DEONTOLOGICAL ETHICS

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "DEONTOLOGICAL ETHICS"

Transcription

1

2 DEONTOLOGICAL ETHICS In ethical theories, if we mainly focus on the action itself, then we use deontological ethics (also known as deontology or duty ethics). In duty ethics, an action is morally right if it is in agreement with moral rules/norms. There are four central duty theories. The first is that championed by 17th century German philosopher Samuel Pufendorf, who classified dozens of duties under three headings: DUTIES TO GOD, DUTIES TO ONESELF, and DUTIES TO OTHERS.

3 Concerning our duties towards God, he argued that there are two kinds: a theoretical duty to know the existence and nature of God, and a practical duty to both inwardly and outwardly worship God.

4 Concerning our duties towards oneself, these are also of two sorts: duties of the soul, which involve developing one s skills and talents, and duties of the body, which involve not harming our bodies, as we might through gluttony or drunkenness, and not killing oneself.

5 Concerning our duties towards others Pufendorf divides these between absolute duties, which are universally binding on people, and conditional duties, which are the result of contracts between people. Conditional duties involve various types of agreements, the principal one of which is the duty is to keep one s promises. Absolute duties are of three sorts: avoid wronging others, treat people as equals, and promote the good of others.

6 Rights Theory A second duty-based approach to ethics is rights theory. Most generally, a right is a justified claim against another person s behavior such as my right to not be harmed by you. Rights and duties are related in such a way that the rights of one person imply the duties of another person. For example, if I have a right to payment of $10 by Smith, then Smith has a duty to pay me $10. This is called the correlativity of rights and duties. The most influential early account of rights theory is that of 17 th century British philosopher John Locke, who argued that the laws of nature mandate that we should not harm anyone s life, health, liberty or possessions. These are our natural rights, given to us by God.

7 Following Locke, the United States Declaration of Independence authored by Thomas Jefferson recognizes three foundational rights: life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Jefferson and others rights theorists maintained that we deduce other more specific rights from these, including the rights of property, movement, speech, and religious expression.

8 There are four features traditionally associated with moral rights.

9 A third and more recent duty-based theory is that by British philosopher W.D. Ross, which emphasizes prima facie duties. Like his 17th and 18th century counterparts, Ross argues that our duties are part of the fundamental nature of the universe. However, Ross s list of duties is much shorter, which he believes reflects our actual moral convictions:

10 Fidelity: the duty to keep promises Reparation: the duty to compensate others when we harm them Gratitude: the duty to thank those who help us Justice: the duty to recognize merit Beneficence: the duty to improve the conditions of others Self-improvement: the duty to improve our virtue and intelligence Nonmaleficence: the duty to not injure others

11 Ross recognizes that situations will arise when we must choose between two conflicting duties. In a classic example, suppose I borrow my neighbour s gun and promise to return it when he asks for it. One day, in a fit of rage, my neighbour pounds on my door and asks for the gun so that he can take vengeance on someone. On the one hand, the duty of fidelity obligates me to return the gun; on the other hand, the duty of nonmaleficence obligates me to avoid injuring others and thus not return the gun.

12 Prima Facie According to Ross, I will intuitively know which of these duties is my actual duty, and which is my apparent or prima facie duty. In this case, my duty of nonmaleficence emerges as my actual duty and I should not return the gun. Prima Facie (on its first appearance, or at first sight ~ the literal translation would be "at first face"), is used in modern legal English to signify that on first examination, a matter appears to be self-evident from the facts. (But remember appearances can be deceptive ex. smoking gun)

13 IMMANUEL KANT ( ) Born and raised in Prussia (N.E. Germany) Grew up in poverty-stricken, but very religious Protestant family Family were Pietists believed in personal devotion and Bible reading Lived near home all his life (never went beyond 100 km of his birthplace) His life was all about routine everything was nearly scheduled

14 Mr. Kant: Teacher and Author After university, Kant worked as a private tutor and teacher He became a university professor of logic and metaphysics Kant wrote books difficult to understand Critique of Pure Reason took 12 years to write and contains the longest sentences ever written. He greatly influenced Western thought and philosophy

15 Immanuel Kant Like Aristotle, Kant also held that the good is the aim of a moral life. But he approached the question of how one attains the good in quite a different way. He recognized that in the domain of ethics we cannot arrive at the same type of certainty as we can in physics and math. Ethics does not present us with rational cognitive certainty but with practical certainty. In this practical area of our lives, he held that there are three areas of interest: God Freedom Immortality We may not be able to prove any of these empirically, nonetheless, we need these practical principles to be able to pursue and attain the supreme good.

16

17 Graphic Organizer for Kantian Ethics

18 AUTONOMY OF THE WILL Kant held that a person should decide for him/herself the moral laws that he/she will follow. A person should place a moral norm upon him/herself and obey it. This is his/her duty. For Kant, you are your own legislator. It is your autonomy, your decision to act in accordance with your good will. You are not constrained by another. He called this ability to decide for oneself autonomy of the will. In this respect, Kant s ethics are more individual based than Aristotle s. To Aristotle, a good person seeks his/her happiness within the context of a community. Heteronomy is allowing someone or something else to decide the moral laws that one will follow. Kant s ethics are to be discovered in private life, in the inner convictions and autonomy of the individual.

19 THE GOOD WILL Kant argues that nothing is good in itself except a good will. Facets of human personality such as intelligence and judgement and virtues such as courage, determination and perseverance are perhaps good and desirable, but only if the will that makes use of them are good. It is the same with gifts of fortune of fortune such as power, wealth and honour. These will produce pride and conceit unless the person has a good will, which can correct the influence these have upon the mind and ensure that it is adapted to its proper end. Moreover, an impartial rational spectator would not feel any pleasure at seeing a person without a good will enjoying continuous happiness without deserving it.

20 A good will is a will that is motivated to perform an act because it is a moral duty and not merely because the act is in one s self-interest or gives one pleasure. For Kant, a human action is morally good when it is done for the sake of duty. An act of kindness to a friend may be praiseworthy but it is not a moral act. It becomes moral when you are busy or when you are more inclined to do other things. For example, you might not want to go to your great aunt s funeral, but it is your duty. You chose to go to honour the family. Real moral worth is motivated by duty, not by inclination (desire). In other words, moral worth is measured not by the results of one s actions, but by the motive behind them. Kant s language is full of should. It is a language not of desires but of ought.

21 MAXIMS By will, Kant meant the uniquely human capacity to be motivated by reasons or maxims. Kant argues that humans are capable of determining through reason what is morally correct. To be motivated by duty is to be motivated to do something because one believes it is the way that all human beings ought to behave. Acting morally then is acting only on those maxims or reasons that you believe everyone universally ought to live up to. For Kant, my will is good without qualification only if it always has in view one principle: Would I still perform the actions that I plan to perform if I knew that my maxims (reasons) would become laws of nature that everyone would have to follow? If not, then I should not perform the action.

22 CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE Kant argued that moral duties or imperatives are categorical they should be obeyed without exception. Individuals should do what is morally right no matter what the consequences are. A great analogy is unconditional love. That is love without limitation, exception or condition. For example, it is wrong to not care for our children even if it results in some great benefit, such as financial savings.

23 A categorical imperative is fundamentally different from a hypothetical imperative that hinges on some personal desire or belief that we have, for example,

24 Kant believes that there is just one command or imperative that is categorical. He believes that from this one categorical imperative, this universal command, we can derive all commands of duty. Kant s categorical imperative states: According to Kant, what is right for one is right for all.

25 When applying the first categorical imperative... We need to ask ourselves one question: Would I want everyone else to make the decision I did? If the answer is yes, the choice is justified. If the answer is no, the decision is wrong. MAXIM: Would it be morally right to break a promise or lie? Use the first half of the categorical imperative to test your maxim: Is it possible for everyone to lie or to make promises and then break them? Reason: Clearly breaking promises like this could not become something that everyone does, because then the practice of making promises or entering into contracts with people would no longer exist. The very practice of entering into a binding agreement with someone would not be logical since once everyone starts breaking promises, then promises are no longer possible.

26 Use the second half of the categorical imperative to test your maxim: Am I willing to have everyone lie or break promises? Reason: No because then no one would accept promises that I would make with them. Who would accept anyone s promise knowing that everyone breaks promises when it is convenient for them? Conclusion: Since it is not possible for everyone to make promises and break them, it is wrong for you to do so. It is wrong to make exceptions for ourselves: if everyone cannot do something, then doing it is wrong for me. Note that Kant does not argue that the consequences of a universal practice would be bad and therefore the practice is bad. Instead he claims that the practice is self-contradictory; the practice itself becomes impossible once everyone does it. His appeal is to logical consistency, not to consequences.

27 MAXIM: Is it moral to cheat on exams Use the first half of the categorical imperative to test your maxim: Is it possible for everyone to cheat on exams and have the purpose of the practice remain? Reason: Clearly cheating on exams could not become something that everyone does, because then people would stop using exams to assess people altogether. The purpose of exams is defeated when everyone cheats. Who would accept anyone s mark on an exam as a true measure of what they have learned, knowing that everyone obtains the answers from elsewhere? Once everyone begins cheating on exams, then the practice of using exams as assessments of an individual s learning are no longer possible.

28 Second half of categorical imperative: Am I willing to have everyone cheat on exams? Reason: No because it calls into question the integrity of the exam and everyone's education. Conclusion: Since it is not possible for everyone to cheat on exams, it is wrong for you to do so. It is wrong to make exceptions for ourselves: if everyone cannot do something, then doing it is wrong for me.

29 Maxim: Is it moral to refuse help to those in need? First half of the categorical imperative: Is it possible for everyone to refuse to help others when they are in great need? Reason: Actually it is possible for everyone to refuse help to others who are in great need. The practice does not negate itself when everyone does it the action of helping merely becomes non-existent not impossible. Are you willing to have everyone do it: Am I willing to have everyone refuse help to the needy? Reason: No because then I might need others to desperately help me one day. No one would be willing to live in a world where no one ever helped those in great need, although such a world is possible. Conclusion: Since you are not willing to have everyone refuse helping the needy, it is wrong for you to do so. It is wrong to make exceptions for ourselves: if you are not willing to have everyone do something, then doing it is wrong for you too. So even Kant believes that there are some actions that are wrong, not because it is impossible for everyone to do them, but because we are not willing to have everyone do them.

30 Kant s Second Categorical Imperative We should always treat ourselves and other people with dignity, and never use them or ourselves as mere instruments to achieve some selfish purpose.

31 Kant also argued for the importance of treating people as an end, and never as a means to an end. For Kant, we treat people as an end whenever our actions toward someone reflect the inherent value of that person. Every person has a fundamental human dignity that gives her person value beyond all price. Thus it is wrong to use people or manipulate them without their consent for our own selfish desires. Others can help us reach our objectives, but they should never be considered solely as a means to an end. We should, instead, respect and encourage the capacity of others to choose for themselves. Kant expanded his view on this second version of the categorical imperative using the following four dimensions;

32 Strict duty to oneself: A person who is thinking of committing suicide should ask himself whether his action is consistent with the idea that humanity is an end in itself. If he kills himself to escape his suffering, he is using himself as a means to maintain a tolerable existence. But a person is not a thing. A person cannot be used merely as a means, but must be respected as an end in himself.

33 Strict duty to others: Is it wrong to lie or to steal from a person? Clearly if we lie or steal we are using other people as means to achieve our own interests but furthermore, lying or stealing involves doing something to a person without his free and knowing consent. Morality requires that we always give others the opportunity to decide for themselves whether or not they will join us in our actions. This rules out all forms of deception, force, coercion and manipulation.

34 Meritorious duty to oneself: We should also refrain from violating our own humanity as an end in itself, but we should also try to make our actions harmonize with the fact that our humanity is such an end. When we neglect to develop our abilities we are not doing something that is destructive of humanity as an end in itself. But such neglect clearly does not advance humanity as an end in itself.

35 Meritorious duty to others: Donating to charity in order to genuinely help others, for example, is morally correct since this acknowledges the inherent value of the recipient. The second version of Kant s imperative implies that we should promote people s capacity to choose for themselves. It also implies that we should strive to develop this capacity in ourselves and in those around us (for example, through education). Furthermore, Kant would say that when people are in great need, their ability to choose for themselves is compromised. Since we have a duty to promote people s capacity to choose for themselves, we should help those whose poverty prevents them from exercising their capacity to choose for themselves. By contrast, we treat someone as a means to an end whenever we treat that person as a tool to achieve something else. It is wrong, for example, if we give to charity in order to achieve a break on our taxes.

36 ELABORATING ON KANTS IDEA OF HUMANITY AS AN END According to Kant (and Aristotle, if you remember) we are rational and autonomous beings with the capacity for reason and freedom to choose. Person s have absolute value (intrinsic value) not relative value. Kant argues that humanity and the capacity to reason are undifferentiated in all of us. This is what makes us all EQUAL. Respect for Kant is respect for humanity which is universal. In this way Kantian respect is unlike: LOVE (I love this person because they have certain qualities I admire) SYMPATHY (I can relate to that person because they shared a similar experience) SOLIDARITY (I will support this particular group of people because we share the same ideals) ALTRUISM (I will sacrifice my life for this person because they are related to me) All of the above reasons for caring for people have to do with who they are in particular. So the reason I should respect the dignity of others doesn t have to do with something in particular about them, it is because I can identify the same dignity in them that I have in myself. In the end.violating my own dignity is like violating it in another.

37 Practice Kantian Ethics Use the following guidelines to reason out whether the actions of the main characters in each of the scenarios is morally worthy or immoral according to Kant s 1 st and 2 nd categorical imperatives. 1 st formulation of the categorical imperative 2 nd formulation of the categorical imperative 1. Identify the maxim (what is the rule that the characters in the scenario are trying to reason out). 1. Identify the end the main character is trying to achieve. 2. Test the maxim by universalizing it: If the course of action in the maxim undermines itself then the action is wrong Test the maxim by asking the question: Am I willing to have everyone do this? If it is wrong for one person to commit the action then it is wrong for everybody If the main character is privileging their own needs and desires over everybody else's, then they are wrong. 2. Identify the mean (the method they are using to achieve their goal). If any human life (dignity and freedom) is being undermined (treated solely as a means), then the action is wrong.

38 Criticisms of Kantian Theory Kant s imperative is a simple yet powerful ethical tool. Not only is the principle easy to remember, but asking if we would want our behaviour to be made into a universal standard should also prevent a number of ethical miscues. Emphasis on duty builds moral courage. Those driven by the conviction that certain behaviours are either right or wrong no matter what the situation are more likely to blow the whistle on unethical behaviour, resist group pressure to compromise personal ethical standards, Follow through on their choices Kant s emphasis on respecting the right of others to choose is an important guideline to keep in mind when making ethical choices in organizations. This standard promotes the sharing of information and concern for others while condemning deceptive and coercive tactics. Through all this Kant also reminds us to take care of ourselves. Influenced by Pufendorf, Kant agreed that we have moral duties to oneself and others, such as developing one s talents.

39 Criticism #1 In Kant s theory, rules cannot be bent. This reminds us of absolutism. So, the question arises whether all the moral laws form a consistent system of norms. Critiques of Kant s system of reasoning often center on his assertion that there are universal principles that should be followed in every situation. In almost every case, we can think of exceptions. For instance, many of us agree that killing is wrong yet support murder in the case of self-defence. We value privacy rights but have given many up in the name of national security. Then, too, how do we account for those who honestly believe they are doing the right thing even when they are engaged in evil? Consistent Nazis were convinced that killing Jews was morally right. They wanted their fellow Germans to engage in this behaviour; they did what they perceived to be their duty.

40 Criticism #2 Another downside is that Kantian theory prescribes to rigidly adhere to the rules, irrespective of the consequences. But in real life, following a rule can of course have very negative consequences. The acts that the categorical imperative says are always wrong do not always seem wrong. For example, Kant says that it is absolutely wrong ever to lie, no matter what good might come from telling a lie. Yet is it wrong to lie to save your life? To save someone from serious pain or injury? Kant s theory does not deal with these exceptions and there is no compelling reason why certain actions should be prohibited without exception. Apparently Kant failed to distinguish between persons making no exceptions to rules and rules having no exceptions. If a person should make no exceptions to rules, then one should never except oneself from being bound by a rule. But it does not therefore follow that the rule has no exceptions.

41 Criticism #3 Conflicting duties also pose a challenge to deontological thinking. Complex ethical dilemmas often involve competing obligations. For example, we should be loyal to both our bosses and coworkers. Yet being loyal to a supervisor may mean breaking loyalty with peers, such as when a supervisor asks us to reveal the source of a complaint when we ve promised to keep the identity of that co-worker secret. How do we determine which duty has priority? Kant s imperative offers little guidance in such situations.

42 Criticism #4 There is one final weakness in Kant s theory that is worth noting. By focusing on intention, Kant downplayed the importance of ethical action. Worthy intent does little good unless it is acted out. We typically judge individuals based on what they do, not on their motives.

43

Suppose... Kant. The Good Will. Kant Three Propositions

Suppose... Kant. The Good Will. Kant Three Propositions Suppose.... Kant You are a good swimmer and one day at the beach you notice someone who is drowning offshore. Consider the following three scenarios. Which one would Kant says exhibits a good will? Even

More information

Kant s Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals

Kant s Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals Kant s Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals G. J. Mattey Spring, 2017/ Philosophy 1 The Division of Philosophical Labor Kant generally endorses the ancient Greek division of philosophy into

More information

Duty and Categorical Rules. Immanuel Kant Introduction to Ethics, PHIL 118 Professor Douglas Olena

Duty and Categorical Rules. Immanuel Kant Introduction to Ethics, PHIL 118 Professor Douglas Olena Duty and Categorical Rules Immanuel Kant Introduction to Ethics, PHIL 118 Professor Douglas Olena Preview This selection from Kant includes: The description of the Good Will The concept of Duty An introduction

More information

Summary of Kant s Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals

Summary of Kant s Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals Summary of Kant s Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals Version 1.1 Richard Baron 2 October 2016 1 Contents 1 Introduction 3 1.1 Availability and licence............ 3 2 Definitions of key terms 4 3

More information

KANTIAN ETHICS (Dan Gaskill)

KANTIAN ETHICS (Dan Gaskill) KANTIAN ETHICS (Dan Gaskill) German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) was an opponent of utilitarianism. Basic Summary: Kant, unlike Mill, believed that certain types of actions (including murder,

More information

Benjamin Visscher Hole IV Phil 100, Intro to Philosophy

Benjamin Visscher Hole IV Phil 100, Intro to Philosophy Benjamin Visscher Hole IV Phil 100, Intro to Philosophy Kantian Ethics I. Context II. The Good Will III. The Categorical Imperative: Formulation of Universal Law IV. The Categorical Imperative: Formulation

More information

Kant's Moral Philosophy

Kant's Moral Philosophy Kant's Moral Philosophy I. Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals (178.5)- Immanuel Kant A. Aims I. '7o seek out and establish the supreme principle of morality." a. To provide a rational basis for morality.

More information

Humanities 4: Lectures Kant s Ethics

Humanities 4: Lectures Kant s Ethics Humanities 4: Lectures 17-19 Kant s Ethics 1 Method & Questions Purpose and Method: Transition from Common Sense to Philosophical Understanding of Morality Analysis of everyday moral concepts Main Questions:

More information

Q2) The test of an ethical argument lies in the fact that others need to be able to follow it and come to the same result.

Q2) The test of an ethical argument lies in the fact that others need to be able to follow it and come to the same result. QUIZ 1 ETHICAL ISSUES IN MEDIA, BUSINESS AND SOCIETY WHAT IS ETHICS? Business ethics deals with values, facts, and arguments. Q2) The test of an ethical argument lies in the fact that others need to be

More information

Introduction to Philosophy Philosophy 110W Fall 2013 Russell Marcus

Introduction to Philosophy Philosophy 110W Fall 2013 Russell Marcus Introduction to Philosophy Philosophy 110W Fall 2013 Russell Marcus Class 28 -Kantian Ethics Marcus, Introduction to Philosophy, Slide 1 The Good Will P It is impossible to conceive anything at all in

More information

Lecture 12 Deontology. Onora O Neill A Simplified Account of Kant s Ethics

Lecture 12 Deontology. Onora O Neill A Simplified Account of Kant s Ethics Lecture 12 Deontology Onora O Neill A Simplified Account of Kant s Ethics 1 Agenda 1. Immanuel Kant 2. Deontology 3. Hypothetical vs. Categorical Imperatives 4. Formula of the End in Itself 5. Maxims and

More information

CMSI Handout 3 Courtesy of Marcello Antosh

CMSI Handout 3 Courtesy of Marcello Antosh CMSI Handout 3 Courtesy of Marcello Antosh 1 Terminology Maxims (again) General form: Agent will do action A in order to achieve purpose P (optional: because of reason R). Examples: Britney Spears will

More information

Chapter 3 PHILOSOPHICAL ETHICS AND BUSINESS CHAPTER OBJECTIVES. After exploring this chapter, you will be able to:

Chapter 3 PHILOSOPHICAL ETHICS AND BUSINESS CHAPTER OBJECTIVES. After exploring this chapter, you will be able to: Chapter 3 PHILOSOPHICAL ETHICS AND BUSINESS MGT604 CHAPTER OBJECTIVES After exploring this chapter, you will be able to: 1. Explain the ethical framework of utilitarianism. 2. Describe how utilitarian

More information

Kant. Deontological Ethics

Kant. Deontological Ethics Kant 1 Deontological Ethics An action's moral value is determined by the nature of the action itself and the agent's motive DE contrasts with Utilitarianism which says that the goal or consequences of

More information

Deontological Ethics. Kant. Rules for Kant. Right Action

Deontological Ethics. Kant. Rules for Kant. Right Action Deontological Ethics Kant An action's moral value is determined by the nature of the action itself and the agent's motive DE contrasts with Utilitarianism which says that the goal or consequences of an

More information

Kantian Deontology - Part Two

Kantian Deontology - Part Two Kantian Deontology - Part Two Immanuel Kant s Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals Nathan Kellen University of Connecticut October 1st, 2015 Table of Contents Hypothetical Categorical The Universal

More information

Hello again. Today we re gonna continue our discussions of Kant s ethics.

Hello again. Today we re gonna continue our discussions of Kant s ethics. PHI 110 Lecture 29 1 Hello again. Today we re gonna continue our discussions of Kant s ethics. Last time we talked about the good will and Kant defined the good will as the free rational will which acts

More information

SUMMARIES AND TEST QUESTIONS UNIT 6

SUMMARIES AND TEST QUESTIONS UNIT 6 SUMMARIES AND TEST QUESTIONS UNIT 6 Textbook: Louis P. Pojman, Editor. Philosophy: The quest for truth. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. ISBN-10: 0199697310; ISBN-13: 9780199697311 (6th Edition)

More information

Deontology: Duty-Based Ethics IMMANUEL KANT

Deontology: Duty-Based Ethics IMMANUEL KANT Deontology: Duty-Based Ethics IMMANUEL KANT KANT S OBJECTIONS TO UTILITARIANISM: 1. Utilitarianism takes no account of integrity - the accidental act or one done with evil intent if promoting good ends

More information

Chapter 2 Normative Theories of Ethics

Chapter 2 Normative Theories of Ethics Chapter 2 Normative Theories of Ethics MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Consequentialism a. is best represented by Ross's theory of ethics. b. states that sometimes the consequences of our actions can be morally relevant.

More information

Introduction to Philosophy Philosophy 110W Spring 2011 Russell Marcus

Introduction to Philosophy Philosophy 110W Spring 2011 Russell Marcus Introduction to Philosophy Philosophy 110W Spring 2011 Russell Marcus Class 26 - April 27 Kantian Ethics Marcus, Introduction to Philosophy, Slide 1 Mill s Defense of Utilitarianism P People desire happiness.

More information

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF THE METAPHYSIC OF MORALS. by Immanuel Kant

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF THE METAPHYSIC OF MORALS. by Immanuel Kant FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF THE METAPHYSIC OF MORALS SECOND SECTION by Immanuel Kant TRANSITION FROM POPULAR MORAL PHILOSOPHY TO THE METAPHYSIC OF MORALS... This principle, that humanity and generally every

More information

Categorical Imperative by. Kant

Categorical Imperative by. Kant Categorical Imperative by Dr. Desh Raj Sirswal Assistant Professor (Philosophy), P.G.Govt. College for Girls, Sector-11, Chandigarh http://drsirswal.webs.com Kant Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant (1724 1804)

More information

Kant The Grounding of the Metaphysics of Morals (excerpts) 1 PHIL101 Prof. Oakes. Section IV: What is it worth? Reading IV.2.

Kant The Grounding of the Metaphysics of Morals (excerpts) 1 PHIL101 Prof. Oakes. Section IV: What is it worth? Reading IV.2. Kant The Grounding of the Metaphysics of Morals (excerpts) 1 PHIL101 Prof. Oakes Section IV: What is it worth? Reading IV.2 Kant s analysis of the good differs in scope from Aristotle s in two ways. In

More information

An Epistemological Assessment of Moral Worth in Kant s Moral Theory. Immanuel Kant s moral theory outlined in The Grounding for the Metaphysics of

An Epistemological Assessment of Moral Worth in Kant s Moral Theory. Immanuel Kant s moral theory outlined in The Grounding for the Metaphysics of An Epistemological Assessment of Moral Worth in Kant s Moral Theory Immanuel Kant s moral theory outlined in The Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals (hereafter Grounding) presents us with the metaphysical

More information

Philosophy 110W: Introduction to Philosophy Spring 2011 Class 26 - April 29 Kantian Ethics. Hamilton College Russell Marcus

Philosophy 110W: Introduction to Philosophy Spring 2011 Class 26 - April 29 Kantian Ethics. Hamilton College Russell Marcus Philosophy 110W: Introduction to Philosophy Spring 2011 Class 26 - April 29 Kantian Ethics Hamilton College Russell Marcus I. Good Will, Duty, and Inclination The core claim of utilitarianism is that the

More information

Altruism. A selfless concern for other people purely for their own sake. Altruism is usually contrasted with selfishness or egoism in ethics.

Altruism. A selfless concern for other people purely for their own sake. Altruism is usually contrasted with selfishness or egoism in ethics. GLOSSARY OF ETHIC TERMS Absolutism. The belief that there is one and only one truth; those who espouse absolutism usually also believe that they know what this absolute truth is. In ethics, absolutism

More information

Computer Ethics. Normative Ethics Ethical Theories. Viola Schiaffonati October 4 th 2018

Computer Ethics. Normative Ethics Ethical Theories. Viola Schiaffonati October 4 th 2018 Normative Ethics Ethical Theories Viola Schiaffonati October 4 th 2018 Overview (van de Poel and Royakkers 2011) 2 Ethical theories Relativism and absolutism Consequentialist approaches: utilitarianism

More information

Mill s Utilitarian Theory

Mill s Utilitarian Theory Normative Ethics Mill s Utilitarian Theory John Stuart Mill, Utilitarianism The Greatest Happiness Principle holds that actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they

More information

24.02 Moral Problems and the Good Life

24.02 Moral Problems and the Good Life MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu 24.02 Moral Problems and the Good Life Fall 2008 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms. Three Moral Theories

More information

Ethics Prof. Vineet Sahu Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology-Kanpur

Ethics Prof. Vineet Sahu Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology-Kanpur Ethics Prof. Vineet Sahu Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology-Kanpur Module No. #01 Lecture No. #08 Deontological Theories Immanuel Kant Now, continuing to talk about,

More information

Take Home Exam #2. PHI 1700: Global Ethics Prof. Lauren R. Alpert

Take Home Exam #2. PHI 1700: Global Ethics Prof. Lauren R. Alpert PHI 1700: Global Ethics Prof. Lauren R. Alpert Name: Date: Take Home Exam #2 Instructions (Read Before Proceeding!) Material for this exam is from class sessions 8-15. Matching and fill-in-the-blank questions

More information

Deontological Ethics

Deontological Ethics Deontological Ethics From Jane Eyre, the end of Chapter XXVII: (Mr. Rochester is the first speaker) And what a distortion in your judgment, what a perversity in your ideas, is proved by your conduct! Is

More information

Ethical Theories. A (Very) Brief Introduction

Ethical Theories. A (Very) Brief Introduction Ethical Theories A (Very) Brief Introduction Last time, a definition Ethics: The discipline that deals with right and wrong, good and bad, especially with respect to human conduct. Well, for one thing,

More information

38 Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals. [Ak 4:422] [Ak4:421]

38 Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals. [Ak 4:422] [Ak4:421] 38 Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals [Ak 4:422] [Ak4:421] what one calls duty is an empty concept, we can at least indicate what we are thinking in the concept of duty and what this concept means.

More information

Chapter 2 Reasoning about Ethics

Chapter 2 Reasoning about Ethics Chapter 2 Reasoning about Ethics TRUE/FALSE 1. The statement "nearly all Americans believe that individual liberty should be respected" is a normative claim. F This is a statement about people's beliefs;

More information

Unifying the Categorical Imperative* Marcus Arvan University of Tampa

Unifying the Categorical Imperative* Marcus Arvan University of Tampa Unifying the Categorical Imperative* Marcus Arvan University of Tampa [T]he concept of freedom constitutes the keystone of the whole structure of a system of pure reason [and] this idea reveals itself

More information

CHAPTER 2 Test Bank MULTIPLE CHOICE

CHAPTER 2 Test Bank MULTIPLE CHOICE CHAPTER 2 Test Bank MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. A structured set of principles that defines what is moral is referred to as: a. a norm system b. an ethical system c. a morality guide d. a principled guide ANS:

More information

Is Morality Rational?

Is Morality Rational? PHILOSOPHY 431 Is Morality Rational? Topic #3 Betsy Spring 2010 Kant claims that violations of the categorical imperative are irrational acts. This paper discusses that claim. Page 2 of 6 In Groundwork

More information

Duty Based Ethics. Ethics unit 3

Duty Based Ethics. Ethics unit 3 Duty Based Ethics Ethics unit 3 Divine command as a source of duty Stems from the monotheistic (Judeo/Christian/ Islamic) tradition An act is good if it is commanded by God, bad if it is forbidden by God.

More information

Lecture 8. Ethics in Science

Lecture 8. Ethics in Science Lecture 8 Ethics in Science What is ethics? We can say it is a system for guiding our choices in different situations But it is not just rational choices. It is about situations where our conceptions of

More information

IMMANUEL KANT Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals [Edited and reduced by J. Bulger, Ph.D.]

IMMANUEL KANT Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals [Edited and reduced by J. Bulger, Ph.D.] IMMANUEL KANT Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals [Edited and reduced by J. Bulger, Ph.D.] PREFACE 1. Kant defines rational knowledge as being composed of two parts, the Material and Formal. 2. Formal

More information

Critical Reasoning and Moral theory day 3

Critical Reasoning and Moral theory day 3 Critical Reasoning and Moral theory day 3 CS 340 Fall 2015 Ethics and Moral Theories Differences of opinion based caused by different value set Deontology Virtue Religious and Divine Command Utilitarian

More information

A Review on What Is This Thing Called Ethics? by Christopher Bennett * ** 1

A Review on What Is This Thing Called Ethics? by Christopher Bennett * ** 1 310 Book Review Book Review ISSN (Print) 1225-4924, ISSN (Online) 2508-3104 Catholic Theology and Thought, Vol. 79, July 2017 http://dx.doi.org/10.21731/ctat.2017.79.310 A Review on What Is This Thing

More information

PHI 1700: Global Ethics

PHI 1700: Global Ethics PHI 1700: Global Ethics Session 13 March 22 nd, 2016 O Neill, A Simplified Account of Kant s Ethics So far in this unit, we ve seen many different ways of judging right/wrong actions: Aristotle s virtue

More information

Autonomous Machines Are Ethical

Autonomous Machines Are Ethical Autonomous Machines Are Ethical John Hooker Carnegie Mellon University INFORMS 2017 1 Thesis Concepts of deontological ethics are ready-made for the age of AI. Philosophical concept of autonomy applies

More information

PHIL%13:%Ethics;%Fall%2012% David%O.%Brink;%UCSD% Syllabus% Part%I:%Challenges%to%Moral%Theory 1.%Relativism%and%Tolerance.

PHIL%13:%Ethics;%Fall%2012% David%O.%Brink;%UCSD% Syllabus% Part%I:%Challenges%to%Moral%Theory 1.%Relativism%and%Tolerance. Draftof8)27)12 PHIL%13:%Ethics;%Fall%2012% David%O.%Brink;%UCSD% Syllabus% Hereisalistoftopicsandreadings.Withinatopic,dothereadingsintheorderinwhich theyarelisted.readingsaredrawnfromthethreemaintexts

More information

Making Decisions on Behalf of Others: Who or What Do I Select as a Guide? A Dilemma: - My boss. - The shareholders. - Other stakeholders

Making Decisions on Behalf of Others: Who or What Do I Select as a Guide? A Dilemma: - My boss. - The shareholders. - Other stakeholders Making Decisions on Behalf of Others: Who or What Do I Select as a Guide? - My boss - The shareholders - Other stakeholders - Basic principles about conduct and its impacts - What is good for me - What

More information

Two Kinds of Ends in Themselves in Kant s Moral Theory

Two Kinds of Ends in Themselves in Kant s Moral Theory Western University Scholarship@Western 2015 Undergraduate Awards The Undergraduate Awards 2015 Two Kinds of Ends in Themselves in Kant s Moral Theory David Hakim Western University, davidhakim266@gmail.com

More information

Kant, Deontology, & Respect for Persons

Kant, Deontology, & Respect for Persons Kant, Deontology, & Respect for Persons Some Possibly Helpful Terminology Normative moral theories can be categorized according to whether the theory is primarily focused on judgments of value or judgments

More information

Kantian Deontology. A2 Ethics Revision Notes Page 1 of 7. Paul Nicholls 13P Religious Studies

Kantian Deontology. A2 Ethics Revision Notes Page 1 of 7. Paul Nicholls 13P Religious Studies A2 Ethics Revision Notes Page 1 of 7 Kantian Deontology Deontological (based on duty) ethical theory established by Emmanuel Kant in The Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals. Part of the enlightenment

More information

Deontology: Duty-Based Ethics IMMANUEL KANT

Deontology: Duty-Based Ethics IMMANUEL KANT Deontology: Duty-Based Ethics IMMANUEL KANT A NOTE ON READING KANT Lord Macaulay once recorded in his diary a memorable attempt his first and apparently his last to read Kant s Critique: I received today

More information

Philosophy 1100: Ethics

Philosophy 1100: Ethics Philosophy 1100: Ethics Topic 7: Ross Theory of Prima Facie Duties 1. Something all our theories have had in common 2. W.D. Ross 3. The Concept of a Prima Facie Duty 4. Ross List of Prima Facie Duties

More information

-- did you get a message welcoming you to the cours reflector? If not, please correct what s needed.

-- did you get a message welcoming you to the cours reflector? If not, please correct what s needed. 1 -- did you get a message welcoming you to the coursemail reflector? If not, please correct what s needed. 2 -- don t use secondary material from the web, as its quality is variable; cf. Wikipedia. Check

More information

Computer Ethics. Normative Ethics and Normative Argumentation. Viola Schiaffonati October 10 th 2017

Computer Ethics. Normative Ethics and Normative Argumentation. Viola Schiaffonati October 10 th 2017 Normative Ethics and Normative Argumentation Viola Schiaffonati October 10 th 2017 Overview (van de Poel and Royakkers 2011) 2 Some essential concepts Ethical theories Relativism and absolutism Consequentialist

More information

Philosophical Ethics. The nature of ethical analysis. Discussion based on Johnson, Computer Ethics, Chapter 2.

Philosophical Ethics. The nature of ethical analysis. Discussion based on Johnson, Computer Ethics, Chapter 2. Philosophical Ethics The nature of ethical analysis Discussion based on Johnson, Computer Ethics, Chapter 2. How to resolve ethical issues? censorship abortion affirmative action How do we defend our moral

More information

A Categorical Imperative. An Introduction to Deontological Ethics

A Categorical Imperative. An Introduction to Deontological Ethics A Categorical Imperative An Introduction to Deontological Ethics Better Consequences, Better Action? More specifically, the better the consequences the better the action from a moral point of view? Compare:

More information

KANT, MORAL DUTY AND THE DEMANDS OF PURE PRACTICAL REASON. The law is reason unaffected by desire.

KANT, MORAL DUTY AND THE DEMANDS OF PURE PRACTICAL REASON. The law is reason unaffected by desire. KANT, MORAL DUTY AND THE DEMANDS OF PURE PRACTICAL REASON The law is reason unaffected by desire. Aristotle, Politics Book III (1287a32) THE BIG IDEAS TO MASTER Kantian formalism Kantian constructivism

More information

World-Wide Ethics Chapter Five Deontology

World-Wide Ethics Chapter Five Deontology World-Wide Ethics Chapter Five Deontology Utilitarian thinking, as seen in the previous chapter, focuses on the good and bad consequences of actions, or of action types. The reason why some actions are

More information

Evaluating actions The principle of utility Strengths Criticisms Act vs. rule

Evaluating actions The principle of utility Strengths Criticisms Act vs. rule UTILITARIAN ETHICS Evaluating actions The principle of utility Strengths Criticisms Act vs. rule A dilemma You are a lawyer. You have a client who is an old lady who owns a big house. She tells you that

More information

PHIL 202: IV:

PHIL 202: IV: Draft of 3-6- 13 PHIL 202: Core Ethics; Winter 2013 Core Sequence in the History of Ethics, 2011-2013 IV: 19 th and 20 th Century Moral Philosophy David O. Brink Handout #9: W.D. Ross Like other members

More information

GS SCORE ETHICS - A - Z. Notes

GS SCORE ETHICS - A - Z.   Notes ETHICS - A - Z Absolutism Act-utilitarianism Agent-centred consideration Agent-neutral considerations : This is the view, with regard to a moral principle or claim, that it holds everywhere and is never

More information

PROFESSIONAL ETHICS IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

PROFESSIONAL ETHICS IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING PROFESSIONAL ETHICS IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING CD5590 LECTURE 1 Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic Department of Computer Science and Engineering Mälardalen University 2005 1 Course Preliminaries Identifying Moral

More information

Kantianism: Objections and Replies Keith Burgess-Jackson 12 March 2017

Kantianism: Objections and Replies Keith Burgess-Jackson 12 March 2017 Kantianism: Objections and Replies Keith Burgess-Jackson 12 March 2017 Kantianism (K): 1 For all acts x, x is right iff (i) the maxim of x is universalizable (i.e., the agent can will that the maxim of

More information

A primer of major ethical theories

A primer of major ethical theories Chapter 1 A primer of major ethical theories Our topic in this course is privacy. Hence we want to understand (i) what privacy is and also (ii) why we value it and how this value is reflected in our norms

More information

Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals

Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals by Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant was born in 1724 in Königsberg, Prussia, (now Germany) where he spent his entire life, never traveling more than about

More information

Short Answers: Answer the following questions in one paragraph (each is worth 5 points).

Short Answers: Answer the following questions in one paragraph (each is worth 5 points). HU2700 Spring 2008 Midterm Exam Answer Key There are two sections: a short answer section worth 25 points and an essay section worth 75 points. No materials (books, notes, outlines, fellow classmates,

More information

EUROANESTHESIA 2007 Munich, Germany, 9-12 June 2007

EUROANESTHESIA 2007 Munich, Germany, 9-12 June 2007 EUROANESTHESIA 2007 Munich, Germany, 9-12 June 2007 WHERE DO THE PRINCIPLES OF BIOMEDICAL ETHICS COME FROM? 16RC1 ALEX CAHANA Postoperative and Interventional Pain Program, Department Anesthesiology, Pharmacology

More information

The Pleasure Imperative

The Pleasure Imperative The Pleasure Imperative Utilitarianism, particularly the version espoused by John Stuart Mill, is probably the best known consequentialist normative ethical theory. Furthermore, it is probably the most

More information

Socratic and Platonic Ethics

Socratic and Platonic Ethics Socratic and Platonic Ethics G. J. Mattey Winter, 2017 / Philosophy 1 Ethics and Political Philosophy The first part of the course is a brief survey of important texts in the history of ethics and political

More information

Aristotle's Theory of Friendship Tested. Syra Mehdi

Aristotle's Theory of Friendship Tested. Syra Mehdi Aristotle's Theory of Friendship Tested Syra Mehdi Is friendship a more important value than honesty? To respond to the question, consider this scenario: two high school students, Jamie and Tyler, who

More information

Philosophy of Ethics Philosophy of Aesthetics. Ross Arnold, Summer 2014 Lakeside institute of Theology

Philosophy of Ethics Philosophy of Aesthetics. Ross Arnold, Summer 2014 Lakeside institute of Theology Philosophy of Ethics Philosophy of Aesthetics Ross Arnold, Summer 2014 Lakeside institute of Theology Philosophical Theology 1 (TH5) Aug. 15 Intro to Philosophical Theology; Logic Aug. 22 Truth & Epistemology

More information

The Conflict Between Authority and Autonomy from Robert Wolff, In Defense of Anarchism (1970)

The Conflict Between Authority and Autonomy from Robert Wolff, In Defense of Anarchism (1970) The Conflict Between Authority and Autonomy from Robert Wolff, In Defense of Anarchism (1970) 1. The Concept of Authority Politics is the exercise of the power of the state, or the attempt to influence

More information

Peter Bornedal, General Lecture, 203. Copyright (C) by P. Bornedal

Peter Bornedal, General Lecture, 203. Copyright (C) by P. Bornedal Peter Bornedal, General Lecture, 203 Immanuel Kant Kant lived in the Prussian city Königsberg his entire life. He never traveled, and is famous for his methodic and rigorous lifestyle and high work ethics.

More information

ON THE INCOMPATIBILITY BETWEEN ARISTOTLE S AND KANT S IMPERATIVES TO TREAT A MAN NOT AS A MEANS BUT AS AN END-IN- HIMSELF

ON THE INCOMPATIBILITY BETWEEN ARISTOTLE S AND KANT S IMPERATIVES TO TREAT A MAN NOT AS A MEANS BUT AS AN END-IN- HIMSELF 1 ON THE INCOMPATIBILITY BETWEEN ARISTOTLE S AND KANT S IMPERATIVES TO TREAT A MAN NOT AS A MEANS BUT AS AN END-IN- HIMSELF Extract pp. 88-94 from the dissertation by Irene Caesar Why we should not be

More information

W.D. Ross ( )

W.D. Ross ( ) W.D. Ross (1877-1971) British philosopher Translator or Aristotle Defends a pluralist theory of morality in his now-classic book The Right and the Good (1930) Big idea: prima facie duties Prima Facie Duties

More information

Historic Roots. o St. Paul gives biblical support for it in Romans 2, where a law is said to be written in the heart of the gentiles.

Historic Roots. o St. Paul gives biblical support for it in Romans 2, where a law is said to be written in the heart of the gentiles. Historic Roots Natural moral law has its roots in the classics; o Aristotle, in Nichomacheon Ethics suggests that natural justice is not the same as that which is just by law. Our laws may vary culturally

More information

Download: Two clips from Star Trek. The needs of the many and The needs of the one found in Course Content Kant folder.

Download: Two clips from Star Trek. The needs of the many and The needs of the one found in Course Content Kant folder. TOPIC: Philosophy 1000 Lecture Introduction to Kant s deontology of Categorical Imperatives. KEY TERMS/ GOALS: Conformity with duty vs. motive from duty. Deontology. Kant s focus on agent s motives rather

More information

Deontology. Marianne Talbot University of Oxford Department for Continuing Education

Deontology. Marianne Talbot University of Oxford Department for Continuing Education Deontology Marianne Talbot University of Oxford Department for Continuing Education 1 Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) schriftman.files.wordpress.com/2008/11/immanu... 2 Kant believed that morality is a system

More information

[Forthcoming in The International Encyclopedia of Ethics, ed. Hugh LaFollette. (Oxford: Blackwell), 2012] Imperatives, Categorical and Hypothetical

[Forthcoming in The International Encyclopedia of Ethics, ed. Hugh LaFollette. (Oxford: Blackwell), 2012] Imperatives, Categorical and Hypothetical [Forthcoming in The International Encyclopedia of Ethics, ed. Hugh LaFollette. (Oxford: Blackwell), 2012] Imperatives, Categorical and Hypothetical Samuel J. Kerstein Ethicists distinguish between categorical

More information

Chapter 2: Reasoning about ethics

Chapter 2: Reasoning about ethics Chapter 2: Reasoning about ethics 2012 Cengage Learning All Rights reserved Learning Outcomes LO 1 Explain how important moral reasoning is and how to apply it. LO 2 Explain the difference between facts

More information

Deontology. Immanuel Kant ( ) Founder of Deontology

Deontology. Immanuel Kant ( ) Founder of Deontology Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) Founder of Deontology The right act is that which is in accordance with the correct moral rule (GK. deon) or principle (Kant calls these maxims ) Rejects hedonism Rejects consequentialism

More information

FORMING ETHICAL STANDARDS

FORMING ETHICAL STANDARDS FORMING ETHICAL STANDARDS Ethical standards of any type require a devotion to ethical action, and ethical action often comes in conflict with our instinct to act in our own self-interest. This tendency

More information

To link to this article:

To link to this article: This article was downloaded by: [University of Chicago Library] On: 24 May 2013, At: 08:10 Publisher: Routledge Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office:

More information

ETHICAL POSITIONS STATEMENT

ETHICAL POSITIONS STATEMENT ETHICAL POSITIONS STATEMENT 2 GCU ETHICAL POSITIONS STATEMENT Grand Canyon University s ethical commitments derive either directly or indirectly from its Doctrinal Statement, which affirms the Bible alone

More information

Definitions: Values and Moral Values

Definitions: Values and Moral Values Definitions: Values and Moral Values 1. Values those things that we care about; those things that matter to us; those goals or ideals to which we aspire and by which we measure ourselves and others in

More information

In short, the Six Pillars can dramatically improve the ethical quality of our decisions, and thus our character and lives.

In short, the Six Pillars can dramatically improve the ethical quality of our decisions, and thus our character and lives. The Six Pillars of Character Trustworthiness. Respect. Responsibility. Fairness. Caring. Citizenship. The Six Pillars of Character are ethical values to guide our choices. The standards of conduct that

More information

Law and Authority. An unjust law is not a law

Law and Authority. An unjust law is not a law Law and Authority An unjust law is not a law The statement an unjust law is not a law is often treated as a summary of how natural law theorists approach the question of whether a law is valid or not.

More information

Is euthanasia morally permissible? What is the relationship between patient autonomy,

Is euthanasia morally permissible? What is the relationship between patient autonomy, Course Syllabus PHILOSOPHY 433 Instructor: Doran Smolkin, Ph. D. doran.smolkin@kpu.ca or doran.smolkin@ubc.ca Course Description: Is euthanasia morally permissible? What is the relationship between patient

More information

The Role of Love in the Thought of Kant and Kierkegaard

The Role of Love in the Thought of Kant and Kierkegaard Philosophy of Religion The Role of Love in the Thought of Kant and Kierkegaard Daryl J. Wennemann Fontbonne College dwennema@fontbonne.edu ABSTRACT: Following Ronald Green's suggestion concerning Kierkegaard's

More information

Journalists have a tremendous responsibility. Almost every day, we make

Journalists have a tremendous responsibility. Almost every day, we make Applied Ethics in Journalism A N I NTRODUCTION Patricia Ferrier Journalists have a tremendous responsibility. Almost every day, we make decisions that affect other people, decisions that might mean invading

More information

LYING TEACHER S NOTES

LYING TEACHER S NOTES TEACHER S NOTES INTRO Each student has to choose one of the following topics. The other students have to ask questions on that topic. During the discussion, the student has to lie once. The other students

More information

Lecture 6 Workable Ethical Theories I. Based on slides 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley

Lecture 6 Workable Ethical Theories I. Based on slides 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Lecture 6 Workable Ethical Theories I Participation Quiz Pick an answer between A E at random. What answer (A E) do you think will have been selected most frequently in the previous poll? Recap: Unworkable

More information

Plato s Republic Book 3&4. Instructor: Jason Sheley

Plato s Republic Book 3&4. Instructor: Jason Sheley Plato s Republic Book 3&4 Instructor: Jason Sheley What do we want out of a theory of Justice, anyway? The Trolley Problem The trolley problem: A trolley is running out of control down a track. In its

More information

Happiness and Personal Growth: Dial.

Happiness and Personal Growth: Dial. TitleKant's Concept of Happiness: Within Author(s) Hirose, Yuzo Happiness and Personal Growth: Dial Citation Philosophy, Psychology, and Compara 43-49 Issue Date 2010-03-31 URL http://hdl.handle.net/2433/143022

More information

Normative Ethical Theories

Normative Ethical Theories Normative Ethical Theories I. Normative Ethics A Normative Ethical Theory is a philosophical theory about the fundamental principles of morality. A fundamental principle of morality is a moral obligation

More information

16RC1 Cahana. Medical professionalism: Where does it come from? A review of different moral theories. Alex Cahana. Introduction

16RC1 Cahana. Medical professionalism: Where does it come from? A review of different moral theories. Alex Cahana. Introduction 16RC1 Cahana Medical professionalism: Where does it come from? A review of different moral theories Alex Cahana Department of Anaesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Department Bioethics & Humanities University

More information

Admin Identifying ethical issues Ethics and philosophy The African worldview Ubuntu as an ethical theory

Admin Identifying ethical issues Ethics and philosophy The African worldview Ubuntu as an ethical theory 23 July 2014 Admin Identifying ethical issues Ethics and philosophy The African worldview Ubuntu as an ethical theory Please sign a register before you leave Make sure you catch up anything if you missed

More information

Lecture 6 Workable Ethical Theories I. Based on slides 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley

Lecture 6 Workable Ethical Theories I. Based on slides 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Lecture 6 Workable Ethical Theories I Participation Quiz Pick an answer between A E at random. (thanks to Rodrigo for suggesting this quiz) Ethical Egoism Achievement of your happiness is the only moral

More information

Chapter 2 Determining Moral Behavior

Chapter 2 Determining Moral Behavior Chapter 2 Determining Moral Behavior MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. A structured set of principles that defines what is moral is referred to as: a. a norm system b. an ethical system c. a morality guide d. a principled

More information