have not, however, been able to find out anything abon'\ a st,ate of sen1i-slavery having formerly existed among the Siamese KU'l:, as was the case with the Cambodian f(u't;. "' Our Siarnpse I{ Ul'i are generally divided,.into four main groups or tribes; the Kul'i JJ1'a i of the east with some scattere.d clans in the west; the K wi M 'lo in the east, center and west 11.nd the north, the Ku, Yo of the center and in the north and the K Uli M'loa in the center and the west. As a matter of fact we shall see that they are divided into SE:veral more tribes or clans. It seems t11at the largest groups were the M'lo, the Yo, the J.'l!l'loa and the M'a'i. However many. large tribes for1nerly occupying vast spaces in the former three circles of Ubou, Roi-Et and tj clorn 1nay have 11isappeared lony ago, having been. assilnilatec1 l>y the sot1thwarcl ~weeping

194 162 Erik Seidenfaden Thai. rl'he consciousness of belonging to this or that tribe seems also to have been on the wane for a long time because of their present intermingled habitats as in the ftirmer Ubon circle. We shall now treat the various K u-1: groups from east to west according to the a1npho (districts) in which they live, or were living back in the years of 1917 ~19 when we were in contact with them. In doing so we shall begin with the northeastern part of changvat Ubon, with ampho Khemarat, which, as will be seen from the accompanying sketch ma.p, comprises a long stretch of country lying between the low forest-clad range of Phu Phfi..n and the mighty Mekhong river. The Kui living here a1 e of the M'lo tribe, their villages lying in the southern part of the district. in 1917 they numbered about 3,550 souls, and they could still speak their mother tongue besides Lao. They cultivated red (clearings in the jungle), hunted and fished, bnt had a bad reputation as cattle thieves and ~pium smokers. The remainder., of the population of this ampho were Thai or Lao J{cw in the central part, and Phuthw: in the northern part, where also lived a small colony of IOta Brao and Khct Lovae who had cmne over frorn the other side of Mekhoug. ln our time they had become orderly, settled people though still Speaking their own guttural tongue. South of the district, of Khemarat, lies the wild mountainous and tiger~infested am.pho Suvarnavari that extends right down to the Mnn at it.s outlet in the great river, and for a short 'distance below the same... Wild elephants used to abound in district,.as well as other big game.,. 1'heinhabitants, l~esides Lew Kao, were Ku'i; M'lo, nn~bering about 4,600 individuals, and they seemed to be of quite a good oaort. Both sexes are rather tall people, the girls being fair skinned with often almost regular features. They wore their hair long in contrast to most of the other k. td women of t.hat time. These K ui were of cleanly habits and had frank and attractive manners. Some Lao V ieng were also living here. They seemed superior to the ordinary Lao, several of their young girls being very han<tsome. The K ui call this ampho Khong Chiain. The latter word means elephant, and the. first is part of the name of the great I'...

195 1 THE KUI PEOPLE OF CAMBODIA AND SIAM 163 river Mekhong. At a eertaiu place along the river bank the elephants, both tame and wild, used to S"\Vim across the river but as many of the tame elephants were severely. bitten by a kind of ferocious river tortoise, called, in Siamese tapha 'P nam., the big pachyderms are now ferried over on a timber raft.. Old people, when questioned, replied that fol'merly the entire territory of the two a.mpho of Khemarat and Snvarnavari were inhabited solely by K ui, probably all of the In JJ1'lu. rrhere were also living some 800 Lao Soai, former... l'lo, in this district and on the small strip of land south of the mouth of river Mi.in there was a colony of Kha.Hinhao who had crossed over from the French side of Mekhong. We will now ourselves cross over the Miin river to the ampho of Phimun Mangsahan. rrhongh at present peopled by numerous Lao.Kav there can be no doubt that it really is old Ku1: tenitory, the t.wesent 'l,hai inhabitants having dispossessed the former Ku i o wners, and as a rnai,ter of fact there were still over 2,300 Lew Soa1;, fonner J(ui JYI'ai, living there. To the west of this nmpho lies that of Warinchamrap, just opposite t.he large, prosperous town of Ubonrajadha.ni, capital of the former circle of the Saine name (the town lies on the northern bank of the Mun river). rrhe terrninus of the Bangkok-Ubon railway line is in Warinchamrap. ln 1917 the population of this ampho was made up of Lao Kao and Phnthai, besrdes 11,400 Lao Soai, former Kui M'a i, and 2,~00 pure Kui.ll!l'a'i, still speaking their mother tongue. rrhe.k ui of this district possess in n1any cases quite "'Me lane sian features, being clark-skinned a.nd curly-haired. The belief in black ~., n1~gic (phi pob) so common among the S~ of changvctt Kalasin, Sakol Nakhon and Nakhon Phanom, is also held by the K'1-~i here. Along the cart track leadin~g from Warin to Khnkhan, lies a group of large villages: Ban Khilek, Na Non, Na Suang, etc., inhabited by the so-called Lao Soai who speak a peculiar singing kind of Lao. rrhe whole territory of Warinchamrap, I was told, was formerly Kui M'ai. The inhabitants of the said group of villages seemed to be somewhat progressivet their fields being well tilleq, and they were the owners of many fa.t, red cattle. Besides this there were

196 164 E:rik Seidenfaden temples in all their vi llaget:>, l ach \ViU1 a good cleau salit (rust house). rro the south and southeast of ampho Warinchamra.p is the extensive amph(j of Det Udom which il1cludes tl1e sub-ampho of Ban Boa Buntharik, the territory of the latter e:x;tending right down to the Dong Rek range. Amph() Det Udom is a densely fm~ested and very wild dist,rict, ill-reputed for its savage man-eating tigers and its aggressive wild elephants whjch have been known to enter and attack the rniserable collections of hovels, which the K'l~ call villages, making much havoc. 'l'he whole district is moreover considered very unhealthful and fever-ridden. Its population consisted in 1917, besides Lao and Phuthai, of some 6, 700 Lau Sort, former Ku-i JJ1'a/i, and Yo and 3,800 ptut- K"wz:.~.W'a:i. Son1e of the K~ti M' a i lived to the norbheast of tlw mnpho.headquartn's right on the border of ampho Phirnun in Ban N6n Kharn and also Ban Som Sa-at to the southwest; to the south the /{ ui M' a i m c mixed with the Phuthai setuers of Ban Bm~tharik, and a lot of intern1arriage between these t,wo groups has taken place. The Ku-t; M'a i are often as black as chimney sweeps, ugly and negroid looking, but individuals with fine regular features do also occur, especially among the wmnen. There see.ms to be a slighf. diffierence between the dialects of the M'ai and JI!I'lo. The ampho of Kantraraks (formerly Uthnrnphornphisai and more recently called Na:rn Om) li:s to the southwest. of Det Udom. It is a wild rugged country, covered with virgin fore$t or jungle and extend; right down to the Dong Rek range (which is the border of the Kingdom~Jf Cambodia). Near the hills, in some places, is rolling grass.. covered land deeply intersected by many small rushing water courses that descend from the slopes of the hills. Th<~ district used to teem with big game such as wild buffaloes, gaur, banteng, sa.rnbha.r eld deer, bears ancl tigers; there were also many wild elephants. The population consisted in 1917 of 15,000 Kinner, 14,800 Kwi M'lo, 850 Ku-Z: K antoa and 1,000 Lao V'iengchan colonists, the latter living in a large well-built village st1rroundecl by a broacfnatural moat, whence comes the. name, Nam Om. The K u,i here looked very decadent, living in miserable hovels, and the I

197 the KUI PEOPLE OF CAMBODIA AND S!AM 165 cultivation of their fields and rwi being 1nost primitive. They had, like their Ii:hmM' neighbonrs, a vel'y bad name as cattle lifters. They are an unhealthy people too, suffering much from skin diseases, especially ihe children, son1e of \vhom were covered frpm neck to feet. with what in the sunshine l'esembled silvel'y scales! rrhis kind of skin disease is very common among the Salcct.'i of the Malay Peninsula. rrhe Ku-i possessed many humped catt.lo of which they seemed to be quite fond. Living among the K hmm' were some l{hmer 8 oat:, former K n1: M' a;i,, To the north of amph(i Kant.raruks, lying between tlw arn:pho of Wa,rinchamrap and Srisaket, is the a.mph a of Kantrat om which has territm y on both sides of tlw Mun river. Its southern part h; cov(wed with dense forest, with only a few habita~ tions; it includes a portion of the Dong Din Daeng ridge, as also does am ph o. Kantraraks. There nso to b~ many ferocious black panthers living in the big forest which did much harm to the Ku;i's!}attie, and at time attacked peo1-'le too. (We had once a black panther h;sidc our camp, but I1e was scared away by t.lw blazing camp fire). rrhe population C0118isted of rrhai. people and K zl!!:, the latter being in tho majority. There were B,530 M'lo, 2,600 M'loa., 2,500 M'a i, 1,630 fl()t and 1,120 Y(j, besides 7,600 Lao Soa:, former K wi.zt!l'lo, Y ij and Hot; U1P 'I'hai element nnmhere<l some~ 5,300 persons, L?w Krw m1d V' eng, 'l'hri~t: KmYt.t ancl Phu.tha (4,400). rrhe Kui M'loa here, whose dialect clii'l:ers slightly from that of theil' southern and southeastern brethren, the 111' ai and the M'lo, seemed more progressive than these. A good example is seen i\1 the large K 'Wi ]lf'loa vi1lage, Ban.Dom, where the houses are well built and.. ~ solid, and the inhabitants look clean and ordedy. During the colcl seafjon when the northern monsoon. is steadily blowing, this'vic1nit.y is recognizable from far away hy the humming sound of the nmlt\. tude of kites flying high up in the ah; t.he hmnming sound, not disagree able to one's ears, is produced by a musical bmv attachl'c1 t.o the forepart of the kite.4 4 Lord Raglan, in his excellent "How Caine Civilization?" says that the origin of this humming instrument is, to some prhnitives~ the sacred bull :roarer (op. cit. pp ). Did the K'lti inherit it from the Melane.. sians f ; -

198 166 Erik Seidenfaciert I 'rhe amph o of Srisaket is the head district of the changvat of the same name, and the town is, today, quite prosperous because of its trade in paddy nnd timber 1 for which it finds an ontl0t thtongh the railway connection wit.h Bangkok. The am.pho of Srisaket was formerly all Kui. Even today, when all the inhabitants speak Thai or Lii,o (with a peculia1 accent) they are con1monly called Sow 8 1 r isaket. rrhe Srisaket girls are known for their good looks and fair skin, and 1nany of thpjn used to 1narry Sianiese ofticials. Already as far back as in most of the so-called Lew S oai did not know to what K.u i tribe theh parents be longed. rrhe population in numbe1 ed over 27,000, of 'ivhich only oneseventh were of pure 'l'hai blood: ther P were approximately- 17,000 Lho 8ort/i, former Yo and M'lo, with a sprinkling of J{hmer who 110\V all speak the Lew K iw dialect, furthern10re 5,850 K tti M'lu, 110 M'wi and 300 Khmer. 'ro the east of 1n.oa ng Srisaket, in Ban Phonsai a.nd Don there lived Kl.M; YO' mixed with Pkutha.1: settlers. Ban Non Kwanv and four more villages were also said to be J(w: Y"o, though some thought the villagers were rather Tha i Y-i:tai come down fl'om the_. north (a.mpho Akat Amnne y in cha.ngvrt.t Nakhon Phanom. is people(l by Thrt 1: Y i"ta i). rrhe large old fortified village called Ban Lamduan Yai, south of moang Srisaket, on the road to Khukhan, is inhabited by Lao Soa, former Kw.JJ1'lo, though we suppose then1 rather t.o bcl former Yo as thev.. possess the old Yo tradition about, which more anon. Another Lho Soa/i ;''illage is lying south of this old fortresh, but further south all is Khmer, right down to the border hills. The Srisakd people, whether Li'i.o, Soa, K wi or Khmer, did not seem to be the best rna:erial for a conscripted gendarmerie as they had, at least. formerly, a bad reputation as cattle thieves and gamblers. From the point of view of intelligence, however, they do not lack anything, and we have had very good gendarmerie officers who were Soa 1: born at. Srisaket.. rl,he a112pho of moang. Khukhan, which fol'lnerly gave its name to ~he present. province of Srisaket (due to its being the provincial heaqnarters), lies ahnost due south of S1 isaket '\vi'b11 its I

199 THE KUI PEOPLE OF CA1v1BODIA AND SIAM 167 territory extending down to the Dong Rek hills. It is, especially to the south of the town of Khukhan, a wild forest and junglecovered country full of wild animals, and much feared for its malignant fevers. The population consisted in 1917 of 32,000 J{hrner, 6, 260 Lew V ieng settlers and 17,800 K u i, divided in 12,450 M'lo, 2~250 M'a i, 1,240 Y'o and 470 P'(yrr, besides 1,400 Lito Soa i (formerly Kui M'lo). The l(hmet living to the east of the town included some Khmer SoiJ,.i. To the northeast of Khnkhan town lie t~re villages of Ban Damyae and Boa Ralum from which came the leader of the fanatical Phn-mi-b :.n uprising in A much smaller and less dangerous movement broke out in amphri Kantraraks in 1916, the leader of this movement also declaring himself tp be the possessor of supernatural power s. Such ideas are very characteristic of the--in a spiritual sense.-somewhat unbalanced Kh.:-t. OJ.' Mol populat,ion of the wild back lands of Cambodia, Annam and Laos.. There are both K ui M'loa anc1211' lo villages \Vest of Khnkiran on the way to Sangkha. The ampho of Hasrisalai, sometimes called moang Khong, after a large, old fortified place (now deserted) lies to the northwest of Srisaket, on the nort,hern bank of the river Mun. It is an open fertile country dotted over with villages which are situated amidst' groves of tamarind anc1 mango trees, bamboos, cocoa palms and banana plantations 'l'he populati~n consisted in 1917 of some 2, 700. Kwi Yo and 23,000 Lao Soa-i (formerly Yo) who had changed their language to that of Lao K. ao, but even the "plne'i Yo "\Vere 30 years.ago quickly forgetting their ancestral tongue, and llo'w, in 1948, there are probably none left speaking the K lt Yo language. \Ve remember that already in 1913 the so-called pure Y,(j could often only remember a few hundred words of their proper language and were nnable to count to more than ten in Yo. 'rhe K u i Yo of Rasrisa lai and elsewhere have a curious tradition (also known in Ban Lamduan Yai) the literal authenticity of which seems doubtful. Acco!rding to this b'adition--or n1yth--a certain Phya Takaxila left Burma about the year 1810 ~~.D. with 500 Y'o fo1lo.. wei s of both.. sexes due to the oppression of t.he ' -

200 f i68 Erik Seidenfaden BnrmrRe king. King Ann. H0 emigrat.e!l to Vieng' chall(t, thi:'ll governrd by However, not being treated well by him LhE Yri people left. again and. went down the Mekhong l'ive'r to Hc tt.]o at.ohamj)a Sftk on the island of Khong. Again snfl'el'ing oppj'ersion lwre the y(j wandtn ers moved up to Khnkhan and from tlwre to their present habitat. In the Kbuk:ltan clii:!tl'ict t.]h'l'e' are :;till a nnmhpj' of Yo villag08, and in Rnsri::lalai tlwre were twenty of tlwi1 villages in However, uld men in that yeal' estimate([ tho tot.al nttml>el' oj' f( tm' Yo-speaking individuals to be ahout. 4,000 souls only. Their dialect resembles that of the Kw' () njhi N'tra. at li!jl.u. Pr ei but with some important differences. A dc tailed study of the various dialects of the Kui language would pl'nllably show that Ktti Yo, together with Uw language of tlw Chrto Bon o.r N irt. J(uoll, comes nearer to t,jw 111on langnagr than moht. (Jj' Uw other Mon-K lml!j'i' languagt~s. Is the ahovn tradit.ion nnt. a J ather confused. l'ccollect.ion (thehr. peoplo forget quickly) ol' the Ku.v: tribe's emigration from Intlia more than 3,000 yrars ago, wlh'n the Aryan conqncrt (!.rove so many Anstro-As:iatie P<'oplPs out of Imlia? 'l'hc coum!etion wi!;h Llw uame of ('ra) kaxila might lw a hi11t h1 t.hat. clireet.ion. A largp Yo Jamily has taken 'l'almxila fn1 a family mnne. 'l'he y(j an' w<dl and Kt.rongly built withayr IInwiNh-ln own 01 even coppc'l' l'cd Hkin colom. 'i'lwir gn.y women w<,lll oj'tc n with theil breast.!'\ nncovr1 ed, smoking large eigal'etteh (like tlu Hm. mesc wnm~n). It seems that the moralr of t.hr Yii Rllffer "\Vlwu they change ov~r to LfLo, witnera the daring proposaia <''Xchang(>(! (in song) bet.wec'n the two Kexes, which is ~:~t.r ongly :in cont1 akt to the rlrfle~lt ~mel timid behaviom nf Lhe KhnlO?' girls. Still thf> chnnge.over tn thf> Lao en Hure rlnes IDL'au a consid( J allle gain from the mate1 inl point of view. In 1917 the pn1:e 'rhni elements in this nmphii were only about ~.200 Lho J((w, 300 J.'hai K!wr ct.t, and a thousand Phttthrtv: settlers. ~'hat. the Y(j l ang nagf was formel'ly spoken furthel' ngrt.h is proved by the existence of the Lao Bor~~~ in the rtmj.jhn of Maha Ohanachni, which. lies to the no1 t.heast of Rasrisalai on the weste1 n bank of Lam Ohi, ancl ahw I

201 ' l THE KUI PEOPLE OF CAMBODIA AND SIAM 169 am.11h;i Kltam Khiian K:t'''' lyi11.t.: t" tit lllll'tiji'a:-;1 or till' lalt('l'and Oil t lw t <t:-ilt l'll IJank of L:un Ohi. ill till Malia Olullta('IHti d ikl J iet tlu J'P Wl'l'l' in HH7,.;oJlll' l.'\0() j,(tu,)'orti (p ao,ooo L1w Kiw, whil in (.\w Kltau1 Khrtan lb IJ di;;triet tht.'l't.' \\'l'l't.' i\7,:,oo Uw l\au to DUO Dhu,)'ul/i, who li\'l'd in j(.;.; HtlltlhwuHl\'l'n pat t. 'rhc HI Liw Sowi \\'l'l't all f~>t'l.llt'l' Kui Yii. Am11hrj Uthulllllhoi nphi,;ai (fot'hlt t ly l'nd1in Sri:mkl'l, i.e. Wl',.;( t'll St i:-;akl'l) lyi11g lo t lit ;.;onthw1 Kt of S1 i;.;akl'(. aut\ lltuk,.;oulh of Ra;.;t i;.;a]ai i;.; a l'c rlilt, Wl'll-eulllvull'd and denht ly populalt d plain with aii'i':itl~ ill 1!117 IIVI'I' oti,ooo inhahitanlh. OJ' l IH' :~\l latulh>iit-< (vill:q.(l' group;.;) ;~;~ Wl't't' JJw 8oni wit.h H~,il80 fnl'tllt't' /{lli y;,, M'lfJ a11d Jr'lon; i\ wnl' lllll'" f{u.i, ~2 i1'rm.i, and :2 Wt t'!' Klti/l.tW mix.l'd. with Dau and Phztlltni. 'l'j1p!ot?nc?' 8uai Wl't'l' f ll'lllt'r J.:'ll,.i kl'loa.; t.lll: pnt'l' l(ui WPt't dividt-1l into fi,7o0 Jlf'loa, :..l,oijo 11l'lv, 1.7~20 Knndrra.f., \JOO l!f'ai awloldj' 100 yii. 'l'jmi IH'opl1 ijl('htd; d l,4fi0 Plmthni and 1,200 Uw Vieug. 'rlw wut't' Klmuw 8()(/'i II I' I hi~ litrgp d ihl t i c(; WUI'l~ H!l iullllh [J'i<HHl mttl.not UltaLLI'tte(.iVI.! puovlt. who had t :tpitlly adnr>tchl 'l'jmi <.mhnro and. lmt t.(ttagt. aneii. Jil day:-; LhiH tlihll'iet. may htlvc' play~>t.l an iuql n Lant. rolo. Tlw lat gl' tdd [uj'i,ifw l vi! bg<, ealled Ban Sri1 Ku 111 pht ng Yai wit.h ith l\'hmm Ll'l!liJl : t'ttilth and Ht ahmnnie H<'ttlptttt't'H, may lttlvt: hvun \.]w eltit t: U:nnl1odian town ttlll'(.\t of t.lu: Dollg H.uk l'tmgu, JWrha]lf:\ Jli.'X.l lo l'llimai. Sueh a eon<.:l.uhioj.l 1-j()(!UlH valid in Vil'W or inhtl'ipt.iohh in thu P!t1 a Viltat moulllain lt JJtplc dating hack to t.lti.' IJt.lt-lJ.t.!t cvnltll'y A. ll.,. -; '!.'Itt. Kwi ~(il'ik, likl' l b1 it J(hmill' and Si:nm:t-~t' HiHlut'K Llll'I'Hh tlw Jladtly by (l<>'lllltlillg il ih a llllll'l:tr (a hollow~d-out pit!m ol' a t,.,,.. l t'tutk) whij~.. t lt.l' Lftn ~dl'l~ all th:w (.Itt k~, ~uk lc?y.ulita.nr/', a ~m t oj: t.ipl>ing lnmml!t',,,. JHH1lltlt'l' wlt.idt i~.llliivi'tl tqrwnt tl hy a Jll't::;:mt e of t.ht :l'uol wh~. t t nj't.~.~t wl'ight i 11lo ln it. i;.; lufl (,o!'all tlown by i1h own tlw mortar emttaini11g HH pad1ly which ih thut t~by (.hrc ttltl'tl. \Vlwn the 1\.ui change llvl'l' t.o he LU,o t hoy ;Hlopt Lheil' mamtl'l' uf Lht utthillg thl ]Huldy alr;o, whet PaH.if tl1oy lweonw Khme?' they ::;tick to the aeenht.ouwtl one. A::; Utl' Soo i of 'Ut1nnnphompltisai at'<' vut'y rn olific their numlwl'h umy 11uw, ll11ll'l' than 30

202 170 Erik Seidenfaden years lakn, have <lonblucl. 'l'hey are (~sscnlially a paddy-growing peopl<) and shnnld by selling their grain gnin a handsonw retnrn, if not LJ icked by the all-pervading foreign miclcllmnun who, today, seem to have bucome the economic masters oj' Northeai:ltl)l'll Siam too. 'l'hc trnnk railway :from Ubun to Bangkok pusi:i<:'s right through the center of this ampho. Ampho Ratmwlmri is situated to Llw no:rthwest. of Uthnmphornphisai, having for its northel'll border the l'iver of 1\'Iiin. It was fol'inorly a densely wooded dislrict full of wild animal:;, among thorn many t:)lephants, but its thrifty population has, by clearing tlw jungle, changerl most of it into fel'tilu fit lcls. The ljopulation h numbered 24,000-odd perhons; viz: 21,780 Lao Soa1:, former K.u i.l11'l~, 2,440 Kwi.L11'Z3, 130 Khmer Soai, also former.l1:f'w and 420 Khmer, besides a sprinkling of '1' hcd Khm ett traders. 'rhe veoplt (l:l' Ratanahuri produced mneh sngm and. probably still do so. It. is to. bt' noted that the physiognomy of the Kui of Ratanabnri is absolutely clifl:erent from that. of the Lao, the girls often being fair-complexione(l and very hanilsmnu. J~\te:illg the district of Ratanabnri, to tho north of the Mun, lic s the extensivl~ Suvarnaphum plain, partly ineludecl in thn am.phij of the sam~ name (changvat Roi-Et). In 1918 tho population eonsihted of 44,000 Lao Vieng, 150 Lao 8'oai, former [(ui Yo, 540 Yo and 400 Kh'mer. The Yo may by n~w have become quitp assimilttted by the large Thai population, To 1:he south of a:mplzo Ratanabnri is the ampho of Sikharaphum with its civil headquarters at Ban Anan. 'l'hirty years -.. ago its extensive plains wet'o already fairly well cultivated. The numbel"d for the various ethnic gronps were then given as follows: 13,000 Kui M'loct, 4,300 Kui M'lo, 5,900 Lao SoCl'i, forml r M'loa, 4,000 Khmm Eloai, former M'lo and 3,200 Lao v,:eng, t.he iatter being ne\vcomers; thel'll were also 3,900 Khmer. The Kui M'l3 (some say thc y really are M'rd) living in the large prosperous. village of Ban Sann onglap were very attractive people, being clean, 'hoj.!est and industrious. Their fine strapping girls were nice, gay, but modest persons. 'rhe K'ui of Samrongtap were well 1 l

203 THE I<Ul PEOPLE OF CAMBOVIA AND SIAM known for Uwir hngn watert;ight bask.ets.tor st.oring paclcly and rice, some of them being brc ast high and holcling eonsiderable quantities. In thl Kni M'loa tmnbon at Ban Prasat is situated the fine oltl Khmer sanetnary, called Pmsat Rngai, with Us five towers, one of the he8t preserved Khmer monuments in Siam. Amphij Suenphinikhom lies to the northwest of arnj)h(j Ratanalnui ct)1(l nfn th of ampho Sikharnphnm and. amphu Surin. Itto: territory is partly covered by forest, the extensivp and highlying Khok, the western part of whieh grows on th>: tall clay-ish l'iclge on the bank oe the broad M fin rive l' plain, called Phu Din alhl Phn Dong Sala. Tlw IJOpnlation munhered. in 1917 some 45,000 :individuals, mostly Mon-Khmer peoph!. The figmes given wm e 11,200 Kwi./JIJ'lu, 1,5GO K:wi Jli' a'i, 12,600 Khme1 Soai, 8,250 L'i;t,o 8omi mt<l 1,500 Khme1. The Thai c lr ments included l-\,250 Dew ICftu, 420 Lew V'iono and 400 Tha-i K m nt. 'l'he Khnw llvn in t.lw t.l.tree Mfin river villages Ball. Dc'i'm, Ban Dni and Ban Prasat whc re t.l1e amrpho hl'adquarters are. 'l'hongh t,lwse I<wi aj'l' 11uL very good. ;t! hou:w building or farming they still HC'c m to lw Homewhal supori01 to thoil' kinsmen in tlw neighhotwing antz!hv. Quite a lot of thc m are bold and succ:pssfnl eh!phaul huntc!'fj, :f.or instanec> i.hose in Ban Ch6m Plp a, and especially their K:wi M'tl'i Ol' K tti Eng 1Jl't't.hrc~n rom the three la1 ge palisaded villages, Ban Takllng, Chanda ancl Kaehan, :;tanding on the weste.t n srmr of the Phn Din-Phn Dong Sala ritlge. In 1917 the villagers here wore the ow1wrs of muro ihan 9.0 big hunting elephants. 'l'he Ku1; hunters used to g'll -.,. tlown into the Chmupasak terrhory every rainy season, and they generally rctmned with wild Plephants caught, llwn. In 191()!17 Kui lnmtt: rs caught BO oj' these huge IJachyclel'lm: on tlw 1'hnng Kanhgng in Champasak. Thwi Yuan (North Siamese), Slums and Burmese came from far away to buy elephants :i'rom the KU<i to sell to tho :mnropean t.imher companieto: for work in their lc ak :f.on st concessions. Prices were.not high ancl some. :i'ew years before (in 1914) t.hc Ku i sold 10 elephants :for 20,000 Baht. only. "'rho Ktti are a gay and thoughtless lot. When they have received money -

204 f 172 Erik Seiclenfaden they spend il quickly. 'l'ih'l'l' al'l' trun lntn.~ (uhn it-ljlnking t'l'l't' monic s) to be held in tlw tornplt s, gifts to be Jll'usentod to lllll!lk::;, ancl their own uatf:c girls t.o l>e given go!den and sil Vel' ot'naments, m eklaeus and ht ttedt'ls; 1uuch fl asl.ing and drinking goes on in t.jwir vi'llngus. Sometimes one mighl-, meet a long filu oj' ulephants walking ::;outh to Sul'in; i.u the hrnvdnlu; i:lat smiliug Ku / men anu t.jwir wonwn; they wo1 e lilt thoir way tu maln' pm chases in themadwt.nf the provincial capit.al. WP l'l'uwmlwr mooting, just. at thr beginning of the rainy season mauy ynns ago, a whole procession of 113 oleplnmt.s, garlanclud and rlecked with flowori:l and colon red ]1UlX' r tinsel, and mannell 1Jy a not llllik snbe1 hnt vury jovial comptnry. 'fhoy wert' K ui underway frojtj. Bl1n Kachau In I he wat or temple in Ban 'l'alw with Heve,ral young nak buat--eandidalee~ fm ent.ry into thn Bnduhist. pl'iee:\t.lwod.. At Ban Dong Krapb llil'i'r UE:lLHl to be held tm annual thankgiving f'l ast in holhii' of I hl' pow, l'fnl local guardian sviri.t. SL veral lnm~ll'l dtj of ft;~lal-elad pr nplu o:e hot,h sexes gatlwred tjwru (thitl was iu 1<\dJt mu y 1917 ). Alcohol and, a :fish were plu cod in the s?tn tabu chrto ban m spirit hou;;e, a simple wooden eonstrnction ontsidr>. the village, withont any kind oj an image. An old man officiated at tho ceremony, loading Uw lll'!t)'<~rs Lo the thephar alcs (spirit); wax cancllps were lit, alcrjhol wal:l drunk, while t,lw assembled people salnted the spirit with mighty rom fl of Hhonting. Soon evcryono was r;lttlwr tipi:ly. - The young J(u i gil ls of these Pleplwnt hnntors' village:; ure rather tan and fairer than l;he Khmer or Lao girls whom LhPy nt'l' gnite unlike illj)hysingnomy. They look very atlt al J,ivc: in thci1 ~ertically striped silken phrt sin (skirts) ydlow and pink silken Bcm vek round t.heir prominent breasts, and arms and necks adornprl with their gold or silver trinkets, nut. to speak of t.he \Vhit o or 1 ed flower~ stuck coqnet.tishl~ 7 behind. their oars. We wnndet f1 um whom these Ku,i gil' Is could have inherited theit good look;;? Could it 11e :from t.he "Enropoid'' Indonesians or the Wed<lahs r (1'hl:'. young 8alca i girls are often very pretty). Evet ything. pertaining to the hunting of elephants in Siam (also by 'the Ku i and Khme r) has of comse hutm minutely treated in a most scholarly

205 l I ' the KUI PEOPLE OF CA~!BODIA AND SIAM lll<llljlt t l1~ Hi~ Exenllv!le~ Phyn Tnd.t :t Mm.tll i Sri Ultandt a Kutttai':L (M1. F.JI. <lilt H) in hik \\'1 11-lmown JlilJH'I' iu the Jnul'llal nl' lilt 8inm St,t iety, whi\'lt hm: t'tlt'i'vi~i lh t;!lllh' :t tli!khil;,5 At th1 hig l'lupllanl tl1 ivr al Loplml'i in 1\l:ty 1\liiR tlll'l'l' \\'Cl'P munug otlten: a hal ('h oj' 1\.ui Pll plumt. lnmlel'h wit\1 t hl'it,,.< ll-trainotl :miluals. AnqdtiiOintm]llllllnll'i lit ~ 1111 tlu. nnl't.ltr t Jl h:mk of tlh Mr111 t'iynt, to i Itt Wl'~l oj Su1 aph inikl'\m. 1t i~ lljh'ii t:mmt IT eou~iht ill~\ or ro\jing p\aillh <illllllht. dew)jij oj' fot't'kt Ill' [!'()( ~; Jt~>al'ly (]to yj\lag'l'l' ili'p all built on tht top:-: ol' hilloekh ill llt'dl t' to avoid llw :Lllttnal iltllllll:d-ioni4 t:nthell hy t 1!1 t ivut 1\tfiin. M:llly oj \.ltt :-:n hil\11ek:-1 wen fol'l ifiod plaeeh it1 oldt u cla~ ~. lu 1917 lh1 J'I' Wl!t'l~ living in thh: disll'il:l aho11l 1: \.lmu!r,<.,'otl'i, formt r IO:ui.M'lo. ah W( l'n alhn!lw :1,~100 /;ao Soa i, KlllJtu,100 'J'lwi A"hu?'lll :md alll,ul G,OOO Lao!{ (w. 'rltey Wt J'C Hl!IKlly a :tl lim lowly lot. living in mihc~ralllt ltovl'ih; llt1 y wnt n l'tulltej'llttll'l la;~,y and ltad a 1Jlt\l 11mnP in l he n~l:ot tlh oj' llw :thihol'itil'i'l. 'l'lw lltiov<!h ot' t.iji'f't l'it elt f\ (Na.klton Ra:iaHima, Uhon and Hoi.gt) \\'l'l'lj :-:~tid to lind an ahyhun hot o. '1'11(~ L ill in g of t.\11~ lie ld s ho t'f:\ wah vo t'y ]ll' im it ivn, :1u d 'oft.ph, al'l.nl' I h t! mhi or lh! ltat'vc'hi alld lit~< lltl'!'hltillg or lltl' l'il'(', I III'HI' 8oa-i IIH!'d ill Iii'!'\\' llllloij liq11111' willt tlt1 t-\ad l't'hiii.l lltal. dlll ing 1\w llloiii IiH or l>otc~ntlll~t -.l:t.jiiihi'~!ilw migltt. find wholt villagp~: happily drhnk- aud tlt:l'l i't'llltt t ltu t m ly llllll'ttitq.(. 'l'l1c: 8orti (and A'h'lllm') hot'!' :tt'p a p1d~ glnl 'Jot, ntau,r or lltnm.hppaking lwllt ],'hl!lt!1' aud 'l'ltai l>nkitlc H K wi. i\t llll'i I' :-:pi! it. i'phi.ivnls :rnut:lt dmwiug, Hltouling :md thiuking go on, d1il'tllg' wltit.h lilt' girih m t vt:t ~ d:tt ing AnqJ!tii PhakllaplnnuphiHai i:4 tlh liiohi Kontltwr Hl-nl'll or tlt.t tt.rn 1 phii oj' clut11{/'uat Hoi-IM. Tt ih a c.ntmlry 11.1' oming plains with low l'id~ :ek and nntnm ou~< hil.loekh, gnm:t all~ hut H)llll'H<'ly.wtHH)t <l. It bortlc t':4 to tlw i40ltlh 1111 lt.m.jiltii OlmmyHHllnui :md lolhl' Wl':-\l Ill! Plmt.t.haiHong, chan{}v(it lhnit mu. Its prl]mlatimt in 1\117 r oni4b.:lt tl 11f ~~.000 Ku.1 M'ln, r.:hi Yii,,1:00 Lao Soo;i,.ron;1m.Zvl'l~. 'l'herp woro l,hfio Khtner aw.l Jn:m~ Thai; vi>~: 14,500 ];ao Kao :tjj I... l,i\;j() 1'lud Klw9'rtt. Thi;.; pnpulnt.ion hall fonnel'ly a \'f't'\' had name as eatt.lo thieveh, gamh lerr and vagnhnndh. ~'lw tt.m phil 5. Vide J.S.S. Vol. XXIII, part 2.

206 f E:rU' Seidenfacleii - heatlqum ters lie inside.lt large ol<l fortifiefl place with tall rampal't.s and broad watl;lr-filled moats. Moang S{ut is :tnother olcl fm t.ified place in this di.stl'ict. Remains of a former K tti populat.ion :~re also found in cun2)ho Wapipt n.chnm, lying to the north of Phakha.phum]lhisai, wher <: ih 1917 lived t~omc ~~.700 Kui 111'l0, lwsi<les 5,700 ](hnuw and unnwronh 'l'ha.i JJnrmlat.ion; in t;lh tf.jri.jjhi; o.l Kasetvisai (also in chan(tlxtt Roi-Et) t.hel'e were no J(wi left. hnt still Rome 1,150 Khmer. :l!'l'om this nol'olel'n excnrhion wo w.ill go sout.ll to Lhe 11m1.2lho of Snrin, which ih we~:~ternmol':!t of t.lw amph;j oj' Ow d1.rmuvat or the same nn.me; it is genorally accounted t.o be a IOuner distrit:t ww excellence, as all t.lu inhabitants of its Hi taml,ols are Khmer. In the miilcl1e of the ll:istrict :tl'e va~t fertile pndrly field.h, while to the nol't.h and sonth extensive forests < ovel' the gl'ounu. Moa.ng Smin ih an impn!'tant. l'ailway station for the exjhirl of paddy. lu tho Khmet popnlat;ion numbered some 47,000 in<lividn:th>; t.lwy :we decent and. inr1ust.rions peoplo. rrhe Khme1" of Bnttambong and I'hnompenh ured, however, to talk somewhat disparagiug.ly about them, calling them Northern Soai because of their llia.lect. 'fhe language spoken hy tho Khmer nm:th of tho Dong Rek range is l'eal!( hmer ltll cl not Kui though 1vith a tlialoct.ical dih'm enm :from. t.he tongne spoken iu tlw 0c ntra 1 part oj' tht' Kingdom oj Oam\HI<lia. Amph~ Sangkhl\ is tho larl K?.ti-peoplo<l dlhtl'iet. t.o IH tl'entoil n is Hitnated to the sonth of amphu Snriu and Sikhnl':tphnm and t.hns we~:~t of Khnkhan; its western ljorder adjoins the t.el'j'itory of wnpho J)J :.tkhoncluli of chanuvat Bm ira.m while to the sonth il borders on Cambodia. The Dong Hek l'ange iwre pt~ters out' int.o low eartlu. tt ridgeh. 'l'he long Dong Din Daeng riclge ends in this ampho too in a lwoacl sandy pine-,voodetl t:~pur. In 1917 the wild elephants used to ft oqnent t~he Sangkha clistj ict,_ ancl th0il dc\ep foot. prints oft.ed made riding and walking diffim:tlt along thl' cal'l tracks. A'lnpho.Saugkha mns{have been an impol'tant pal't of the olti Cambodian empil e, witness the many brick m stone sanct.nnries Which iwe found here. 'l'he population in 1917 nnmherecl. ~.

207 k,,. THE KUl PEOPLl~ OF~C.::AMHOVIA AND. $lam ' 175 I... ' altogel;her 2i.l,,JOO individual;;, of which number 13,200 wote tkhmm awl 10,200 Ka i M'l~. '!'he sout.l.tca::jloru port.ion of the distri'ct,,that nearest. to the frontier, was not. well known in our time, and was said to contain many interesting things. Among them was a lone peaked hill, called Phn Salil., on the top of which, we were told, was rt cave wherein stood the image of a goddess with bn(falo hol'lll:l.intting out from her temple's! She was mistakenly called Phra Phikuni. Near the border, as well as fnrthor uast, 1:1outh of Khnkh an, we were told that there lived Kha people--others said OhiJm. We suppose they were simply. K tt-i p(jn. It may be added that tho!onner living along the frontier, the so-called KhmrYr Donr1 or Kinner P?t m'e in general not culturally snperior to the Ku i at all. The K wi Jli'l3 girls of SangkhU. are rather tall, SWill'thy complexioned and full breasted with strong limbs but ugly faces, having flat noses, coarse months and often high cheek bones. They cut. their hair short and dressed only in a very short, knee-length skirt.. 'l'hey were, however, modest, a little shy and vt~ry soft-speaking Cl'eatures. Also among these.f(wi a few individuals with almost regular foatnres are met with, 'I' he J(.w: men, tall, ngl y fellows, are good walkers, striding along for hours at six kilo metres an hour. Before eoncluding these notes on t.he Siamese Ku i a few w~rds might be said about the so-call eel 8 ort. i of WI/ }Jhij Mukdahii.n, chan(!vilt Nakhon Plwnom. rrhes$( peoplo are in reality a mixture of Phutlirt:i and So, and are thus distinct from our JCwi or 8oai of the former circles or Ubon and Hoi-Et,. though the.s'~ also. belong to the Man Khme?' group, We regret never having had the opporlunityof visiting the h'rmi of Mukdahan, and are thus un<i4ble to give any information as to their numbers or distl'i hution. CONCLUSION What are the Ku i, ethnologically speaking? According to Professor H.J. Fleure's thoughtful and 1 athei convincir:-g theories, as set forth in the Journal of tho Royal Anthropological Institnte of Great Britain and Ireland,6 man (i.e. homo s~piens) nw[it pro bf.'b]y 6. Vide J.R.A.I. Vol. LXIII, 1937.

208 , 176 E1 i!t Seidc11fadcn evolved in Nor(;h Africa OL' Southwest or WesL Asia, Sahara, which in late Pliocene was a t ichly watered and fertile country, shottld be the ideal place for the cradle of modern man, and from here be emigrated to all the four corners of otu earth. (Because of the ico then covering Centml Asia this part of the earth mnst be considered as unfit for the development of. homo sapiens). Both Pithecanthropus Erectus (.Java man) and Homo Pckinensis were drifts from the west. The earliest drifts :from the west (after these pre-men) were the Negritoes (who wandered as far as Sontheast Asia and New Guinea); the Prato-Australians and the Weddabs. The latter two groups are tlolicocephalics and this bead form is also found among the Indonesians, Melanesians and the Ainu. of Japan. From what Dr. Fromaget7 has discovered of skeletal remains in Tham Hang (Laos) one might hav,ard the following chronological order as regards the migratory movements to this country: first (when exception is taken to a possible cross between P. Erect,us and H. Pekinensis) came the Negritoes, followed by the P'roto-Anstralians, next the Weddid and the Papuan drifts, and thereafter the :Melanesians. 'rhe pre-men may already have arrived in the Far East some 400,000 years ago, when Insnlinde was still connected with the rest of Southeast Asia. The Melanesians, who, like their predecessors, came from India, were followed by the Indonesians coming down from the north. The result of all these crossings and recr ossings of those human groups produced~ says Dr. Fromaget, a primitive neolithic man who united in himself Europoid (Ainu, Polynesian -and Indon~sian) with his Negl'oid, Papuan, Weddid, Australoid and, especially, S alcai traits. Then about 1,200 yea1 s B.C. would the Mon-K hrner peoples have c~ine o.qer from India, and they in their turn superimposed themselves on the now strongly Melaneshm-Indonesian marked population. That this overlying was not complete is seen from the several Indonesian loth or Mol tribes, as well as the Ohams, who do not seem either physically or linguistically to have been influenced to any considerable extent, br the Man-Khmer wave. 'fhe latter consisted 7. Vide proceedings of the Third Congress of Prehistorians of the Far East (Singapore, January 1988),

209 TilE KUI PEDl'LE OF CAMJJOIJIA AND 111 SIAM 177 ot: various /\'hit or Jloi t.rilll;b in I<'reneh Judoehina and of the lcn i, t.ht Uhrw Hiln, or Nif/ l\.11ull, the Lwoit besides the jjibn and A luncj' proper, all in ~i:uu. 'l'lle I\.111: precede<l tho Khmel', who, to hegin with, may m!ly h:wo been t ern esentecl hy a warrior class. By and l1y the Khiii!W immigrants probably wrested from the Kwi the J\Iok}tong valley and most of the Khorat plateau, as well as Central ajhl Eastorn Cambodia. In onr particular case we should t.hink il reasonable to suppose that prior to the coming of the 1\ lwuw tho fnt mor eirc;les of Uhon, Hoi-l~t and Udorn were popula. ted by K tti oj' various tribes, while the former circles of Nakhon Hajasima, or K!tot at, and Pltetehabnn were inhabitt. cl hy Chrw Biin and twr haps 8um o P ld 'l'un!f f~llrll!{l or Y wn/jt"l:. Dnring historical times, ft om t.h Ut,h or loth eon tury A.D. an<l onwards, we are.witness to tho <~onlinnolls strong sonthwnrd push of tho 'l'hai along the.mokihhlg river. 'l'his JHuvomollt uf conquest was intensified and qnielr(~ihj!l (\Hl'ing the roign of the energetie and warlike Lao king, Phra Chan Fa Ng.~ru (lili"ja-lil7il), \'l"ho enlarged the kingdom of La.n Chang (LHang Phmhang) to ornlmwo tho whole of Northeast Siam. As we havo soon from Lhe foregoing this conquest of: the 'l'hai is still goin~ on hy peaeoful moans, cnlturally as \V(~ll as linguistically. Ft om the dosel'iption of: :tho physieal traits of Glll' K m: it will lw seen that lh;t, a few dihtinct, LraitB charactel'ist.ic of their t:or<h'llllllera may be roeogniv.od in "the present-cluy Ku:i. 'l'hus we find tlhl Molanesians' :md Negritoell' cnrly h:tir, broad llut noses, thir~k liph and Hwarthy eomploxions in numerous indi'triduuls and~- _ porhttph also in a few cases Lhe Australians' heavy 1.n bital ridges eoupled with a wavy-curly hair; but we also encounter the finer featnrca of the Indonesianf:l cm1t Sakai (Weddid) with tlie fair'l:lr skin eolour accojnpanied by tho Mv n Khmer square-shouldered build. It, may be added that beaideh the real dwarf popn!ation represented by the few hnndreds of Smnana living on the divide hetween Patalnng and 'ft tmg, and perhaps a few in Patani in Siamese Malaya, there ai e said to live some other small or smallish folk in the depths of the oxt.ensive forest of Bang Ee t4bat covers large tracts ot: Northeastern Ubon and Roi-Et. These people..

210 f J'......, J.'/8 Erik Scidenfadcn '!!i~ are called 1J11-t Drwn{f (i.. o. tho rod children) by reason Of t}h ;;h H't rod hair that covers their bodiei':l. This kind of hair ~8, u f con 1 '".... t.,;q'l'y characteristic of the Pygmies of Asia and Africo: We regre much that due to pressure of our duties we never had time to ""' i~it these interesting small folk. When adding up the figures given for the individual aut ph;; of Roi-Et aurl Ubon we arrive at the following numbers for t.h r.. u i population some thirty years ago. 72,000 Kni Yu 6,800 Kui M'lua 23,620 Ktti M 'r,d & fljnu 11,170 Ku.i Hiit Kn Kand~ an Kui ]( rtnto(~ K1.ti P orr Ktti Mttnn f{u; Bcti l,firo 1,no 81:)0 11,70 i\ TOTAL KUI 118,760 Soa (Li'to & J(h.mM ) " " ",.,, " " " ",,, " 'l'o'l'al 8 0 AI R:l~~lf!ll ;tk, :.!.~.t I 1 s,:hw 1. 7.o f.j(l 1.7~1.o:m - Based on above figures the biggest Ktt tribe was t;h u t t~e M'Zo which, on the other hand, had lost more than half c r i 1 H. original nnmber::;, as far as these Mn be ascertained. The Y ;; H~~fun rapidly to lose their language and ouly about one-eighth to o:ne-1.1. i l, 0 t of their ori~irml number spoke their proper language as far 1 Hl.e k ar in1917. There may now, a generation later, be none left talking J ~;! The M'loa hacf lost nearly half of their Kni-spealdng n u. :ru l u:r H wf1ile t:p.e M'ai were down to two-fifths of the original nl::u:.u 1 J «C~l speaking theit old tongue. The [(1.ti Hot had lost three-fifths of' 1. h '("> already small number who spoke K ui. By the way, Hot is.l'(:> a 11". d nickname--the word meaning asthma--and these K ui really speak i:n an asthmatic manner. Whether they were Ktti M'lo, M'loa, M e ~ or Yowewere not ablo to find out. Say that,as late asl919,there...(. 'v.. l n still 118,000-odd K1.d speaking their ancestral tongue how t:n w.....\ ::\'" wonlcl there be left now (30 years later) who can speak their c,],~, If'

211 the KUI PEOPLE OF CAMBODIA AND SIAM i79 language? Considerably fewer, no flonbt. Of the 179,000 ''Sorti'' the greater number were speaking Lao (146,000-odd) and only about :33,000 had adopted Kliml,e'r as their new language. 'fhe gain from the K ~t since then will snrely be in favoul' of the 'fhai language. 1.'be Khmtw, unlike theit Kui eonsinh, do not give up their rwoper language. It would certainly be interesting from the purely scientific point of view if an np-to-date lingnistic census could be taken now hefo1 e it becomes too late. In the year 1947 the Kingdom of Siam had a pormlation ol' 17 million. (Experts thing that the true figure comes nearer to tho 18 million marie) Of thir:~ number, ti.i3 million Hved in the fonr, formo1.montlwn or circles of Northeast Siam. As far as we have been able to analyze this flgnre, as regar<ls ethnic origins, the rel:lqlt should be as follows : Monthon Nakhon H.ajasima Udorn Roi-Et Ubon 1,276,000 'J'hni 1,772,~)00 " 1,264,000 1,068,000 " " 80, n-IOmlM' 60,000 " 40,000 " 740,000., or a total of 5,380,000 'l'hai and 920,000 jj!jon-khmer. In the first figure are included the numerous Annamite and Chinese immigrants whose exact numbers are unknown to ns. With regard to the 'fhai of Nakhon Rajasima (besides the Lao V ieng) these people were formerly classified as U.w Klang (Middle Lao) though they are not LU,o at all. As a matter of: fact the 'P hai K.hora? are former Kittner who long ago changed their original language for that of 'l'hai of.-._ -. the central provinces though their speech is still,.. dialectical as regards intonation and certain mannerisms, Estimating their numbers roughly at three quarters of a million one may say'"witho;t exaggeration that at least one and a half million of the inhabitants of Northeast Siam are of Austro-Asiatic origin. 'fhe number conscious of being so, or speaking their original tongue, is, as will have been seen from the foregoing, considerably smaller. Although this paper intended only to t~eat gf the Kui people a little information as to the numbers of the other M on Khme1' elements in Northeast Siam may be found useful. In 1917.

212 (' 180 Erik Seidenfaden the Khnuw in the former circle of Ubon numbered 115,800; today, a little more than 30 years later, their number would be double that. In 1917 there were about 40-4G,OOO Khmer in the former circle of. Nakhon Rajasima; today there would not be less than 80-Sii,OOO. In the same year there were nbout 11-12,000 ]{hmm' and 8~ in B.oi-Et; t,heir number today would be, say, 24,000 (to about lg,ooo Kni). Finally in the fo!'ffi61' eire] e of U dorn there were in 1915 some 30,000!Utalonu, So, Soni, Saek and Klwnu.t (Piu.f. Th-iinu); their actual number wonld today not he less t,han about GO,OOO. Bnt--do they all speak their original tongne? We shonld say: far from it. 'l.'hey are fast becoming 'l'hai in langw.1ge anr1 culture. 8orgenf'r?:, Denmrt.J k Gth Octohe

213 .-.,......

214 / 6 AM NAT t KHULO

215 KING M.MA VI'S LAST WORK Prince Dhani Nivat Kromamun Bidyalabh About June or. July of the year 1923, when on aceount of a serious illn,ess His Majesty was ordered a long rest by the doetor, the King began to convert a long-conceived fancy into a play in five aets in Thai verse entitled Madannbadhlx-, m the Romance oj rt Rose, )which he finished on the 18th of Octoher of the same year at Phya Thai Palace where he was then in residence. As pointed out in the preface to that edition, the plot was entirely original, based upon no myth nor tradition. In order to be the better able to consider the subject in some detail it will be necersary to give here a summary of the plot. P LO'l' The curtain rises upon the first aet revealing a sr.ene up in the heavens. Sudcshnu, a lord on the eelestiul plane, is pining away because of his unfulfilled love for a celestial maiden named Madani'i who docs not reciprocate his feelings. A soreerer is brought in to use hjs magic- influence. The maiden is therefore brought to Sudeshna under a trmwe. Although magic is able to co.mpel her to Ray or do anything it i~ unable tq influtmee her BI>irit. which remains dormant. She is the ref ore. "' r}tw~r in. a position even in t:t trance to sa.y tha.t she loves him. ~ She is then restored froil] such a condition, only to, assert her. own. eonviction that she. never ran reeip;rocate. his love. In des pel'.atjon the lord. banishes her from the. heavens. to assume. on ea;~;th a lwman..form 9r any other tl~at she may'-wish to choose. Mad.Ftn.fl a.~ks to be, a, fragrant flower, new to. fimndan~ e'f.istenee, whl h desire:is a.cceded to and she becornes a plant in tpe. fore.oj.t (lf the. Birn~layas known thertce(qr~~ as. the.!wb jalca, a rose...

216 We are now ::;witi'ih cl, iu act II, from 011 hi~b to tlw Himalayas, wlwn~ a lu~nnit, K;dndar::;iu, livin~ iu rt'tin Hwnt finds a nt:w plant, whic:h through "lljlt'l'llatund intuition lw rt t n~niscos Httl is a maid, the lwst of all He tlwn:fore hns the plant n mnn~d not ordinarv.,. 1\'0ilH'Il. as to tlw twi~hhourhood of the ht rtnita)..';t: in onl«r that tbt~ JH't t'iotl" plant may! eeeive tht: gn:att st possihlr: t an:. Tlu Sf'nr furtht r n:alisps that tih: plant will lw transfornh tl pl'l'iodknlly into human form fnr one dny at t':twh f'ull-moon. King.laya'H:mt now arrivt~s at tlw ht rrnita~t: on a lmntinp; trip anti as il happpll!4 to IH~.tlw the rol-lt~ nip;ltt of the full-moo!l oil which ir ortluijwtl hy tlw curse: to a!-isiilllt: its lmrnau t'tlllllfnpart of tlw lnvnly Madan, tlw Kiug falls in lovt: at fin.;r sil-!,hl with hpr. Ad III i:-~ talwn up witlt H lovp-st!~tw iu tlw l!l'oubdh ~Jf,t.Iw lwrmitagt\ in tlte light of tlw full-n1nou followt d hy a Fitual of nwrriago t~debrat<~d by the Rl~m Kahularsin on tlw nm-:t morning, thus terminating tlie c~ursn undc~r whkh thn lwrohw was to assunw human form fomver aft<:j', "' AI~!: ry portrays the hcroiue installed in tlw royal plt~a... sanee in the King's capital, Hastiuapura, where howev<~r tlw King has ~lreacl y a Queen, the bride of a politieal ma?'itt{!fl d1! con ue. nancn. Palace intrigues, in the regular style of the elasrieal Sanskrit Drama with an interfering handmaid and the rest, follow as a result,of th~ Queen's ~jealousy. The Queen takes advantage of the J(ing?s absenc~e at the front on a military expedition to hatch a; plot to estrange her husband from Madana. The King rett:q:ns to find a ritual being gone through jn the grounds of

217 King Htmw's Last Work 183: his Palace, supposedly instigated by Madaua to gd rid of the King himself in favour of her amour, his favourite lieutenant and.confidant, Subhunga. Blilllletl by jealousy tlw King docs not see through the intrigue, tlw initiative of whil:h io really the Queen's, und orders the exel utiort by oue uf his ollicers of the beloved Matluna aatl the confidant Subhilnga. The King leaves immediately for the front Lo continue his cantpaigns, at.the c onclusion of which lw retnms in ad V lo fiwl out the whole truth of tlw mattt~r; but unfortunatd y It is n tum is neither soon euum!;h to prt:vp!ll lvfadanil invoking the ltdp of IH r former iupn~eator Sudeslllla to let hc r resunw forc~v<~r the form of ~L ruiic, uor to restore hil-i t onfidaul as the latter had j.!otw to tlr(~ front and, plll'fhj;o;ely placing ltintstdf)n llw thic-k of tlh~ got himsell' killecl. liglttillg, OUIOJN.U~,)'f..lJl/tJ.)'k' VJ<:NSlON. As :-;tatc!d above, tlw Kiug finislted his ronhulc:c on the lb th OC'tolwr J.<J2:1. Befu{ e!w finished a discus:;ion took place within hit~ iutinmle drele of.. friends us to what form of llow<~r slwuld hn dwscn for tlie heroine to UHBUrtu: in ltur tlluth.laue exist:etu t~. The <'Ollt'~mms of opinion was in favour of IIH~ rmm as bci11g u univc t~ul favourite among flowers on ac:counl. of it,; lovely (orm and l'rugrane<~ As " the seem~ of tlw play is laid 111 the " M idtlle Lanu ",. the rose I. must needs fiucl a Sauskrit or Pali ectuivalent, uot only to. give... it an atmosphere consonant wit!t the obviously ancient Indian format of the play hut also to provide great~r variety ~f. epi-. thets for the Siamese lculab, which after all is not too con: venient for poetical clietion. It then became problematieal whether

218 184 l'rill(~l' llhtmi Nival, KrunHmll\11 "Bhtyalabh. tho rose' evt!r existed in ancient h'tdia, and if uot, the (:hoi(:t! would he hardly fitting. Lu.mg Dlnhakit:~ afterwnnl~ prunwtml to the rank of Phta Suraprasl'<wt, otherwil'l~ circles as Nagapradip after eotisulting Profe~snr National Library, submitted an opinion thus: known in literary Aryu of tlm "When one spt:aks of the lndaf,, i.e. tlw rohe, llii:i ndnd ri:ttura II y turns to till: wnla II y ac~ eptt d das~kul t:quivalent of jrtzm. The jn }J'l in th ~ r lillian dasl'ics is lwwt wr witltnut thorns unci eannot be a rose. A fm;tht~r r;ean:h tlllhhlg tlirtiouaries ha~ revealed anntlwr word, the ltuh Julrrt, which Monier Williams ddines itt his,",' 11118kril- g nulit!lt J>il l imw I'!I ( 1 B()<J t>.dition ) as tlw /'ll.~a ntordu~ln quotinp; from the Dhamautari Nighantu, M1ieh has heen ~ amiluted : "The lwb.ittklt., luvcly us a ymmp; maideu, largt! flowt n~d, fully pollinatt:d, hardy, plentifully thudded with tlwl'lll', durk with &warm~ of hem; : The lw!jjnlut., fragrant, (ligehtihle, swet:t, tm;ty, a <mrt: for the three ljodily imperfeetimn:~; uphrodisiaeul, eool aud an tmtitluw for dyse!1tery." The word kttb.irdm however Httvoun:d loo much of a,.. humped-back, and for that reason t.he royal autlwr dh)he in its stead the word mcedt..t.'yiij, mcaniug "love". He nee the Lith! ~l!lc~danqbadm;, or the pain of love, to which was added llait!(j the Bolnance of a l~ose. It goes without saying 'that. the King's romance had nothinf!. to do wfih a thf:tteehth cetittiry llutnesttke in Frenl!h literature, le 1 olnmi tle ze ; ose, cbtnmen'c'ed in I230 by Gtiillai.line de. Leinis. Curiously erwugh, the. cauthor of 'thut old rofmmce

219 J\:ing Rama's La:;t, W11rk 185 left it also unfinished though it was later continued awl ('Ollduded forty years later by Jean Clepinel, surnamed Jean de l\<ienn. To the best of my knowledge the King never thought of this namesake at all while engaged in this work. It should he further mentioned that half a year later the Royal Institute of Siam, theu :-Jtill ('ailed the Society of Literature, i:;sued a t:ertificate of!'onmwmlation of the work as heiug "a pioueer work of modem dmnm, which has been well composed and is only possible of achievement by one with a high degree of ability aml wi(le leaming". It might be also added that sonu.: time after the author's (h~uth a second edition was issued., 'L'.UAN.~' DA'l'ION. In E>25 the Kiug ll'nnsluted his play into F:nglish JiniHhing it in Muy. The tramdation had takeu him several mollths. It was supplenwnted by a learneu glmlsary of terms auu unrnes. This English version wa:-1, however, don0 in pros ~; tmd, heing aware of His MajeKty's anlcul admiration for Sllakespeare... and the ShakeHfH!arean hlank-verhe, I suggm;ted Jhat the value of his translation would be much enhanecd if he eould find time ~ to put it into such a form. The suggestion was at first only.. partially adopted for the King merely chose the original lyrical portions for versification.. Nevertheless a few months later, in August in fact, a metrical translation of the first act of some 600 lines took shape. His Majesty's autograph letter giving details of the metres employed is here reproduced as being of interest on that account :

220 186 l>rinco :Dhuni Nivut, Ki omunmn Biclyalabh.

221 King Hama'F.I Last Work 187. ~~ ts ~ ~- ~'f&'ll. " 1h-o~~. ~~~ r raa t4 fj ~~, 4L R c:l.t ~ u~-c;:.dfv. t: ~. "~ ~ ~~4 ~~ fum 1).;/~~~ -6-rnvAitJ ct...jj ~~ci ~ ~ ~ ~. ~ f.-a»~ a)j;f..ul Vr };; (A.P..v.r- a.~ u. ~ ~ rfca.a ~ ~ ~ ~-& s~~ ~fb.e~. :[h ~ w f0 ct ~cdrt/\. Cf6 ;c..rk ~~ A r.d ~ ~ ~ 'V<!NWJ. tft.../4 }t,w. ~,~..{ewe~~. ~ei{ t~ ~ ~ ~., JftvJ ~n- a., R~ ~, ~ 9 (Je.tt 4-7 CMdt{)Jr)Jl.rl.M.f'/n ~1, ~ CvvJ.ct o/wt ctk 10. ~e~ ~ ~ ~~ ~. & ~ 4 ~ ~ OhLt ~ ~cute ~rf-k ~ ~~ L ~~ "i <7fWr~. 9 ~('.; 4urw ~ 4-.RS: ~;co.l./l.ivw- ~ ~> ~~ ~ ~.f ~RI 1 ~ fjf-~cl ~ ~ ~. 1ft 1rrra.rJ-, ~ w ~ ~ '~ -(;>~t;.j o-vj- {Vt.e cvvvr~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~r:.~. ~ ~.t, k:qm.fvu"~tii -n~ cp.~. ~ o..~'t-~ "~" ~ ~~ - ~rw.w~~~~~~ ~ ~ M ~ ~,w~ ~~~ ~. - 9~ ~ar.nh~~~~~a~ ~ ~ fn~~ trj\~ ~tf ~ ~ -~~~ ~..

222 188 Prince Dhani Nivat, Kromamun Bidyalabh 'The third ttct of som!3 800 lines followed in le~~,thp.p~ ~ a week~the longest act taking the least space of time, thus testifying how thoroughly the King had got into his stride in spite of its 'being "somewhat more difficult" as stated in the thi:rd letter herewith reproduced.

223 /?~~ hl.p ~,.~, 1 21fb'& 189 A ~ JJhQ.yw, J~ ~ liu, rfhtnj. aca ttt q ~ ~~~~'*'~~0~ ~ cuj~ ~ ~ kn-j ~ 1IiL J~; ~~~ 9~.c~w~ ~~- ( ~ '6 ~ ~ ~ ch~ ~ <»no~ ~I ~ ch ~~ D~ ~ Mt- D7, ~(i. ~ It ~1. ~ ~~~ ~ 1~~ ~M- 'trd~ 1 jj lha;. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ (Jv;,. ~ ~~ ~ ~~~ 9 ~~~~- ~~~a/( Tiw King's hop<~, n;-; <~xpr<~ssnd in tlw last s<:nl<~ll,l:e ahov<, was alas! lh:v<:r fulfillr.:d, for tlh.: pn:ssun: of state-bwiim:ss pn: vetlt<:tl further work on the translation of his <lranwtic: phanta~y; and towanls tlw end of O('tola:r the King coutruded un illness whieh pwved fatal, death taking place iu the early homs of the 26th of November. Upon further search nlllong papers left. on the writing-table of His Majesty, a few pages of act IV of "clw metrirul translation were found. This then V."U s where ~tbe "Unfinished Symphony," if one might he allowecl to adopt a musieal simile, ended, a touching memorial to its versatile author. Heprorlucctl f,y Jll!'l'm.~s ion P1' inlerl IJy cowrle8!j of AksoJ m't I're8s. of M.J.,. P in jl1nlrtlr111;

224 0..

225 0..

226 REVIEWS D t,,,~. t.:::. c.. Karl Gustav Izilwwitz: Lamel, H ill Peasants 1:n F1 ench lndoc/1-ina. 364 pages; 2 maps; 129 photographs, diagrams and' charts; index. Published as Number 17 of the periodical Rlnolorrislta 8ltulier by Etnografiska Muscet, Goteborg, Sweden, 'l'he uut.hor of this study of the Lmnet is a Swedish Antlll'opologist who obtained his information for this monograph during an eight-month field trip to L(tmet villages dnring 1937 and His research in this area was largely financed by a Rockefeller,Grunt and contributions from several Swedish organizations. The main object of the untbor's fielr1 work was to compare two gt onps within the same geogt aphic region, one using irrigation and the other not, in o~ der to stncly the relationship between irrigation and society in Monsoon Asia. The Larnet were chosen as an example of a non-irrigat.ion farming people, and the principal attention of the first field tl'ip was (levoted to this tribe. ro complete his study of the social rol~ of il'!'igation, the author planned a second field trip in 1940 among irrigation-using 'rhai peoples in the same general region, lmt this plan was cance'llell hy the outbreak of World War II. The Lcanet are a hi11 tribe who live along the mountain crests in the northern part of Laos, Pren.ch Indochina. They are semi-nomadic agriculturalists, relying for theit livelihood on dry rice which they cultivate by the f~~niliar ''slash and bnrn" technique of other hill peoples. A section of forest land is lmmed over and a rice m op planted in the cleared area. When the land ~has become exhausted the village moves on to a new site where the entire process is repeated. This type of farmin~ is us~tally designated in anthropological literature in terms taken from variou!:l natifl'e ~ languages, jhu,m iu Burma,?'aJJ in French Indochina, etc. I&... English it is clumsily refel'l'ecl to as ''shifting cultivation'' or "slash and burn". In referring to this practice the authot introduces a new term, swidden. He points out that, although the English language bas no single word which covers the meaning, the Swedish dialect word swidden, meaning a ''burnt clearing" or ''to bnrn a'"' elearing", describes it exactly; and be uses this tel'm exclusively in his.. account, referring to the Lamet as "swidde.n cultivators".,.

227 191) RE\TlEWS Since the author's principal concern was with the farming activities of the Lwnet, his data on Larnet social lire and culture presented in this study is oriented toward agriculture. 'l'he book contains. separate chapters on the tribal neighbors of the Lam.et, the physical environment in which the Lmnet live, their villages and buildings, social organization, mate!'ial culture, and work activities. Within these larger subject categories there are sections on a number of relevent topics--religions ritual, marriage customs, kinship te1 ms, Lamet langnage, hunting and trapping gear, etc., etc. --which a comprehensive index.maln s easy to locate. While the greater part of the qook is descriptive, the last three chapters contain a theoretical analysis of the social life of the Lam/Jt which hih:owitz organizes around the concept of the "four wishes", postulated as basic motivators of human behavior by W.I. Thomas, an American Sociologist. These are the wish for security, for new experiences, for recognition, anq, for response. While.this analysis is perhaps intet esting, it adds little to our understanding of the La,met, or of the advances made in sociological theory sinee ubout 1920 when.thomas' "four wishes'' were put forward. 'l'he valne of this book lies in its descriptions of the life of a little-known people who, along with other preliterate hill peoples in French Indochina, have been largely overshadowed by the rich vari 't.y of material presented by the Vietnafhese and Cambodian cultures. The author lived alone in La met villages for several months, anti he.. was usnall'y a witness and often a participant observer in the activities he describes. Consequently, hi~ account of these people is unusually complete, admirably objective, and very readable. His description of the life of this interesting and isolated group: wbi~e ~Of chief interest to the social scientist should also appeal to a much wider audience. Carefully detailed descriptions are made even clearer by the gt1nerous use of sketches, diagrams, tables, photographs, and maps. AlJ peoples!tre unique in their cul tnral patterns, and a knowledge of t.hese patterns, particularly their uniqueness, is esseut,ial.. if the outsider is to ayoicl friction and hosmlit.y. 'rho

228 , REVlhWS lhl aut.lwr d HumHtnite,; t.hih well. aud uno 11l' t.lw va\lh H ot:!.his hook it; t.he way in whieh enltural 1lill'ereueos are highlighted and tho ithjllh'tanee 11[ those tlifl'en;enees :;h< wn, as in tho following inci1lont: "Once I ltappt tw.l to nhk a lillie lilly if I might have Hrn'no fruit from a tamarind \l'l!e that Hlootl in tho mirldle of thl~ village SlJUare ir1 l\[olcala Panghay. The hny [etched some ft nit l'ot me. 1.'hi~ performance was ropeatn<l on several nf the 1lays that. followprl, an1l nn ow made auy objection. Howtwet, one day I \,bought that tho boy ought to ba\'e Hli!!Wtlt ing for the trouble ho hall talwn, hut then the man wh11 Wlli}il tho treo canw to me immediately and said that it. wah l'eally ht! who shonlrl have been given t.ho pretlent, l:lim t! it was his trm. '1'lntH, afl long as 1 helpud myself to snnw nf the f:rnil now ancl then wit;honl paying fot it, it did not, tnaltot at all, hut tho minute I o!forod a present, the fl'llit U.HHlltnOil a [liutiettlar xajne, and the OWillll' protested" (pag< 2%) Strangers, whon lll\t< riug an mtfatni\ial'.:ultural selling, m e oftpn indilwcl tu t.alw Hituati<lllH at t.ltl'it' [at:tl valne, ovol'looking the <lueper Hignifie<w<:o c1f informal pohition and Hoi:ial rohl. I:dkowitx indicmloh llnw HnwiHo this atlit.udu mm l1e. rjwl,tmwf have strong anitnihtie boliofh, awl it ifl tho vi!jago pritjhl whn ih in faet if not in l,itl t.ih:!wad of t.ho villugo '!'Ito villa~-:e chief: is of:t(ln appointe<l llhjroly to HHt.iHty tjlij demawli'l Ill: tlt1 Fnmeh aclminil:ltr~tt.ion; but ito ih Llw llt'inhl who hold1:1 tlw fhwl ant}tority and it, ih itrjljol'tant, frjot the visilot to uudorbtancl Lhat il ih }HI rallwl' than 4ltu f:ormnl ehief wliw;e approval nmhi; he obtaiued for any nndortaldng... 'l'jw f,,mwt people arc~ not, Thai--lho author believes them~ be memhet s of the PalmtntJ-Wn branch of the ll-ilm-iomuw lingnis. t.ie gronp--yut, one of the notewo~ t.hy conclusions of this study is that the [,aijit!t, although politically tied to li'rench Indochina, have their closest cultural and economic ties with 'l'hailand. 'l'he influence " of France, at least in these prewar years, appears to have l~en limited to tho introduction of a cotveo systom of taxation, and Slllallpox...

229 192 rmvmws V<tccination--it was only an occasional colonial administrator or n:jilitary leader who vi~ited the Lwnct areas, and evei1 French missionaries had yet to make their appearance. For the younger Lamet, especially, Thailand had the greatest appeal. For them 'rhailand loomed as the "land of opportunities" to which they could come to make theit fortunes, or at least to earn enongh money for their brideprice. The author merely mentions these ties the Lamet have with Thailand, and a larger study of this subject among the Lctmet and their neighbors in Indochina would appear to be a worthwhile project for future field workers in the same area. Thus this excellent and thoi'ough study points the way for continued research of this type. It is to be hoped that this monograph will stimulate further research among the hill peoples of. Southeast Asia and that eventually the author himself will be able to complete the second half of his project and publish an equally fine study of a Thai group in French Indochina. Hichard J. Coughlin. Niirada Thera~ A 31 anual of Buddhism. 156 pages; Although a manual for students, tliis handbook is highly commendable and should be nsefnl for any general reader wishing to get a view of the circumstance!fl which led to Buddhism and the great Teacher's philosophy anrl ethics. 'fhe work has been compiled fl;om orthodox Buddhist sources and keeps close to the 'dtandard beliefs of,the Theravada or Sonthern School of Buddhism of Oeylon, Bur~ and Siaru. It does not tonch at all on t,he phase koown as Mahayanism. ' The life and mission of the Burldha occupy the first 10 chapters. Then follow the i:naiu aspects of Buddhist philosophy-- Karma, rebirth, the four noble truths, nibbana, the noble eightfold path and hindrances (chapters 11-16). The development of the Buddhist religion ta'k;.cs up chapters F'our other chap tel's deal with "'characteristic teachings. The book, as a school-book, contains questions and has an index.

230 REVIEWS 193 In t.hese days of rational thinking, the book may in several place~ be criticised as not taking a Lroad vie'v in its exegetic attitude. Witness, for instance, the treatment of miracles and similes, such as the Twin Wonders (pp and 54); the Buddha's visit to Heaven (p.54); the sta.tmnent that the Buddha "sleeps only for one hour a day at night"; and a great deal of chapter IX abont the Buddha's greatness. Modern Buddhists generally accept these similes in a less literal sense. And yet it must he conceded that this work is an achieve. ment of scholarship and devotion. D.N. Humphreys, c.~ Bnddll'ism. 256 pages; rrhis is one of the Pelican series and contains tho history, development and present-day teachings of the prevalent schools of Buddhist thought all over the world. It ia indeed an able condensation of a wealth of matm ial. It goe.s without saying that no real inaccuracy or bi.as could he expected of such a distinguished scholar of i11ternational repute~ The appendices on the Buddhist Scriptm es, and the Pai'i.casila together with a glossary, a general bibliography and an index, add groat value to t.]le alt eady well planned publication. Bangkok, lfi December ~.N. Gener al G1ddo to the Vajiranana Library and the National Museum; illustrated; 31 pages; ".. 'l'he National Musenm. and the Vajirana~a Library are. situated in the precincts of the 'Palace to the Front', coll~quiall.g called the Wangnh. The manuscripts and museum exhibits occupy... all available rooms of the Palace. The latter is very overcrowded and would need to be at least doubled in size if the exhibits a1 e to be a1 ranged in line with modern museum standards. The 'Palaeo to the Front' was, for ovct~a century af ter the foundation of Bangkok as capital of the country, the o:tp.cial''residence of the doym~ of the Royal Family, although this royal personality

231 REVIEWS was not bound to succeed to thl~ 'fbronu and thel'eforc not an heir to it. As it happened, all except one of them predeceased their respective monarchs. 'fhe Palace itself is spacious, and, on the whole, better built than the Palace of the King to the south of it. At the end of the volnme i:,; appended a list of the sovereigns of the Ohakri dynasty as well as of the T;Va,ng nh princes. A plan of the palace grounds is also a useful feature. A description of the exhibits is qnite detailed. book is in English. Bangkok, 13 December 1%1. D.N. The whole til

232 , RECENT SIAMESE PUBLICATIONS 70. King Hum a VI: Miscdlanmws TfT<, imnus. lh::maljvjw'l":;1l'lf~wl-li q <! " jl 1 ~ _I"' ill 1'11:: 1J1VI\ll.JI ~'\1W1 :;lj~f\ ~I fhlll '\llili!, H'J fl"l\'lljfl \U fl:l:. :r;i:l pages with i1lust1 ations; J ~lf>l. 'l'hese writings have been chosen to make np a volnrm~ fot presentatic1n nn the occasion of tho cremation of the I'(Jillnins of Phyu Aui ru<lh Veva, a G!'and Cham hur!ain and constant corn pan ion of Hi!l late 1\!aJPsty Hama VI. It. is profusely illustrated with photographs nl' HiH Ex<wllouey, some of which are not to be fotmd elsewhere. Auwu~~ the eontent.h, thol:lt:l worthy of Hpeciul mention are a biography nf tlw d ocoasctl ( m>. 17.2;~). a royal will of King Ham a VI (diructing the procodnt o fot <lcmliug wit.h his obsequies) and unwsj.hiji(ll' at Lielos wriltou HIH!et various pen-names. 'l'hcso artide8 aru fnll of intol'ost. 'I'Iwy tonch not only upoll t.lw Ol'llilllll'Y tophlh of.i<nll'rhtlirm InN; also npon matters of academic iutorost,, sueh UH philology. 'l'aking them at r:mdom h()i'c are some of tlw. intln'tlbuhg orws: lu.iudicdollh imita!.iou; t.l11 fault. oj:!llldantism; too HllWh pr< f.rn <~w.:o.l'ot ~~lerkshiph ah a profmh:iinu; um ensorwblo diguity; heware of tlw spirit. ol' gal!lllliug; t.hn )'oy:tl ti!.lo nf "Eldi.doHal oth"; Bhuket; m Bh~lw<~ '?; t.lw d<lhiralli lit.y of eolfjll;r,v roads, Ne. 'l'hc tono of thl'h<' artide~:~ rtlfl(ld.s a porfuct h:tcmding of eaht allil Wl'HL in tlw r oyal anthor'1:1 etltwat.ion and ontloo]\. " 71..J()tika<l ham m iie:lt i yn: J)/utntnUMrt.nrJaninissa.ya~1htikh.iotikit. a21 pagoh; HH'lO... - 'I'hi!l voltuninous ti eatisc is a scl ies of eommontal'ie~:~ presented "' -"" hy the Btu mehl~ monk Jotika i11 Pali mostly at. Wat Raghang in Dhnnhuri. '!'hey have been translated by W. Komes with the help of Phr11 'l'ipyaparilii1. and Mt s. Naeh Mahii.nil'.nanda. 'l'he commentarieh are of the Mfl.tiki1, which is th<.'? fit st sect~on of the chapter ealled Cittuppii.clakanda in the Dhannuasangani" of the Ahhidhamma-pitaka. It is of course highly teehnical.

233 196 RECENT SIAMESE PUBLICATIONS 72. Snjivo Bhildrhn; What A1 e the Noble T? uths? -a'7mi" ;rl~ ejtj~11? n9 pages; December 'l'he main theme is a study of how the Buddha presented his philosophy as illustt ated in the incident of Dpali, the householder, in the Dp111ivi1dasntta of the Sntt.a Pita1m. 'l'he philosophy consisted of: (A) 'l'be "treatise of sequeuce", a preliminary introduction consisting, in due sequence, of the subjects of liberality (rlima), conduct (8llrt), heaven, and ills rc1snlting from lust. This sequence leads up obviously to the deduction that lust should be renounced, in other words, a recommendation of the monastic life of chastity. (B) Then the "Four Noble 'l'rutbs", which do not need to be reiterated hel'e. Tho pt eliminary sequence.f! (A) form more or less a code of ethics' for tho average Buddhist laymo;n; while the :b,olll' Nobh Truths (B) are laid down fot those who dr.cide to renounce the material sidt.l of life in orcle1 to pmify the spirit and thus realil'\e the logical consnmrnnt.ion of Buddhist philosophy, 73. Su:iivo Bhikhu : 07JS!l1'1Yttiuns uf B1tdd/rism 1:n Ceylon mul. \II...\.. 'I "'... 4 I nd1a 'UfHl'~lfl I'll flu1 fluw 1::VJ'I'llfu'lil1J"l & lj fl~ fl 'UI!'lll:CJW~Hl 3G pages; l9!ll., '... These observations formed the subject-matter of a lecture delivered by the Venerable Snjivo to the N!tvy Olub. Th13y are uow -rl"ocanaldir ('l'iem Sinhaseni), whose short biography and photograph are included. ptiblish.ed for presentation at the cr emat.inn of the late Luang Vises- The anthot at.tonded the World Fellowship of Buddhists in Ceylon and then wont on a tour o.l' the mainland of India. Among his observations the following may be quoted: "'l'he cil cnru&tances of. a religion may. be studied by the hist.orian, hnt the essence of religion must be obsej vecl fij st-hand. One shonld observe, fnr inst.anoe, how religion hah been absorbed..

234 RECENT SIAMESE PUBLICATIONS 197 into thp mind of' tluh.w who rn ofeflh it. In our country we often mist;ako the outward trimmings snch as the monastic eclifices or yellmv-rnbed wonlw!'or!'l'ligion itself... Religion in reality may hp Htudied ft om the aetion and word of its adhereut.s who may he Jikent~d to the screen of a einema on which are reflected the pt ompt,iugg of' an inuer fet ling. 'l']lis latter is the esbc:nee of a t'1 1igiou.. What Hhonld oec:npy our interekt is the t eaction on llh ft om proi'1.'bbing t uligion and how we profit f'1 om a daily ohservaneo of 1'1~ligiun.'' A 7wupn.~ loeal politil!h: nf: th1 partici]lat.ion of Sinh:tlc He and Bn!'lnr.se monks in "I asktl!l them why monln; eugaged t.ltrltul:lelvt s in politics Hinet! in om eountry a monk who meddles in Hnch nffait s is ht~ld in dil:lfllvolll'. A 1i1onk shonld koop himself to hih studious ""' lifp, 'l'be am!wer \vas: "In Siam yon do not nuod to meddle in politim-j hceause t'.v<lryhody t.here is a Buddhist. '!'he!.:ovt!l'llllli'ij!. is Buddhist.; th(~ Asl:H'Illbly is BwltlhiHt; hut iu o1n nonntt y 111any dopntios nru Oht'islittn. What thc'n, would happ!ln ir we kl'pt, aloof fl'orn JJO!itics r" 'l'his made me r cmlihc~ what a valualllo ashe!; ntll' indeprmdonee is. Jt behooves lth to lwup out l'tlligion. In Bur ma many mou't;;h are politi~ l:inlls. Having obtaithjcl polrtieal independence thoy should havo givhil up po]it,k:>; lmt [lfji bapi:l thny havn gr own addif:th(l.. to l.hhlll, "... His approaoh to the pr oblem of: drink is worthy of"qnotation ;,. "f an1 bringing-!jack to you something good fr012t Indiu, tit at might l:lerve as an example to us. It; is )ll'ohihition... The" Indian Govnrnrnent hua made a generous sacrifice of its annual l'i\v~nne... of t-~ornething like a billion rupees, equal to about. foul' billion baht by itl:l abolition of: drinldug. If we could only Lt'Y to lessen drinking in our conntlll'y pe>rlmps"' we might deserve to be considn!'ed as having n1ade some sacrifice to om Lord the BtHldha. Even ij' we do not go l:lo far UH to proelaim '

235 , i9s irecent SIAMESE PUBLICATiONS our country to be 'a dry land', as they have, we might at least try individually to be a dry person once a week or so... If we could only make this sacrifice it would donhtlprs help ns economically and keep ns out of many an omissinn." 74. Yupbo, :0.: An Econonu:c H?:stm u of Jnilia in tlu: Thuldha's l'1:me mn!fl'1n!fl'il1:1'jj'fl'i'(vliiflhl 78 pages; Mr. Yupho's tranfllation, with explanatory reu~tl.rki:l, of the eighth chapteh' (by Mrs. C.A.F. Rbys Davids) of the Camlwidge History of India Vol. I, dealing with the above subject, was, ns st.ated in the preface, vublished first in 19iHi. 'l'hat publication uid. not.receive onr notice in the Journal. Hence this notice. 'l'he translation is a goorl one and the first one of its kind in Siam. a matter of fact it. is more than a translation. As It may be said that the deep orndition of Mrs. Rb.ys Davids has boon made available for the mod<-'l'n Si!Unese in his own language through tlw leamt~d i'llterpretation of the author, himself: a scholar of wide ropnto. 7f\. Yupho, D.: Initint ion fo?' th11 Olu,ssic.Da.nce. ~~i'l1~rl'l "I 83 pages; T.hc little volume is really more important than it looks. It contains not only a description of the initiation rite for the classic da~cer, in it;self interesting material for the student of the history.. of one of the most sel -developed of Siamese arts, but also a rl!s'ume.nt the end dealing wit.h materials for such a study 'fhe initiation rite is a curious mixture of old t.ei psichot ean tradition (doubtless Hindu in origin) with animistic as well as Buddhistic benediction. A dancer who.has not gone through initiation may not, for fear of offending the impersonal agency known as the ''KrCt", )r Master of the Dance (which is tantamount- to saying Tradition with a capital '1'), perform certain postures or m1~d1 a., snch as the one signifying Ph1 a Narai, or Vishnn. An ;,. '\

236 1 RECENT SIAMESE PUBLICATIONS 199 initiated rl:lncej, wllf'l!ltjl' a pj ofussional or an amateur, is bound by trarlition to maktj a salutation whenever the straino are heard of Home Ill: llu: rot~pecled melodies, such as the.9ztclhulc'it'l' or the /; u lim hs. Fi t :;t An initiation for tho dane< consit~ts of three main stages. the lhu/rlhist lnme1nvt on by a chapter of monkl:l, followed hy presentation of food to tho celebrants. Then comes the Sttflllal1'mt tl! tho "Kru" or impersonal Master of the Dance, in whieh a teadttll', arrayed in white, lights eandles of worship before k/hi11 mat~ks and tdl'tml sacrifices in tlw form of various prescribed dibht s, pork, duck, fuwl and cakel:l al:\ well th! sp i'l' its. 'l'he "Kru" is t!vili< ntly not. a11 allstairwr, a signilieant Lrait o( the non-budclhistic lll'i;~ill of lht rite. Oamllu~:~ are them vashed aruuntl for good lnck iu the nsnal way mul t,hp uwsks are auoint.ed. Now begins the third stagt~. the /u:ilirtfirm. A hig hrt\bb howl il:l placod upside tlown in l'hn et ntj o of a big t omu ut Vlldosnre so that it will form a l'le:tt. 'l'hn tc ar.:hor wh11 it~ tr1 prehille over the rite, wearing a 1 ishi nwhlc liuorl with Lin skin nf tho khtl(/ (a species of long. tailed nwhkt~y), dalh:oh into lhe at <~na awl soatu himself on tho upturned I u tw l. A eund id ato fm i uitiation is then 1:1umrnoned and duly auoinl:wl. Tho tuaflhbr l<htm dolling hib 'l'ish i mabl{, puts il on the heatl of f,he eaudi(1ato. 'l'lw same l!htsking i1:1 repnited with tho HWHks of Hiva and Piri1h (t!te VirU.t of: the IHi.mayunu) whose fcrodty ;;unmh to he a by-wor d in tel'paichot oan circles and who llllikt in a way be lltteitiell. Tho teacher thon spriuklel:t\holy water on Lhe ht~acl of the candidat(~ and gives hiul or her f~ piece of tlrl auhpieion~:~ coni and some leavea which latter are tr[cked bohincl the f:ar. Other candidates follow and the same ritual is repeat~d. T.\rey then go through classic movements of the dance together..., A more formal initiation at a roy nl cour t was performed.on the 1 1th May 1914 bcfol'e His Majesty King Rarna VI. 'rhere were Home variationa from what has boen de8cribed above, one of which snggeats an Indian origin all the mol.'e. 'l'he ooucer takin a leading male r<lle was first tied to a pole. D pon his approach to preside over the cet emony, the King unsheathed his weapon as if to kill \'

237 200 RECENT SIAMESE PUBLICATIONS the dancer and the King's Master of the Dance iutervenetl with an intercession for the dancer's life. 'l'he King then turned away to seat himself on the upt.nrned bowl and placed the mask of Narada, the traditional Master of the Dance of ancient India, upon his own Master.of the Dance. The (living) Master of tho Dance then went throngh a sel'ies of movements before the King, after which the cords binding the dancer who had been tied to a pole were cut, thus terminating a curious rite. The final part of this book contains a document known as the history of the lakon chht1 (the dance of Nakon Sri Dharmaraj in the south) as well as verses for salutation to the Master of the Ghat?"i Dance, which has been aeknowledged to.be the oldest relic of a forgotten past. - 76; 'l'he same work, minus the documents conueoted with the lalcon ch?j.t ri, with the addition however of the usual biography of the deceased Phya Anirudh Deva, in whose memory this volume was published on the occasion of tho cremation of his remains at Wat Debasirin, together with interesting photographs of the Ohaolchnn; contains identical matter as the book above reviewed. The deceased was incidentally acknowledged to have be.en a keen and graceful exponent of the classic dance in the reign of King Rama VI, usually taking leading male roles. He later maintained a troi.1pe of dance1 s, with which he was e;er ready to assist local charities and philanthropic undertakings..,. 77. Ynpho, D.: Siamese Choreography Explained erdlj1flu1fj!:ttt'lllhw pages profusely illustrated; Mr. Yt~pho's versatility is now again displayed in a volume under the above title, A graduate of the ecclesiastical doctorate of Siam, he has brought his knowledge of Oriental Olassics to play upon the knowledge he has later gained from directing the Bureau.. of Entertainments in t.he Department of Fine Arts. with its School of Classic Dancing and thus produced a scholal'ly brochure dealing with the technique of the Classic Dance and of folk dances. No "'.

238 RECENT SIAMgsE PUBLICATIONS 201 nuu ihtol'l!slp<l in thill ru;pe< t of ~iawesc art ean fail to profit from his eolleetion uf t xplanatoj'y uotes of all the dahsie and popnlar tlaneoh atl wdl as exet!rpls froth tlw hig; /;/uin ur l1t!ron pie<1es such as thn Hii.mi1kieu, Inau ur Phra Lt1. Eaeh such note is illustrated with figure:; dh;p]ayiug the respeetivu movt luont.i:l.. In must eases each nolo giveh the hihtory of tlw dtmm' dcsc!'ibed. "'! 78. Alonglwt, llll. Pritwe; Ott?' 8itttJW81J A rmy nil~vi'w~v1u'iii:l~l'j1 :!.~2/;l~l pagtjs; 1%1. Tho volt!tih!, which wah tml>lished fol' presentalion at the m euhlt.i un ol' t.ht! r< waius of the 1 ate M ajot -Generul Pbyu Prasroeth HuHgrftm, is prefac.:ed by a lliogi aphy from the pen of Prince Alongkot, hhl lif<!-loug friewl and eolloague in the army. In youth Llw (l\.n:um:lf d wah a hl'illinnl eadet. On heiug commissioned in lhe army hn rnh\! quiddy, auai1ting finally to the pohtl:l of Divisional Comnwmlm antl later Untler.SeereLtlry oc State for Defonee. After t,ho I'HvolHlion ol' 1!1:\2 Jw bth'alllo Miuistet for Defence f:or a short lint o u nd then nlbigned allogolhe J', 'l'h ill biography is very well wrilt.t n alld ii:! by uo uwallh a tlry roconl of faell:l and Jigurus l:lttch aa ;u o oftoll wj'iu,i.'ll Hhwwhurc. 'l'hu main JHU't of: thu hook, 2U octavo pugos, is a Jneid exposi. 1,\oll of t..htl military governnwnt IH'.:'lvailing in (,his country in days of old (Ayndhya, ~~tn.). IIi deals with organisation, strategy and othtll' t:opiml, iiually ending with an intot esting revi~w of the HLratogy of Kin(.( Nat ol:lthtn!.he liherat,ot of Ayndhy1L in ~he XVI or>ntut y. It. is a JlOJltllar IH'etwnt,at.iou nnd ean lw reld wit.h interest by a non military man Anmmi.n, l?hya: Histm y of /Jw 0H8toms ~11nu~ Mnfl1 lhi pages; It wonld be at once agreed by the reader who has been able to wade through these instructive if some wln~li difficult ~;mge~ that Lhe author hatl rendered valuable service he1 e to the student of Siamese economics and administration... ~

239 202 RECENT SIAMESE PUBLICATIONS 'l'axation on imports and exports, he says, has existed among mankind from time immemorial. In this country, at any ru.te, we know from the inscriptions of Rama Kamhaeng some 650 years ago that in his times "there was happiness in Siam. Fish abounded in the waters and rico in the fields. Governors did not collect ta:ies in transit. A fellow coulcl go, about his business walking by the Si;lo of his ox or riding on his horse. Whoever wished to trade in elephants, horses, or gold and silver could do so''. 'l'hc word for a tax hero was "~kob'', a Khmer one, and the "ckob" recurs in later laws. DisCiltH:lion follows o( the motlb,oj: eojlecf;iun, depots and other aspects of taxation!:inch a!:! the rovenue tho trade carried. on by means oj: junks, etc. Then follows a full description of the organisation in the time of King Ohnlalongknrn. of the H.evenne Customs ancl Excit:e service::;, The book wits published Olil the occasion of the cremation of: the remai.ns of Mr: and Mrs. Merigkim Simtrakul (a couple well respected in Bangkok business circles) at Wat Ohakrawat in Jnn':l 1951 and photog1 aphs of tl:\e deceased are of: com so reproduced. 80. Boribal Bnribhand, Luang : B ~tdrlltrt-'imaue.s of D(f/eront }l]r as in Sirlrn 1"1~~\IJVI1i'l"llf1Jrl~H '.. '1l1n.l"J :::!'Vlfl',VIU 29 pages, 25 plates, ,.. A.s is nsnal with Luang Boribal, his presentation of the subject is lucid. Conithencing with circumstances leading up to the custom ot.making... images of the Buddha, the. author goes on to r:!pecify the. ~ccessive periods of Buddhist Iconography in India and later in Siam with their characteristics. It may be convenient for the student of Siamese al't who can. not read Siamese with facilit.y to have a snmmat y of Luang Bol'ibal's classification of the n,eriojis of Siamese Buddhist iconography, thus: ' I 1. Dvarava.ti (VI. VIII centuries A. D.), centred round the modern Nakon Pathom stretching out as far east as Korat and

240 Rl. Ri~CENT SIAMESE PtJBLlCATIONS 203 Bul'irum, modelle1l upon Indian Onpta art., the hnst example being tlw main figul'e in Lhli but of the monastery of Pbra Pu.thomn~edi on it~ east side. :!: 8r m:}nyn (VII.XII oeuturies A.D.), vestiges found in small uumljl'l'b in Llw Malay peninsula, snch as,juiya, heing however for the most. pal't, tigu,.~s tignrt'h. of Mahl1yi1nifll, Bodhisattva :t LophWJ'l; (XU- Xlll el\ntmies A.D.), found mostly in ennt.t al Sill.JH, /Om~er featnres.. ].. U!t.il!lt!f::;aen (XII eontmy, or ilnlt half of XIII t.n XVI), intiii~'jtelhl at, lht-!l by Iu.Iiau Pt1la art ot' Nalnn1li1 ( ) (but. ltlli't. dovcdopod on Plll'D 'l'hai illt als in which the usnisrt ia elungate1l) its vonue being pl'ohably overlan1l through Bnrm:(, t.ow:mltl the east even as far as Viengchand. ;,,.~'lt/;:/wthai (XIII mmtlll'y t.o :14HR A.D.). originally derived fl'lllll Hinr,:halt~Htl art hut lai.nr.,cluveloped intn wh1tt has hecm eon!:1il\m e1l as ehat unthrif:ltie ol: Snlcholhm: ;tl'l; wlwl'oln tho :[aqe i;; oval an<! ;.,n acef'nl linuh prevail. ti. Ayl((/hJ!rt (lil;,o~l7li7 A.D.), HlllHlivi<ltltl into (a) U 1'hu11{J with J{lunor physiognomy :m1! (b) Jllll'l' Auwlhytt in whieh thtl ~p a<a>t:ul Hukhot.hai ehth ac:tm i!:ll;ies :wh <lihni:j nihlo. 7. ljttti.(jlw!c (from l7b2 A.DJ, whinh is a mixt.nre of~ mhl (i, Amatyalwl, '1'. : h' tor i!th fmm JTi.9ltn y!l?id A rolwulorm "'J"' "1...\ lll'llui ':;'Hlfl'HH<l'lWU: U71tiHl'i'l fi():j pagoa 1%1... A.s t.he author points onl in t.he preface, tl~;,e colltont.s wer.e writtt u primarily for popnlar 1\onsumption and not, mean!; to he aoiontific troatiaha. 'l'hey anl t.jwrefore; called "stories" ail.d hii~e. heen here collected fill' t;be first!;imu. 'l'hoy range widely in scop-;,-' A glance at tho tahle of contents confirms this. In a shol'h review like this it; is only possible to mention the titles' of the rnm e intet esting articles, sneh as a biography of Phra chao Prasad Thong, U. trip to Pechrahun, Loplxll'i past a1~d present, the 0l'igin ol: the Mt1senm, Pong 'l'i.ik, King Nar.iti the G1 eal.and al'cheological not;es of old sites oj' history and archeology.

241 RECENT ;.HAMESE PUBLICAtiONS 82,' Amatyakul, T.: 527 pages, 1951.,. I J>1 "' o., Hlsto1'1J of Im2J01'tant Towns u1::'hhlhl~ff1rh)] 'l'his is a more det.ailecl anrl mot e considered presentation of the archeological notes on old sites mentioned in the above review. 1t consists of seven chapters and deals in each chapter with each of the old sites. It is in fact a co Ueetion of valuable guides to these old sit;es. Summaries of each chaptor are well worth reproduction :... (1) Ayudhya. Beginning with Hs topography, the autho1 leads us to the Royal Palace and the more important and interesting monastic monuments; and concludes with the attempt to reproduce, about the commencement of the XVII centmy, the great KltnW?' monument of: Angkor Wat at ampho Nakon Luang and a description 'o1: the Palace and some of the rnonastel'ies oe Bang Pa-In. 'l'be author attributes the revival ot Ayudhya to the initiative of Mr. Pridi Banomyong. Another name which deserves t1ot to be left out in connection with the clenrance and preset vatinn of the old ruins. as :well as the elucidation of several of the knotty problems of its history is that of the late Phya Boran, who was identified all his life with the town and rose f:rom being a Chief of the Aclminist.lla. tion Burean of the Circle to the exalted one of' it.s Viceroy. (2) LOJJ7nt~ i dates from tb e pre-thai period of: the La1ua, to whom, the locality owed its f:,mner name (still in nse \vben the.j!'rench dipiomatic missions came to Siam in tho XVII century) o:f:... w~.:~st, Lawo, Ol' Lavo. The Lawa were there from t4e dihtant rind.ated past, but were replaced about the VI century by the Mon from the \\ ho, however, when they had taken Lawn decided to move --o"n to where Nakon Pathom now is. that of Dvaravati (VI-VIII centuries). This era is now lmown as Pt oofs still exist of a Mon town situate<l to t.he east of: the!'ail way line at Lopbnri. 'fhe l(hme7' then. replaced the J.lf.on an<l made Lopbul'i the centre of an. ' important outlying aliministrative qnarte1 of their great. empire. By.. ( 1350 Lopbnri becn.me detached from them and the first monal'ch of Ayud!lya sent his son and heir t;o govem the t;ownsbip, thus proving

242 RECENT SIAMESE PUBLICATIONS 205 ilh imran Lanee o.t that titu ~. It twtmtnally hccame the favorite seat of King N:u ai for tho coni suasn11 (XVII eontnry); areheologicnl remaius,,[ tllil:l pcri11tl Rtill ahouud Hide hy!:lidu with more rl'eent lmildin~o: inaugumted by King l\fougknt of the Banglwk 1wl'iod. ~llli\.e l't~ecmlly a nnw tuwn wa:;!milt more to t.lw oast (HJ.LO) whore govtli'ulll<mt o!iices are now eolleetet!. 'l'he author givos here a detailncl rlc st:dptiun of t.he town :wd tho mcmuments bnilt during the many suecr. s!li VP puriods of i t:-1 hihtnry. 'l'o this ia acldt!tl SttrtlU worth; alh nt c:ustojhh awl ft!htivitieh of the loeal pcwvlc. on J)' l'itle" Wt\H flll' a long Lilll(l ll llllt:zlo in arelwology. I\; is eallecl l1y!he loeal IHJOp]H "Paitt:i.li" (from the andent. Indian mm1o uj: VailiiLli). Although the town, now ruinocl, was Jwvm forgotton, it wat~ uuvc r s< iuntifieally studietl frolll tlw at (dttjologieal point of v iow until Dr. tjundteh \V aluh nwdo a visit..f.ulluwetl lator lly the author, on lil lwli' ol' tho ardwolngieal twrviee oj: the Kiameae Gov.. ~"l'ntnent. A dehnl'iption uf the latlvt vil:lit O(lCUpiPH pp. 181-~tHS. ( 1) N1t/;m1..S'r1: ])!utrmrl ri'tj i~ anothcj' oltl town dating from remote ag~hihoflh'l 1 tho 1 l'hai eauw into!johsci:lt:don or it. UrlllOl' the name of 'l'ambaliug:un anti 'J'an.J\[a.Ling it. wah t'psiw<ltiwly lmown tn tllo :mchmt TudiauH aud Ohinesn Howo la <\liut.ul'ios lmclc At:C.I1l'tling to tr!hlition it pl,~yetl au iutut national rmu in t:omwution with n tooth l'(;llit: of t;ho Butltlha. Hs impo1 tant hiht.orkal mouunhl!lth are ita walls, its Bl'Uhlllin Hutwt uary :uhl"t.lw gr< :t1. Heliquury known und.ej th<~ uuuw of \V;tt J.lhra J:vtahiitlhii.tn. Loenl tnthtowu anti ftl14tivith s eotwlndt! thih uhnpter. (G) Pndt rahtwi if! OHHentially a touriht; twntre and oecttpii'b 70 " pagtm u.l: descl'ipt.i<lflh of ith attwet,ioll. 'i'he alltbor thinkh it. might /' huvo datpd t:rom tlw V century. "' (6) il<i.iu.l,lt?'i elating from a!jont the same romote age as" Pochr:Llmri, nud, like the latter, possossing vostigee of JOmuw enlture, is alho known to ho tho eentt o 11.f toul'ist excm flious, several of which are he1 e snggestell. (7) Nak!N flathom, known to the p:.o'n!ent grme.:\ ation host by ita gigantic (:edi which dornilmt,os the t,owth Originally thill locality, hy whntt\vhr llllliw it. might have been known, mnl:lt....~

243 206 RECENT SIAMESE PUBLICATIONS h l.vc been a port before the sea.coast receded southwards. It ia suggested.that it may date from the III century B.C. when Emperor Asoka of Magadha sent missionaries to Snvannal.Jhiimi. It reached the peak of its career in t;he Dvaravati period (VI century A.D.) and might have been the 'l'o-lo-po-ti of I 'l'sing, the Ohinel:le pilgrim of the VII century. Its monuments, ancient and modet n, are here described minutely., 83. Jfernento of the.li'ni r of Plwa, Pcttlumiacedi 1:n 1951 ~ &\ (1.1 "I r.l r! YJ~ ;:an~ll-1 mhhlh'w~::jj:\jlji'il~tl l,ctoct. 84 pages, pl'ofusely illustrated, 'l'his memento is artis4ieauy prepared... PicLnres of the shrine, in colo~trs as well as in black and white, abound. Oue is esvecia1ly noticeable, depicting the golden-hued cedi set amid the green foliage which surrounds it ~ Several of the contributions are by way of greeting~, congratulalions or short complimentary verses touching either on the monument or the fair.. Of the longer category, the first one has been reprinted from my contribution originally to the.journal of the Society, JSS fl'hai number 2nd Vol., May 1942, on the parallel oj: the haiue. of the Siamese town of Nakon.Jaisri, where the monunhmt of Phra Pathomacedi is, with t'be' ancient. Khmer p:wnument of Nagara.)ayasri, more widely known as.phra Khan, erecled by.~ayavarmflti" VII to comniemorate his victory over the Oluirn, :hlst. north of.angkor 'rl'wm. The article by Luang Boribal Buribhand on. ' that nartic'i.1lar species of the Buddha-image seated J, l'm.~ro'[ieennc de"serve~t speci~tl. attention. 'I' his attitude of the Buddha must not b0'eonfounded with another attitude which is known as the Phra PiUelai (''The Buddha of the Li.leyyaka Forest") ~hich, while similarly seated, has the hands, however, differently placed. and is fl mk,ed 'by a monkey ancl an elephant bearing forest tributes. The. type here ~reated has.the right hand half raised, with fingers in a 11i'itdra.' 'rhere al~e only five figures of this type m:;tywhere of.the sa:p1e proportions. The five are (1).the main image of the bot of

244 RECBNT Sii\1\lESE PUULlCATIONS 207 l'hr<l Pat hnma!:vtli, (:2) & (;l) fragment~ of two others pat tially ~list~nvm t~d arn\lnd t!w uwn lli!h~nt awl its neighhmtdwod athl now nulkctt' l in th1 galltn y u( the lll0!1ulm.lllt, (4) anollwr at Wat Na.!llH<llHI.'!I at Ayudhya nnd (fl) the seatt!d ligm e at 1\Ionclnt in.jn.va. All li Vt~ an. of uuiconn Hixe. The type i:-; elal:lschl lly the author as hclougin:.r tu hl1lillll Unpta al't, n[ Dvaravati. Ji:xca vatiuns at a site lu the Houth of Phra Pathom ill HJ:\i-1-~l (whieh bai:i now bceome m~lled \\'at Plmumm) l1y t lw :mthor in enujunetiou willt 1\L Dnrwnt nf th" l'rennh 8ohoo I of the Far l!~a:;l havl~ J evcalod fou1 vacant llna!r al'llttntl tht mnin ~:1 di uf that Wat Phr:utH.'ll monumont..!\[l ah\ll'tntwnt:; of tht :;cats HuggPsl. that. eanh might have ltortw onn of tlh! fo11r idplltka1ly Hix( d irnagtjh, 'I'Jp imago at Ayndhya, how. \:Vet, bad ilk anu ht ok<m and l'(lpairs ltav! liepn madu whieh alturud \lw trewl ot: thu at ut. No om klli wh when LhiH wail taknn to Ayndhya m from wlli't't.', alt.hnugh n JaLt~ iull<lt'iplion of 11-i:\R allrilmtnl to it a l-iinfdwl :tltl origin. 'l'hiu i:; ebn.lhmgud by the author.. An artidt.l by l\l.h. Kiil>J'idclhi IIJ fi,mc j tlnsm ilws tho lutninouh )lh(lhciill(jlwii whidt lw:; th!tllll't't!tl from t.ij!ih t.o t.imu at ouwl tho top of thu l'hl'a l'athoma~orli. CJounl l'y pnoplv <:ollhidc.'t' t}lill glow a!l a m;mirc~t>~tat.ion of!itt' tllllltuiiioilt'h Hanelity and l111lic,ovo that. it por towlh on oadt oet!lthioll :iullttl evt!llt u[ iuqhjrlmh:t~ ill eotlth.:(~liou with Lhe futm c of lho t'f:iguing lntmm c:l:. A H}wt t hul illtorout.ing tloht:dptiou ot: t,]lo 1iLl1 oj: t.hn "Wild '!'igor Oa lnth'' iu t.lu~ timu (It Ring Uanw VI ~~~ Nalun, PaLhow it! well \Vorth rmttliug. 1'he volumu ih ln ought up at t.ho c.nh.l l>y 1.1 " <:omvrehlmsivn gnidt to the town by 'l'. Amatyakul, whmm wol'l< on ahuilat ~thero(is Ham a Vl, His 1\fttjcsty Kill!-{: J.'J1 adananulhh, or the Bumanva of tlw Rose li'viuw1ti1'11~el.nnt1uii~~vi8flfih()llj 14tl puges 'l'ha OolllmitLec~ in charge of rairjinl,( fnnds Cor building a ne w [H1 destal for the statm of t.l1e King is tn be congratulatod upon the 'I

245 208 kecent SIAMl SI~ l 1 l!bt.jgatrons publictttiou of: thh;, tho pmpol:lt'l of whic:h il:! to swpll tht~ ahm p llhm. ti.onetl fund. 'l'lw sch(nne of rail:lillg this f:ttwl hns l,lttt>ll g:t1i11g nn for l:!ollll' throe Yt'!ll':'l Il:tSt. It il:! now pt adically et rtniu that there will be a snlmtant.ial snm!lift uve1 to l1e turjuhi over to Vajil avntllt College, tho principal monnmpnt uf King H:mm VI. 'l'h1 ltnnk iij nn sale, tho proeoeds 1,f w hi<jh al'e to ho devotp<l to that nharity. 1'be circnnuttances whiell led to the writinl-'! nl' the HtcH'Y Siamese and ith Hnhseqneu~ tt m1slatiou into Jt~ngliHh vtn :-w lw\o, liof'tl dealt with at a rnoeting of the Siam Sodety I'Nl<mtly and nwr( uvt!l' form the snbjoct of an m tide appearillg in tlw r~mrt nt n\111lh!:.r,,f this.tom nul. 'l'he pnhlicmtion under review not only cout,aiua this li}nglish t.ranslntion hut ah;u thtl ol'iginal SianH..nie phty with htmnuful black anrl gold ill ustrationa tlehigne(l Honw :!0 y( Ul'l:l ago l1~ its royal an thor and earriecl out lly \;he Court. artist, Phya AuullatHHI (Jhitra. lcorn. D.N. ill...

246 OBITUARY NOTICE ".. "" il

247 Phya Sarasnstra Sirilakshna "

248 t OBITUARY NOTICE Phya Sarnsastra Sirilukslwa ( Sanrasirn Snkhyung) Phya Sarasastra Sit ilakshntl was a son of Lnan!J Badhanabongs Blwk1li, Soct etary to Chao Phya Mahindl't\, tho Lord High Steward who serve(l Kin~ Mnngknt ( 1851-lSflR) up to the moment of the King\! death tuhl continued to st rve his son, Ohulii.lnngltorn. Nai Sanrasiru, o.s he then wa\l, was tlwre(ore brought up in an atmos phere! nf Sin.mes~ Court traditions. Ht~ was educated at Snan Kulub College. He won oue of tho nnnnal King's scholarships, was H<mt to England and ontered Onnclle School. From Oundle he went. on to the Hnyal Inrlian }~nginet!l'ing Collt go at Cooper's Hill, where he duly graduated as an A.'M.I.0.1 ~. ( A~;sociato Mnmhor of: the Inatitu.. tion ttf; Civil l~nghll!(ll's ), He thou wont on to the 'University of Oa\iful'nia, wlhh'<l he obtained a mahler's degt c~~ in Irrigation. Nai Saraslrn returnetl to Sittm anti worked in tho lrt'igation service of tlw Gnvornment until.lw became its Director. He was littar promoted to the IHt c~ntot.oeneralship of tho Stnto IMlw1~YS 1md one() aeted fur the MinlstOl' of: Oummnnieations during the ltttter'l'l ab~:~enco aht'o!hl Dlll'in~ Ulis Jlt'riotl of: Government se;vice he rthwivod various houotll's, helnl! finally ereated l'hya Sarasuatra Sirilaklihll!l, and was nwar<lo<l. the Gt au<l Cross of tho Ct own of: Siam. l?hya Saraaustru l'(!tired wlhm tho Hevolntion of 19H2 broke out, aud dt>voted hhnl!eh to v<:triotlrl unoili<:ial purauit.a, including tht\ wnt k of tho Siam SnciHLy and aomo jnul'llulhnn. In the Siam SoniNy he W!\S!Hltive!lfl leader of the 'l't'!.wel Sectio-n and rose in t.hr~ Council to tht\ oiiice of a Senior Vice P1 caldent, being reele'"ct.ecl f<n a<lvernl years in succession to that office. "" Althongh an engineer lmd professionally a technician, llt.) was also tl finent writer both in his own and in the Hnglish 17m tlafito. In ~ the last few years of his life Phya Saru.sastra wall. a continu ~ invalid, and yet he pluckily served the Siam Society, continuing as its Vice President up to the day of his death. Since 1948 he was again recalled into the service of the state. as senator, where it is said that he distingaisbed himfl4'1f by his just attitude and strict integrity... Dhani.,

249 I!'...,..

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