1 Philosophy of Ethics Philosophy of Aesthetics Ross Arnold, Summer 2014 Lakeside institute of Theology
2 Philosophical Theology 1 (TH5) Aug. 15 Intro to Philosophical Theology; Logic Aug. 22 Truth & Epistemology Aug. 29 Metaphysics Sept. 5 No Class Sept. 12 Philosophy of Religion Sept. 19 Philosophy of Science; Human Nature; Philosophy of Politics Sept. 26 Ethics: What is Right?; Aesthetics: What is Beautiful? October 3 Conclusion; Final Exam
3 Literally, it is a love of wisdom phileo is Greek for love, sophos means wisdom. Philosophy is the critical examination of our foundational beliefs concerning the nature of reality, knowledge and truth; and our moral and social values. Philosophy is the means and process by which we examine our lives and the meaning in our lives. Philosophy is the attempt to think rationally and critically about life s most important questions in order to obtain knowledge and wisdom about them.
4 If you knew you could get away with a very profitable crime, would you do it? What is right? The thing that brings the most benefit to me? The thing that brings the most benefit to others? The thing that brings the most benefit to the most people? What does it mean to act morally, and what are our motives for doing so? How far should we (or will we) go to act morally and do what is right, even if the results are unpleasant? If all our understanding of logic, epistemology, metaphysics, human nature, and God Himself doesn't translate into better living, what good is it?
5 The problem is that it s sometime difficult to discern what course of action is best. How do we discern moral truth? What principles are there to guide us in moral decision-making? Or is there even such a thing as moral truth? Is morality rather just a matter of opinion and emotions? And what role does religious belief properly play in ethics? The philosophy of ethics seeks to confront the need to find a connection between ethical theory and ethical practice, especially since some ethical situations are not morally clear.
6 There appear to be common sense principles which apply to ethical decision making: The principle of autonomy people should be allowed to be self-determining. The principle of utility maximize pleasure and minimize pain. The principle of justice all people should be treated fairly and equally. The principle of the sanctity of life respect all human life as sacred. But what if two or more of these ethical principles seem to be in conflict in a given case how do we resolve this? This is why we need an ethical theory a general framework for moral decision making.
7 Ethical theories not only aim to prioritize moral principles; they also aim to tell us the meaning of moral terms, concepts, and principles. Every ethical theory asks what it means to make a moral judgment such as Honesty is good or Bin Laden is bad. Moral theories aim to tell us the real meaning of such terms as duty, right, obligation, justice, and virtue. Such theoretical concepts pertain to the branch of ethics called Metaethics. Normative Ethics seeks to address the practical implications of moral theory the rightness or wrongness of particular actions, policies or laws.
8 One of the most basic ethical questions: Is there absolute moral truth? That is, are there moral values that are true for everyone, regardless of culture or personal preference? Moral Objectivists are those who believe there are universal moral standards. Moral Relativists are those who deny there are universal moral standards.
9 Ethical Relativism The view that there are no universally true moral values. If ethical relativism is correct, what is the meaning of moral judgments, such as Honesty is good or Adultery is wrong? The answer, according to the relativist, is that such statements merely reflect people's preferences.
10 Cultural Relativism The view that the key to understanding moral convictions is the culture. Anthropologists have proposed that, given the difference in what are considered normal practices in cultures, calling a behavior habitual is the same as calling it morally good. What begins as merely advantageous patterns of thought and behavior, over time are accepted as the standards of right and wrong in a culture ( mores ).
11 Cultural Relativism therefore can be summarized as follows (the Plurality Argument): 1. Moral values differ from culture to culture. 2. There therefore is no objective moral standard. But multiple perspectives on a topic does not mean there is not one correct perspective. If cultural relativism is true, then there are no grounds for criticizing the practices of any culture. (Cannibalism? Slavery? Child prostitution? Female genital mutilation?); moral progress would be impossible; and all moral reformers are corrupt.
12 Moral Subjectivism The view that moral values are relative to individual people rather than people groups. (Whatever a person prefers is what is morally right.) Like cultural relativism, moral subjectivism denies the existence of any universal truth. But if moral subjectivism is true, then no one can ever be mistaken in their moral judgments; we have no grounds ever to be critical of another person s moral choices (rapists? serial killers? pornographers?); and no debate on ethical issues is possible, ever.
13 Emotivism is the effort to apply the verification principle from logical positivism to ethics, with the conclusion being that no ethical statements can be empirically verified, so such statements have no cognitive content and are merely expressions of feelings intended to arouse actions. Emotivism therefore denies that moral statements have any real meaning or truth value, but rather are nothing more than emotional outbursts. There cannot be any normative moral standards according to emotivism, and so no possibility of any rational consideration of ethical questions.
14 Nihilism is the view that life is meaningless, and comes out of a complete rejection of metaphysics, of God and of the Western theistic worldview. Friedrich Nietzsche ( ) proclaimed God is dead (meaning Western people no longer believed in Him), and that therefore moral values have no foundation and everything is permitted. Nietzsche and other nihilists then were faced with the challenge of trying to find meaning in a meaningless world; to create value in life when real values were no longer available.
15 Existentialism is the view that human beings do not have a fixed nature, but that our natures evolve as we experience life or exist. We are capable of defining ourselves and our own destinies, but also are left to create our own sense of meaning and purpose. Atheistic existentialists (Nietzsche, Camus, Sartre) took the same route as nihilists, trying to fin meaning and value for themselves. Theistic existentialists (Kierkegaard, Marcel, Buber) emphasized the need to approach God through radical faith, which goes beyond reason.
16 Moral Objectivism The belief that there is a universally true ethical standard, a moral code that applies to every person. Moral statements have a truth value that is independent of cultural practices, individual preferences, and human emotions. When a person declares, for example, that Stealing is wrong or Giving to charity is good, these judgments describe the acts in question, and NOT simply cultural or personal attitudes toward them. Moral objectivism is today, and has always been, the dominant view of ethical philosophers.
17 But what IS the universal moral standard proposed by Moral Objectivism, and from where does it come? Naturalistic ethical theories propose that the universal moral standard is found in natural facts, such as human self-interest, pleasure, or reason. Nonnaturalistic ethical theories claim the moral standard transcends the natural world.
18 Ethical Egoism The belief that one s basic moral duty is to always act in one s own self-interest; that it is right to be selfish. Ayn Rand said humans are an end in themselves, and whatever best enables human beings to survive must be our ultimate guide in ethics. Rand praised human competition and denounced altruism and self-sacrifice as counterproductive. Psychological egoism the claim that humans always pursue their own self interest. Rand s moral theory is a direct adaptation of Darwinian and capitalistic ideas to ethics. ( Greed is good. )
19 But, contrary to ethical egoism, in competition, not everyone can win. The theory is also fundamentally unjust, making right whatever I believe is in MY best interest, and so supporting the strong over the weak, those in power over those who are oppressed and so would encourage slavery, dictatorships, bullying, etc. It also defies any common sense evaluation that says altruism and self-sacrifice are good. And how can we even know what actions will contribute to one s long-term self-interest?
20 Utilitarianism the belief that ethical choices can and should be made based on the pursuit of pleasure and the avoidance of pain. Psychological hedonism the claim that as a matter of fact all human beings seek pleasure. Ethical hedonism the thesis that pleasure if the highest human good. The Principle of Utility the suggestion that every action can be evaluated based on whether it increase or diminishes happiness. (But whose happiness? And what is the definition of happiness? )
21 Kantian Ethics Immanuel Kant emphasized moral duties, completely apart from any consequences. (Because morality is part of human rationality, one does what is right as an act of good will, no matter the consequences.) The Categorical Imperative one should never will a course of action that would result in a contradiction of one s own will, and whoever abides by this principle has good will. Act only according to that maxim by which you can at the same time will that it should be a universal law. ( Can you universalize the rule of your action. or, What would happen is everyone acted this way?)
22 Rule Utilitarianism propose that we should focus on consequences, but of general moral rules rather than individual acts (versus act utilitarianism). But this does not help us when challenged by apparent conflicts in moral rules. Virtue Ethics a return to a more ancient focus on which qualities should be possessed by a good person, on the premise that personal character is the best guide to ethical decisions. Intellectual Virtues those that can be taught Moral Virtues those that can only be developed through practice. Virtues almost always lie midway between 2 vices.
23 Natural Law Ethics defines human good in terms of our ultimate purpose, and we are made rational so we can perceive prescriptive laws as moral norms. (That the important moral truths are self-evident to us, if we choose to be aware.) Aquinas proposed that, in the event of an apparent conflict of moral truths in which both good and evil can result, we follow the principle of double effect: 1. The evil consequence is not directly intended. 2. The evil consequence is not the means for producing the good effect. 3. There is proportionate reason to perform the act despite the evil consequences.
24 Divine Command Theory the moral standard is determined by God s command. Divine commands impose obligations because: God created, sustains and owns the universe. A beneficiary is rightly obligated to the benefactor. We can ultimately go further and say that moral good is not just based on what God commands, but on His own moral perfection. God Himself is the moral standard.
25 We must rejected ethical relativism, while still acknowledging some elements of cultural relativism, subjectivism and emotivism. As Christians, we must affirm some version of moral objectivism, especially as represented in Divine Command Theory, with an emphasis on morality based on the moral character of God.
26 Is beauty simply a matter of personal opinion? Or is beauty a real quality that exists in some things and not others, no matter what individual people think?
27 Human beings have an inherent desire to make, appreciate and enjoy beautiful things. But What is art? 1. Any human-made object? 2. Whatever is presented as art? (the institutional theory) 3. The product of the artistic process? 4. Whatever brings (or tends to bring) aesthetic pleasure to those who experience the object? (paradigm case approach) 5. Human-made objects created to be enjoyed for their beauty. 6. Human-made objects that are enjoyable for their beauty.
28 What is the function or purpose of art? 1. Mimesis art as imitation. 2. Expressionism art as expression of emotion. 3. Formalism art as significant form. 4. Marxism art as ideology and political power. 5. Christian aesthetics the Imago Dei and world projection. There is wisdom in affirming an eclectic Christian view of art and its function.
29 Aesthetic Subjectivism beauty really is in the eye of the beholder; there is no objective quality to beauty, so no piece of art is superior to any other. (related to moral subjectivism) Aesthetic Objectivism there is an objective quality to beauty, which is why great works of art are almost universally recognized as such. But what is the nature of these objective standards?
30 Aestheticism the idea that art and the artist are no susceptible to moral evaluation or judgment. Moralism the belief that art is wholly subservient to ethics good art must serve an ethical purpose. Ethicism says moral attributes in art are relevant, but not wholly determinative of aesthetic merit.
31 The Christian View of Aesthetic Value God has shown aesthetic concerns. God is still the source of all beauty. God s nature is as a beautiful being.
Logic, Truth & Epistemology Ross Arnold, Summer 2014 Lakeside institute of Theology Philosophical Theology 1 (TH5) Aug. 15 Intro to Philosophical Theology; Logic Aug. 22 Truth & Epistemology Aug. 29 Metaphysics
Chapter 2 Reasoning about Ethics TRUE/FALSE 1. The statement "nearly all Americans believe that individual liberty should be respected" is a normative claim. F This is a statement about people's beliefs;
Chapter 2 Determining Moral Behavior MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. A structured set of principles that defines what is moral is referred to as: a. a norm system b. an ethical system c. a morality guide d. a principled
QUIZ 1 ETHICAL ISSUES IN MEDIA, BUSINESS AND SOCIETY WHAT IS ETHICS? Business ethics deals with values, facts, and arguments. Q2) The test of an ethical argument lies in the fact that others need to be
Philosophy of Science Ross Arnold, Summer 2014 Lakeside institute of Theology Philosophical Theology 1 (TH5) Aug. 15 Intro to Philosophical Theology; Logic Aug. 22 Truth & Epistemology Aug. 29 Metaphysics
Annotated List of Ethical Theories The following list is selective, including only what I view as the major theories. Entries in bold face have been especially influential. Recommendations for additions
Chapter 2 Normative Theories of Ethics MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Consequentialism a. is best represented by Ross's theory of ethics. b. states that sometimes the consequences of our actions can be morally relevant.
EL CAMINO COLLEGE Behavioral & Social Sciences Philosophy 101 - Introduction to Philosophy, Summer 2016 Section 2510, MTWTh, 8:00-10:05 a.m., SS 210 Instructor Contact Information: Instructor: Marco Llaguno
Philosophy 110W: Introduction to Philosophy Spring 2011 Hamilton College Russell Marcus I. Nihilism, Relativism, and Absolutism Class 23 - April 20 Plato, What is Right Conduct? One question which arises
James Rachels Ethical Egoism Psychological Egoism Ethical Egoism n Psychological Egoism: n Ethical Egoism: An empirical (descriptive) theory A normative (prescriptive) theory A theory about what in fact
Theme 1: Ethical Thought, AS A. Divine Command Theory Meta-ethical theory - God as the origin and regulator of morality right or wrong as objective truths based on God s will/command, moral goodness is
Ethics PHIL 181 Spring 2018 Instructor: Dr. Stefano Giacchetti M/W 5.00-6.15 Office hours M/W 2-3 (by appointment) E-Mail: email@example.com SUMMARY Short Description: This course will investigate some of
EUROANESTHESIA 2007 Munich, Germany, 9-12 June 2007 WHERE DO THE PRINCIPLES OF BIOMEDICAL ETHICS COME FROM? 16RC1 ALEX CAHANA Postoperative and Interventional Pain Program, Department Anesthesiology, Pharmacology
1 -- did you get a message welcoming you to the coursemail reflector? If not, please correct what s needed. 2 -- don t use secondary material from the web, as its quality is variable; cf. Wikipedia. Check
Christian Ethics. How Should We Live? 4. The Divine Command Theory Sunday, June 5, 2005 9 to 9:50 am, in the Parlor. Everyone is welcome! Praise to you, God, for all your work among us. Yours is the vigor
A2 Ethics Revision Notes Page 1 of 7 Kantian Deontology Deontological (based on duty) ethical theory established by Emmanuel Kant in The Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals. Part of the enlightenment
PROFESSIONAL ETHICS IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING CD5590 LECTURE 1 Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic Department of Computer Science and Engineering Mälardalen University 2005 1 Course Preliminaries Identifying Moral
CS305 Topic Introduction to Ethics Sources: Baase: A Gift of Fire and Quinn: Ethics for the Information Age CS305-Spring 2010 Ethics 1 What is Ethics? A branch of philosophy that studies priciples relating
1 2 19 general questions about the nature of morality and about the meaning of moral concepts determining what the ethical principles of guiding the actions (truth and opinion) the metaphysical question
Philosophy of Religion Ross Arnold, Summer 2014 Lakeside institute of Theology Philosophical Theology 1 (TH5) Aug. 15 Intro to Philosophical Theology; Logic Aug. 22 Truth & Epistemology Aug. 29 Metaphysics
Lecture 6 Kantianism Participation Quiz Pick an answer between A E at random. What answer (A E) do you think will have been selected most frequently in the previous poll? Recap: Unworkable Ethical Theories
A HOLISTIC VIEW ON KNOWLEDGE AND VALUES CHANHYU LEE Emory University It seems somewhat obscure that there is a concrete connection between epistemology and ethics; a study of knowledge and a study of moral
ETHICS - A - Z Absolutism Act-utilitarianism Agent-centred consideration Agent-neutral considerations : This is the view, with regard to a moral principle or claim, that it holds everywhere and is never
Lecture 6 Workable Ethical Theories I Participation Quiz Pick an answer between A E at random. (thanks to Rodrigo for suggesting this quiz) Ethical Egoism Achievement of your happiness is the only moral
Course Coordinator Dr Melvin Chen Course Code CY0002 Course Title Ethics Pre-requisites NIL No of AUs 3 Contact Hours Lecture 3 hours per week Consultation 1-2 hours per week (optional) Course Aims This
Philosophy Courses-1 PHL 100/Introduction to Philosophy A course that examines the fundamentals of philosophical argument, analysis and reasoning, as applied to a series of issues in logic, epistemology,
Making Decisions on Behalf of Others: Who or What Do I Select as a Guide? - My boss - The shareholders - Other stakeholders - Basic principles about conduct and its impacts - What is good for me - What
Introduction to Philosophy In your notebooks answer the following questions: 1. Why am I here? (in terms of being in this course) 2. Why am I here? (in terms of existence) 3. Explain what the unexamined
Lecture 6 Workable Ethical Theories I Participation Quiz Pick an answer between A E at random. What answer (A E) do you think will have been selected most frequently in the previous poll? Recap: Unworkable
Lecture 12 Deontology Onora O Neill A Simplified Account of Kant s Ethics 1 Agenda 1. Immanuel Kant 2. Deontology 3. Hypothetical vs. Categorical Imperatives 4. Formula of the End in Itself 5. Maxims and
Normative Ethics and Normative Argumentation Viola Schiaffonati October 10 th 2017 Overview (van de Poel and Royakkers 2011) 2 Some essential concepts Ethical theories Relativism and absolutism Consequentialist
Philosophy Courses-1 PHL 100/Introduction to Philosophy A course that examines the fundamentals of philosophical argument, analysis and reasoning, as applied to a series of issues in logic, epistemology,
Relativism Some Definitions Ethics: The philosophical inquiry into right and wrong and valuation through critical examination of human practices. Ethical universal: An ethical truth that is true at all
Deontology: Duty-Based Ethics IMMANUEL KANT KANT S OBJECTIONS TO UTILITARIANISM: 1. Utilitarianism takes no account of integrity - the accidental act or one done with evil intent if promoting good ends
Philosophy (PHIL) 1 PHILOSOPHY (PHIL) PHIL Courses PHIL 101. Introduction to Philosophy. 4 units Foundational methods and central issues in contemporary philosophy including logic, epistemology, metaphysics
Philosophy HL 1 IB Course Syllabus Course Description Philosophy 1 emphasizes two themes within the study of philosophy: the human condition and the theory and practice of ethics. The course introduces
8. Western Thought Lesson Objectives Understand what the main Christian-related cults teach, how people are drawn to then, and how to reach followers with the Gospel. Introduction "See to it that no one
Morality, Suffering and Violence Ross Arnold, Fall 2015 Lakeside institute of Theology Apologetics 2 (CM5) Oct. 2 Introduction Oct. 9 Faith and Reason Oct. 16 Mid-Term Break Oct. 23 Science and Origins
An Evaluation of Normative Ethics in the Absence of Moral Realism Mathais Sarrazin J.L. Mackie s Error Theory postulates that all normative claims are false. It does this based upon his denial of moral
Chapter 2: Reasoning about ethics 2012 Cengage Learning All Rights reserved Learning Outcomes LO 1 Explain how important moral reasoning is and how to apply it. LO 2 Explain the difference between facts
Psychological and Ethical Egoism Wrapping up Error Theory Psychological Egoism v. Ethical Egoism Ought implies can, the is/ought fallacy Arguments for and against Psychological Egoism Ethical Egoism Arguments
Cabrillo College Claudia Close Honors Ethics Philosophy 10H Fall 2018 Honors Ethics Oral Presentations: Instructions Your initial presentation should be approximately 6-7 minutes and you should prepare
A. The Three Main Branches of the Philosophical Study of Ethics 1. Meta-ethics 2. Normative Ethics 3. Applied Ethics 1 B. Meta-ethics consists in the attempt to answer the fundamental philosophical questions
The Need for Metanormativity: A Response to Christmas Douglas J. Den Uyl Liberty Fund, Inc. Douglas B. Rasmussen St. John s University We would like to begin by thanking Billy Christmas for his excellent
PHI 1700: Global Ethics Prof. Lauren R. Alpert Name: Date: Take Home Exam #2 Instructions (Read Before Proceeding!) Material for this exam is from class sessions 8-15. Matching and fill-in-the-blank questions
Philosophical Ethics The nature of ethical analysis Discussion based on Johnson, Computer Ethics, Chapter 2. How to resolve ethical issues? censorship abortion affirmative action How do we defend our moral
Introduction to Philosophy Course Text Moore, Brooke Noel and Kenneth Bruder. Philosophy: The Power of Ideas, 7th edition, McGraw-Hill, 2008. ISBN: 9780073535722 [This text is available as an etextbook
Sidgwick on Practical Reason ONORA O NEILL 1. How many methods? IN THE METHODS OF ETHICS Henry Sidgwick distinguishes three methods of ethics but (he claims) only two conceptions of practical reason. This
How to Live a More Authentic Life in Both Markets and Morals Mark D. White College of Staten Island, City University of New York William Irwin s The Free Market Existentialist 1 serves to correct popular
Chapter 2 Ethical Concepts and Ethical Theories: Establishing and Justifying a Moral System Ethics and Morality Ethics: greek ethos, study of morality What is Morality? Morality: system of rules for guiding
ETHICAL DILEMMAS Phi 105 SPRING Term, 2017 Justin Amoroso, Instructor firstname.lastname@example.org Course Description: Philosophy 105 surveys different schools of ethical thought. Sometimes they contradict each
Categorical Imperative by Dr. Desh Raj Sirswal Assistant Professor (Philosophy), P.G.Govt. College for Girls, Sector-11, Chandigarh http://drsirswal.webs.com Kant Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant (1724 1804)
Henrik Ahlenius Department of Philosophy email@example.com ETHICS & RESEARCH Why a course like this? Tell you what the rules are Tell you to follow these rules Tell you to follow some other
Christoph Koehler Roundtable of Ideologies Spring 2009 Nihilism 1 Definition: The denial of the possibility of knowledge, philosophy, and value in anything. Prominent Philosophers: Friedrich Nietzsche,
1 Department/Program 2012-2016 Assessment Plan Department: Philosophy Directions: For each department/program student learning outcome, the department will provide an assessment plan, giving detailed information
Moral Objectivism RUSSELL CORNETT University of Calgary The possibility, let alone the actuality, of an objective morality has intrigued philosophers for well over two millennia. Though much discussed,
introductory lectures in bioethics Foundations of Bioethics Paul Menzel Pacific Lutheran University (philosophy, emeritus) Visiting Professor of Bioethics, CUHK 17 October 2015 Centre for Bioethics, CUHK
PH 101: Problems of Philosophy INSTRUCTOR: Stephen Campbell Section 005, Monday & Thursday 11:00 a.m. - 12:20 p.m. Course Description: This course seeks to help students develop their capacity to think
SPS103 LAW AND ETHICS Full Course Title: Law and Ethics Pravo i etika Course Code: Course Level/BiH cycle: SPS103 I cycle; 1 st year ECTS credit value: 6 Student work-load: For the whole semester: Lectures
Running Head: ETHICAL BEHAVIOUR 1 ETHICAL BEHAVIOUR Name: Institutional Affiliation: Date: ETHICAL BEHAVIOUR 2 Emmanuel Kant is a voice to reckon with in the modern philosophy. Kant s ethical theory revolves
Professional Ethics PHIL 3340 Today s Topic Ethical Egoism Illustration: Cover art from Ayn Rand s The Fountainhead Picture: Ursa Major Quiz #1 1. State in one sentence the central difference between psychological
Challenges to Traditional Morality Altruism Behavior that benefits others at some cost to oneself and that is motivated by the desire to benefit others Some Ordinary Assumptions About Morality (1) People
Socrates ETHICAL THEORIES Review week 6 session 11 Greece (470 to 400 bc) Was Plato s teacher Didn t write anything Died accused of corrupting the youth and not believing in the gods of the city Creator
Benjamin Visscher Hole IV Phil 100, Intro to Philosophy Kantian Ethics I. Context II. The Good Will III. The Categorical Imperative: Formulation of Universal Law IV. The Categorical Imperative: Formulation
Autonomous Machines Are Ethical John Hooker Carnegie Mellon University INFORMS 2017 1 Thesis Concepts of deontological ethics are ready-made for the age of AI. Philosophical concept of autonomy applies
Reason 3: The Moral Argument Recently in London and New York, atheist groups advertised on buses, asking the question, Why believe in a god? They answer their own question, saying Just be good for goodness
BENJAMIN R. BARBER Radical Excess & Post-Modernism Presentation By Benedetta Barnabo Cachola BENJAMIN R. BARBER An internationally renowned political theorist, Dr. Barber( b. 1939) brings an abiding concern
Degree Applicable Glendale Community College November 2013 I. Catalog Statement COURSE OUTLINE Philosophy 116 (C-ID Number: PHIL 120) Ethics for Modern Life (Title: Introduction to Ethics) Philosophy 116
Chapter Two Determining Moral Behavior Quote Integrity is doing the right thing--even if nobody is watching - Unknown Analyzing Ethical Dilemmas 1 - Identify the facts 2 Identify relevant values and concepts
Chapter 1 A primer of major ethical theories Our topic in this course is privacy. Hence we want to understand (i) what privacy is and also (ii) why we value it and how this value is reflected in our norms
16RC1 Cahana Medical professionalism: Where does it come from? A review of different moral theories Alex Cahana Department of Anaesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Department Bioethics & Humanities University
PLEASE NOTE THAT THESE ARE MY PERSONAL EXAM PREP NOTES. ANSWERS ARE TAKEN FROM LECTURER MEMO S, STUDENT ANSWERS, DROP BOX, MY OWN, ETC. THIS DOCUMENT CAN NOT BE SOLD FOR PROFIT AS IT IS BEING SHARED AT
John Glassford, Professor of Philosophy Introduction to Philosophy 1301 Fall 2017 Department of Political Science and Philosophy Office: RAS 217 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Office Phone: (325) 942-2262
Introduction to Philosophy Practice Exam One True or False A = True, B= False 1. Epistemology mainly asks us to consider the question, how do we know anything. 2. The objective and subjective aspects of
PREFACE IX INTRODUCTION: PHILOSOPHY 1 A. Socrates 1 B. What Is Philosophy? 10 C. A Modern Approach to Philosophy 15 D. A BriefIntroduction to Logic 20 1. Deductive Arguments 21 2. Inductive Arguments 26