1 Faith, Mental Health and DSM-5 Rania Awaad, MD Clinical Assistant Professor Director, Muslims and Mental Health Lab Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Stanford University School of Medicine
3 Objectives Improved understanding of the importance of Spirituality/Religion/Moral tradition (S/R/Mt) to our patients Better appreciation of the impact of both positive and negative religious coping on our patients lives Consistent screening for the role that S/R/Mt plays in our patients' lives and health care
4 Acknowledgements Francis Lu, UC Davis David A. Harrison, MD, University of Washington Harold Koenig, Duke University Disclosures None
5 Psychiatrists View of Religion Religion is an illusion and it derives its strength from the fact that it falls in with our instinctual desires Sigmund Freud, MD Among all my patients in the second half of life... there has not been one whose problem in the last resort was not that of finding a religious outlook on life. Carl Jung, MD The essence of humanity Viktor Frankl, MD
6 Spiritual and Religious Beliefs: American Adults When asked: Do you believe in God, Do you believe in God or in a universal spirit, or don t believe in either? 89% said they believe in God 89% said they believe in God or a universal spirit 9-10% don t believe in either 1 Belief in God, Gallup Poll, data collected May 14-23, Gallup Organization.
7 Spiritual and Religious Beliefs: American Adults 9 out of 10 of American adults say that they pray and 58% pray daily Approximately two- thirds are members of churches or synagogues 40% attend services regularly 1 Pew Research Center, October 9, 2012
8 Very Religious= attending weekly religious services? Mississippi 59%, Vermont 21%, California 31%
9 Medical Anthropology Literature (Willen et al. 2010, Willen 2013) Cultural competency initiatives must address powerful emotional valences associated with culture or risk undermining fundamental objectives Affective potency = opening up a huge can of worms Instructors much acknowledge their own role in deliberately cultivating vulnerability and risk, and be prepared to manage it in pedagogically meaningful and respectful ways
10 Medical Anthropology Literature (Willen et al. 2010, Willen 2013) Not mainstream clinicians and other patients: patients and clinicians bring cultural commitments and concerns into clinical encounters Most successful courses impart clinically-relevant insights and skills while engaging seriously with the attitudes, perspectives and biases of the clinician
11 The DSM-5 Outline for Cultural Formulation (p ) A. Cultural identity of the individual B. Cultural conceptualizations of distress (Cultural explanations of the individual s illness) C. Psychosocial stressors and cultural features of vulnerability and resilience (Cultural factors related to psychosocial environment and functioning) D. Cultural features (elements) of the relationship between the individual and the clinician E. Overall cultural assessment (for diagnosis and care)
12 OCF Part A: Cultural Identity of the Individual (added in DSM-5) Other clinically relevant aspects of identity may include religious affiliation, socioeconomic background, personal and family places of birth and growing up, migrant status, and sexual orientation.
13 Residents Responses: R/S/Mt?
14 Resident Responses: DSM-5 Formulation
15 Resident Responses: DSM-5 Formulation
16 12 Supplementary Modules Patient Clinician Relationship School-Age Children and Adolescents Older Adults Immigrants and Refugees Religion, Spirituality, and Moral Traditions
17 Spirituality, Religion, and Moral Traditions Spiritual, religious, and moral identity (1-4) Role of spirituality, religion, and moral traditions (5-8) Relationship to the [PROBLEM] (9-12) Potential stresses or conflicts related to spirituality, religion, and moral traditions (13-16)
18 Rationale for this module: WPA Position Statement A tactful consideration of patient s religious beliefs and practices as well as their spirituality should routinely be considered and will sometimes be an essential component of psychiatric history taking. An understanding of religion and spirituality and their relationship to the diagnosis, etiology and treatment of psychiatric disorders should be considered an essential components of both psychiatric training and continuing professional development.
19 Rationale for this module: WPA Position Statement Psychiatrists should not use their professional position for proselytizing for spiritual or secular worldviews. Psychiatrists should be expected always to respect and be sensitive Psychiatrists should be willing to work with leaders/members of faith communities, chaplains and pastoral workers
20 Spirituality A dimension of human experience related to the transcendent, the sacred, or to ultimate reality. It is closely related to values, meaning and purpose in life. It may develop individually or in communities and traditions. (WPA Position Statement)
21 Religion The institutional aspect of spirituality, usually defined more in terms of systems of beliefs and practices related to the sacred or divine, as held by a community or social group. (WPA Position Statement)
22 Moral Traditions A system of moral reasoning and practice, akin to a worldview, typically connected to principles of spiritual and religious traditions yet often experienced as a secular and philosophical guide for ethical behavior and a good life. (Lewis-Fernandez, p. 90)
23 Spiritual, religious, and moral identity Do you identify with any particular spiritual, religious or moral tradition? Do you belong to a congregation or community associated with that tradition? What are the spiritual, religious or moral tradition backgrounds of your family members? Sometimes people participate in several traditions. Are there any other spiritual, religious or moral traditions that you identify with or take part in?
24 Role of spirituality, religion, and moral traditions What role does [R, S, Mt] play in your everyday life? What role does [R S, Mt] play in your family, family celebrations or choices in marriage or schooling? What activities related to [R, S, Mt] do you carry out in the home, for example, prayers, meditation, or special dietary laws? What activities do you engage in outside the home related to [R, S, Mt], for example, attending ceremonies or participating in a [CHURCH, TEMPLE OR MOSQUE]? How often do you attend? How important are these activities in your life?
25 Relationship to the [PROBLEM] How has [R,S, Mt] helped you cope with your [PROBLEM]? Have you talked to a leader, teacher or others in your [R,S, Mt] community, about your [PROBLEM]? Have you found that helpful? Have you found reading or studying books of [R,S, Mt], or listening to programs on TV, radio, the internet to be helpful? Have you found any practices related to [R,S, M t], like prayer, meditation, rituals, or pilgrimages to be helpful to you in dealing with [PROBLEM]?
26 Potential stresses or conflicts related to spirituality, religion, and moral traditions Have any issues related to [NAMES of S, R, Mt] contributed to [PROBLEM]? Have you experienced any personal challenges or distress in relation to your [NAMES of S, R, M t] identity or practices? Have you experienced any discrimination due to your [NAMES of S, R, M t] identity or practices? Have you been in conflict with others over spiritual, religious or moral issues?
27 Other Conditions That May be a Focus of Clinical Attention (V Codes) The conditions and problems listed in this chapter are not mental disorders. (p. 715) Relational Problems Abuse and Neglect Educational and Occupational Problems Housing and Economic Problems Religious or Spiritual Problems
28 V62.89 Religious or Spiritual Problem This category can be used when the focus of clinical attention is a religious or spiritual problem. Examples include distressing experiences that involve loss or questioning of faith, problems associated with conversion to a new faith, or questioning of other spiritual values which may not necessarily be related to an organized church or religious institution. (p. 725)
29 Causes of Personal Discomfort with R/S/Mt Inquiry: Avoidance of feelings of professional incompetence Fear of being asked about one s religious affiliation Recollection of personal encounters with religion that were aversive Internalized professional stigma towards religion 1 Adapted from: Griffith JL. Managing Religious Countertransference in Clinical Setting. Psychiatric Annals: Mar 2006; 36:3 pg
30 Inquires by the patient about the provider s S/R/Mt Background Examples of two different perspectives: Spirituality and religion is an important part of my life. Tell me more about the role it plays in your life. Spirituality and religion is not an important part of my life at this time but I have come to value its importance for my patients. Tell me more about the role it plays in your life.
31 Patient-Initiated Prayer Pray if your are comfortable; know the patient s R/S/Mt well Invite the patient to say a prayer Listen respectfully Offer a chaplain
32 Provider-Initiated Prayer In general, it should be very uncommon Need to know the patient s S/R/Mt background well enough to know your initiative will be welcomed Should be the same religious background as the patient Always have to consider issues of coercion!
33 Transference to Providers CHAPLAINS Am I going to die? Fear of being converted Holy person Acceptance PSYCHIATRISTS Am I crazy? Fear of being committed Anti- religious Stigma of mental illness
34 Religious Countertransference Definition Religious countertransference refers to a emotional response by a clinician toward a patient s religious language, beliefs, practices, rituals, or community that can diminish the effectiveness of treatment 1 Griffith JL. Managing Religious Countertransference in Clinical Setting. Psychiatric Annals: Mar 2006; 36:3 pg
35 Religious Countertransference : Management Self- reflection and awareness Approaching the patient with curiosity, empathy and respect Self- education about spiritual care Working collaboratively with a spiritual care provider Transfer of patient to another provider 1 Adapted from: Griffith JL. Managing Religious Countertransference in Clinical Setting. Psychiatric Annals: Mar 2006; 36:3 pg
36 Spiritual Care- what can psychiatrists offer? At a minimum, inquire about the patient s S/R/Mt, i.e., perform a biopsychosocial- spiritual assessment. Consider exploring psychotherapeutically affect laden issues brought up in the spiritual history, i.e., spiritually focused psychotherapy. Consider referrals to Chaplains, Clergy, Pastoral Counselors, or Spiritual Directors.
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