A Priori Knowledge: Analytic? Synthetic A Priori (again) Is All A Priori Knowledge Analytic?

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "A Priori Knowledge: Analytic? Synthetic A Priori (again) Is All A Priori Knowledge Analytic?"

Transcription

1 A Priori Knowledge: Analytic? Synthetic A Priori (again) Is All A Priori Knowledge Analytic?

2 Recap A Priori Knowledge Knowledge independent of experience Kant: necessary and universal A Posteriori Knowledge Knowledge by experience Kant: contingent and at best comparatively universal Analytic Propositions 1) Predicate contained within the subject 2) Denial contradictory Synthetic Propositions 1) Predicate lies outside the subject 2) Denial not contradictory

3 Three Types of Knowledge? 1. Synthetic A Posteriori Contingent, known by experience E.g. this chair is blue, all bodies are heavy 2 Analytic A Priori Necessary, known by analysis of concepts (or meanings) E.g. all bachelors are unmarried men 3. Synthetic A Priori Necessary, known by faculty of a priori intuition Knowledge of truths about the world or reality Kant: empirical reality, as opposed to transcendental reality E.g. 7+5=12, internal angles of a triangle add up to 180

4 A Priori Intuition? A priori reasoning fallible? Made mistakes in past, so perhaps in future? A priori reasoning cannot be calibrated? Experience? But can this (dis)confirm a priori beliefs? (Cf. Ayer, p. 101 and lecture 16) How can we have knowledge of reality independent of experience? Perceptual beliefs causally related to the facts How are a priori beliefs related to the facts? Transcendental idealism? Platonism?

5 (Digression: Kitcher) 1) S knows that p iff S knows that p and S s belief that p was produced by a process which is an a priori warrant for it 2) a is an a priori warrant for S s belief that p iff a is process such that, whatever S s experience: Some process of the same type could produce in S a belief that p That process would warrant S in believing that p If it were to produce in S a belief that p then p A version of reliablism: S knows that p iff S s belief is formed by a reliable belief forming mechanism

6 Ayer, Language, Truth and Logic Empiricist: all (factual) knowledge from experience Verificationist: the meaning of statement is determined by its verification conditions Statement meaningful iff there is some observation that allows you to determine whether statement is true or false Meaningful: statements about physical objects, science Meaningless: metaphysics, theology, ethics (cf. emotivism) Note: verificationism a form of empiricism No synthetic a priori knowledge Kant: How is metaphysics possible? (Preface, Critique) Ayer: The Elimination of Metaphysics (Chapter 1)

7 Ayer: A Priori Knowledge Of necessary truths, so not from experience Cf. Kant: Experience teaches us that a thing is so and so, but not that it cannot be otherwise (p. 143) Of analytic truths, so not about the world Tautologies: true in virtue of meaning of the words Devoid of factual content, but not meaningless They simply record our determination to use words in a certain fashion (p. 112) No synthetic a priori, so no a priori intuition

8 Verificationism Strong verification: too restrictive E.g. Ants will never inherit the earth, atoms exist Weak verification: too permissive E.g. God exists is perhaps in principle verifiable Is verification theory of meaning meaningful? What observation would allow us to determine truth or falsity of principle: A statement is meaningful iff there is some observation that allows you to determine whether statement is true or false?

9 Maths: Analytic? it is possible for symbols to be synoymous without having the same intensional meaning for anyone (Ayer p. 104) Intension = meaning, or sense (distinguish: intention) Contrasts with extension = reference, or what its true of Hesperus, Phosperus : different intension, same extension Mathematical propositions synthetic according to Kant s first criterion 12 not contained within 7+5 but analytic according to his second criterion: 7+5 = 12 is necessarily true, so is a contradiction

10 New Knowledge? If both are tautologies, why does all unmarried men are unmarried differ from 91 x 79 = 7189? Former is obvious, latter is not Phenomenology of maths: seems like discovery Ayer: The power of logic and mathematics to surprise us depends, like their usefulness, on the limitations of reason (p. 114) Not all tautologies are obvious E.g. It is not the case that not all unmarried men are bachelors but is this acceptable?

11 Knowledge of Meaning? Analytic truths are true in virtue of meaning, but how can we know facts about meaning? Reductive: analytic truths reducible to logical truths by substitution of synonyms E.g. all bachelors are unmarried men all unmarried men are unmarried men ( p)(p p) But how do we know (a priori) truths of logic? Non-reductive: how does a priori knowledge of meaning differ from a priori intuition?

12 Apsychologistic Says nothing about psychological processes that cause a priori beliefs S knows a priori that p iff S believes that p and p is analytically true Can t distinguish belief that p from knowledge that p Can t distinguish believing that p for good and bad reasons (Cf. Kitcher, A Priori Knowedge, p. 22) Compare: S knows that p iff S believes that p and p is true. (Cf. Ayer, The Right to Be Sure (Week 1), from The Problem of Knowledge (1956).)

13 Recap Synthetic A Priori Knowledge (again) Is All A Priori Knowledge Analytic?

Overview. Is there a priori knowledge? No: Mill, Quine. Is there synthetic a priori knowledge? Yes: faculty of a priori intuition (Rationalism, Kant)

Overview. Is there a priori knowledge? No: Mill, Quine. Is there synthetic a priori knowledge? Yes: faculty of a priori intuition (Rationalism, Kant) Overview Is there a priori knowledge? Is there synthetic a priori knowledge? No: Mill, Quine Yes: faculty of a priori intuition (Rationalism, Kant) No: all a priori knowledge analytic (Ayer) No A Priori

More information

Analyticity, Reductionism, and Semantic Holism. The verification theory is an empirical theory of meaning which asserts that the meaning of a

Analyticity, Reductionism, and Semantic Holism. The verification theory is an empirical theory of meaning which asserts that the meaning of a 24.251: Philosophy of Language Paper 1: W.V.O. Quine, Two Dogmas of Empiricism 14 October 2011 Analyticity, Reductionism, and Semantic Holism The verification theory is an empirical theory of meaning which

More information

Immanuel Kant, Analytic and Synthetic. Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics Preface and Preamble

Immanuel Kant, Analytic and Synthetic. Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics Preface and Preamble + Immanuel Kant, Analytic and Synthetic Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics Preface and Preamble + Innate vs. a priori n Philosophers today usually distinguish psychological from epistemological questions.

More information

KANT, MORAL DUTY AND THE DEMANDS OF PURE PRACTICAL REASON. The law is reason unaffected by desire.

KANT, MORAL DUTY AND THE DEMANDS OF PURE PRACTICAL REASON. The law is reason unaffected by desire. KANT, MORAL DUTY AND THE DEMANDS OF PURE PRACTICAL REASON The law is reason unaffected by desire. Aristotle, Politics Book III (1287a32) THE BIG IDEAS TO MASTER Kantian formalism Kantian constructivism

More information

A Defence of Kantian Synthetic-Analytic Distinction

A Defence of Kantian Synthetic-Analytic Distinction A Defence of Kantian Synthetic-Analytic Distinction Abstract: Science is organized knowledge. Wisdom is organized life. Immanuel Kant Dr. Rajkumar Modak Associate Professor Department of Philosophy Sidho-Kanho-Birsha

More information

Philosophy 3100: Ethical Theory

Philosophy 3100: Ethical Theory Philosophy 3100: Ethical Theory Topic 2 - Non-Cognitivism: I. What is Non-Cognitivism? II. The Motivational Judgment Internalist Argument for Non-Cognitivism III. Why Ayer Is A Non-Cognitivist a. The Analytic/Synthetic

More information

Emotivism. Meta-ethical approaches

Emotivism. Meta-ethical approaches Meta-ethical approaches Theory that believes objective moral laws do not exist; a non-cognitivist theory; moral terms express personal emotional attitudes and not propositions; ethical terms are just expressions

More information

145 Philosophy of Science

145 Philosophy of Science Logical empiricism Christian Wüthrich http://philosophy.ucsd.edu/faculty/wuthrich/ 145 Philosophy of Science Vienna Circle (Ernst Mach Society) Hans Hahn, Otto Neurath, and Philipp Frank regularly meet

More information

Phil/Ling 375: Meaning and Mind [Handout #10]

Phil/Ling 375: Meaning and Mind [Handout #10] Phil/Ling 375: Meaning and Mind [Handout #10] W. V. Quine: Two Dogmas of Empiricism Professor JeeLoo Liu Main Theses 1. Anti-analytic/synthetic divide: The belief in the divide between analytic and synthetic

More information

Ayer s linguistic theory of the a priori

Ayer s linguistic theory of the a priori Ayer s linguistic theory of the a priori phil 43904 Jeff Speaks December 4, 2007 1 The problem of a priori knowledge....................... 1 2 Necessity and the a priori............................ 2

More information

Ayer and Quine on the a priori

Ayer and Quine on the a priori Ayer and Quine on the a priori November 23, 2004 1 The problem of a priori knowledge Ayer s book is a defense of a thoroughgoing empiricism, not only about what is required for a belief to be justified

More information

Quine on the analytic/synthetic distinction

Quine on the analytic/synthetic distinction Quine on the analytic/synthetic distinction Jeff Speaks March 14, 2005 1 Analyticity and synonymy.............................. 1 2 Synonymy and definition ( 2)............................ 2 3 Synonymy

More information

Verificationism. PHIL September 27, 2011

Verificationism. PHIL September 27, 2011 Verificationism PHIL 83104 September 27, 2011 1. The critique of metaphysics... 1 2. Observation statements... 2 3. In principle verifiability... 3 4. Strong verifiability... 3 4.1. Conclusive verifiability

More information

WILLARD VAN ORMAN QUINE

WILLARD VAN ORMAN QUINE WILLARD VAN ORMAN QUINE The philosopher s task differs from the others in detail, but in no such drastic way as those suppose who imagine for the philosopher a vantage point outside the conceptual scheme

More information

Philosophy of Mathematics Kant

Philosophy of Mathematics Kant Philosophy of Mathematics Kant Owen Griffiths oeg21@cam.ac.uk St John s College, Cambridge 20/10/15 Immanuel Kant Born in 1724 in Königsberg, Prussia. Enrolled at the University of Königsberg in 1740 and

More information

WHAT IS HUME S FORK? Certainty does not exist in science.

WHAT IS HUME S FORK?  Certainty does not exist in science. WHAT IS HUME S FORK? www.prshockley.org Certainty does not exist in science. I. Introduction: A. Hume divides all objects of human reason into two different kinds: Relation of Ideas & Matters of Fact.

More information

PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE

PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE QUNE S TWO DOGMAS OF EMPIRICISM LECTURE PROFESSOR JULIE YOO Why We Want an A/S Distinction The Two Projects of the Two Dogmas The Significance of Quine s Two Dogmas Negative Project:

More information

LENT 2018 THEORY OF MEANING DR MAARTEN STEENHAGEN

LENT 2018 THEORY OF MEANING DR MAARTEN STEENHAGEN LENT 2018 THEORY OF MEANING DR MAARTEN STEENHAGEN HTTP://MSTEENHAGEN.GITHUB.IO/TEACHING/2018TOM THE EINSTEIN-BERGSON DEBATE SCIENCE AND METAPHYSICS Henri Bergson and Albert Einstein met on the 6th of

More information

The Coherence of Kant s Synthetic A Priori

The Coherence of Kant s Synthetic A Priori The Coherence of Kant s Synthetic A Priori Simon Marcus October 2009 Is there synthetic a priori knowledge? The question can be rephrased as Sellars puts it: Are there any universal propositions which,

More information

PHILOSOPHY OF KNOWLEDGE & REALITY W E E K 7 : E P I S T E M O L O G Y - K A N T

PHILOSOPHY OF KNOWLEDGE & REALITY W E E K 7 : E P I S T E M O L O G Y - K A N T PHILOSOPHY OF KNOWLEDGE & REALITY W E E K 7 : E P I S T E M O L O G Y - K A N T AGENDA 1. Review of Epistemology 2. Kant Kant s Compromise Kant s Copernican Revolution 3. The Nature of Truth REVIEW: THREE

More information

Quine on Holism and Underdetermination

Quine on Holism and Underdetermination Quine on Holism and Underdetermination Introduction Quine s paper is called Two Dogmas of Empiricism. (1) What is empiricism? (2) Why care that it has dogmas? Ad (1). See your glossary! Also, what is the

More information

NOTES ON A PRIORI KNOWLEDGE 10/6/03

NOTES ON A PRIORI KNOWLEDGE 10/6/03 NOTES ON A PRIORI KNOWLEDGE 10/6/03 I. Definitions & Distinctions: A. Analytic: 1. Kant: The concept of the subject contains the concept of the predicate. (judgements) 2. Modern formulation: S is analytic

More information

The Philosophy of Language. Quine versus Meaning

The Philosophy of Language. Quine versus Meaning The Philosophy of Language Lecture Six Quine versus Meaning Rob Trueman rob.trueman@york.ac.uk University of York 1 / 71 Introduction Quine versus Meaning Introduction Verificationism The Self-Undermining

More information

Philosophy 308 The Language Revolution Russell Marcus Hamilton College, Fall 2014

Philosophy 308 The Language Revolution Russell Marcus Hamilton College, Fall 2014 Philosophy 308 The Language Revolution Russell Marcus Hamilton College, Fall 2014 Class #14 The Picture Theory of Language and the Verification Theory of Meaning Wittgenstein, Ayer, and Hempel Marcus,

More information

Aspects of Western Philosophy Dr. Sreekumar Nellickappilly Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras

Aspects of Western Philosophy Dr. Sreekumar Nellickappilly Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Aspects of Western Philosophy Dr. Sreekumar Nellickappilly Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Module - 20 Lecture - 20 Critical Philosophy: Kant s objectives

More information

VERIFICATION AND METAPHYSICS

VERIFICATION AND METAPHYSICS Michael Lacewing The project of logical positivism VERIFICATION AND METAPHYSICS In the 1930s, a school of philosophy arose called logical positivism. Like much philosophy, it was concerned with the foundations

More information

Unit 2. WoK 1 - Perception. Tuesday, October 7, 14

Unit 2. WoK 1 - Perception. Tuesday, October 7, 14 Unit 2 WoK 1 - Perception Russell Reading - Appearance and Reality The Russell document provides a basic framework for looking at the limitations of our senses. In small groups, discuss and record what

More information

Ayer on the criterion of verifiability

Ayer on the criterion of verifiability Ayer on the criterion of verifiability November 19, 2004 1 The critique of metaphysics............................. 1 2 Observation statements............................... 2 3 In principle verifiability...............................

More information

Important dates. PSY 3360 / CGS 3325 Historical Perspectives on Psychology Minds and Machines since David Hume ( )

Important dates. PSY 3360 / CGS 3325 Historical Perspectives on Psychology Minds and Machines since David Hume ( ) PSY 3360 / CGS 3325 Historical Perspectives on Psychology Minds and Machines since 1600 Dr. Peter Assmann Spring 2018 Important dates Feb 14 Term paper draft due Upload paper to E-Learning https://elearning.utdallas.edu

More information

PHILOSOPHICAL PROBLEMS & THE ANALYSIS OF LANGUAGE

PHILOSOPHICAL PROBLEMS & THE ANALYSIS OF LANGUAGE PHILOSOPHICAL PROBLEMS & THE ANALYSIS OF LANGUAGE Now, it is a defect of [natural] languages that expressions are possible within them, which, in their grammatical form, seemingly determined to designate

More information

Defending A Dogma: Between Grice, Strawson and Quine

Defending A Dogma: Between Grice, Strawson and Quine International Journal of Philosophy and Theology March 2014, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 35-44 ISSN: 2333-5750 (Print), 2333-5769 (Online) Copyright The Author(s). 2014. All Rights Reserved. American Research Institute

More information

PHILOSOPHICAL RAMIFICATIONS: THEORY, EXPERIMENT, & EMPIRICAL TRUTH

PHILOSOPHICAL RAMIFICATIONS: THEORY, EXPERIMENT, & EMPIRICAL TRUTH PHILOSOPHICAL RAMIFICATIONS: THEORY, EXPERIMENT, & EMPIRICAL TRUTH PCES 3.42 Even before Newton published his revolutionary work, philosophers had already been trying to come to grips with the questions

More information

LANGUAGE, TRUTH, AND LOGIC A.J. AYER

LANGUAGE, TRUTH, AND LOGIC A.J. AYER LANGUAGE, TRUTH, AND LOGIC A.J. AYER Where do Ayer and Russell agree? All ordinary things can be reduced to (constructed out of) sense data. This is accomplished by translating empirical statements into

More information

CHAPTER IV NON-EMPIRICAL CRITIQUE OF A PRIORI AND A POSTERIORI

CHAPTER IV NON-EMPIRICAL CRITIQUE OF A PRIORI AND A POSTERIORI CHAPTER IV NON-EMPIRICAL CRITIQUE OF A PRIORI AND A POSTERIORI Introduction Empiricism, both in its classical and modern forms, gives importance to sense- experience. What is not obtained by senseexperience

More information

Has Logical Positivism Eliminated Metaphysics?

Has Logical Positivism Eliminated Metaphysics? International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention ISSN (Online): 2319 7722, ISSN (Print): 2319 7714 Volume 3 Issue 11 ǁ November. 2014 ǁ PP.38-42 Has Logical Positivism Eliminated Metaphysics?

More information

THE IDEA OF A PRIORI REVISITED* SANJIT CHAKRABORTY

THE IDEA OF A PRIORI REVISITED* SANJIT CHAKRABORTY THE IDEA OF A PRIORI REVISITED* SANJIT CHAKRABORTY ABSTRACT: In this article I would like to discuss the concept of a priori mainly focusing on Kant s Copernican revolution. How is metaphysics at all possible

More information

WHAT DOES KRIPKE MEAN BY A PRIORI?

WHAT DOES KRIPKE MEAN BY A PRIORI? Diametros nr 28 (czerwiec 2011): 1-7 WHAT DOES KRIPKE MEAN BY A PRIORI? Pierre Baumann In Naming and Necessity (1980), Kripke stressed the importance of distinguishing three different pairs of notions:

More information

PHILOSOPHY OF KNOWLEDGE & REALITY W E E K 7 : E P I S T E M O L O G Y - K A N T

PHILOSOPHY OF KNOWLEDGE & REALITY W E E K 7 : E P I S T E M O L O G Y - K A N T PHILOSOPHY OF KNOWLEDGE & REALITY W E E K 7 : E P I S T E M O L O G Y - K A N T AGENDA 1. Review of Epistemology 2. Kant Kant s Compromise Kant s Copernican Revolution 3. The Nature of Truth KNOWLEDGE:

More information

Chapter 31. Logical Positivism and the Scientific Conception of Philosophy

Chapter 31. Logical Positivism and the Scientific Conception of Philosophy Chapter 31 Logical Positivism and the Scientific Conception of Philosophy Key Words: Vienna circle, verification principle, positivism, tautologies, factual propositions, language analysis, rejection of

More information

Is there a distinction between a priori and a posteriori

Is there a distinction between a priori and a posteriori Lingnan University Digital Commons @ Lingnan University Theses & Dissertations Department of Philosophy 2014 Is there a distinction between a priori and a posteriori Hiu Man CHAN Follow this and additional

More information

Philosophy 203 History of Modern Western Philosophy. Russell Marcus Hamilton College Spring 2014

Philosophy 203 History of Modern Western Philosophy. Russell Marcus Hamilton College Spring 2014 Philosophy 203 History of Modern Western Philosophy Russell Marcus Hamilton College Spring 2014 Class #26 Kant s Copernican Revolution The Synthetic A Priori Forms of Intuition Marcus, Modern Philosophy,

More information

IT is frequently taken for granted, both by people discussing logical

IT is frequently taken for granted, both by people discussing logical 'NECESSARY', 'A PRIORI' AND 'ANALYTIC' IT is frequently taken for granted, both by people discussing logical distinctions1 and by people using them2, that the terms 'necessary', 'a priori', and 'analytic'

More information

From Transcendental Logic to Transcendental Deduction

From Transcendental Logic to Transcendental Deduction From Transcendental Logic to Transcendental Deduction Let me see if I can say a few things to re-cap our first discussion of the Transcendental Logic, and help you get a foothold for what follows. Kant

More information

1/5. The Critique of Theology

1/5. The Critique of Theology 1/5 The Critique of Theology The argument of the Transcendental Dialectic has demonstrated that there is no science of rational psychology and that the province of any rational cosmology is strictly limited.

More information

ON QUINE, ANALYTICITY, AND MEANING Wylie Breckenridge

ON QUINE, ANALYTICITY, AND MEANING Wylie Breckenridge ON QUINE, ANALYTICITY, AND MEANING Wylie Breckenridge In sections 5 and 6 of "Two Dogmas" Quine uses holism to argue against there being an analytic-synthetic distinction (ASD). McDermott (2000) claims

More information

Excerpt from J. Garvey, The Twenty Greatest Philosophy Books (Continuum, 2007): Immanuel Kant s Critique of Pure Reason

Excerpt from J. Garvey, The Twenty Greatest Philosophy Books (Continuum, 2007): Immanuel Kant s Critique of Pure Reason Excerpt from J. Garvey, The Twenty Greatest Philosophy Books (Continuum, 2007): Immanuel Kant s Critique of Pure Reason In a letter to Moses Mendelssohn, Kant says this about the Critique of Pure Reason:

More information

Ethical non-naturalism

Ethical non-naturalism Michael Lacewing Ethical non-naturalism Ethical non-naturalism is usually understood as a form of cognitivist moral realism. So we first need to understand what cognitivism and moral realism is before

More information

Think by Simon Blackburn. Chapter 7c The World

Think by Simon Blackburn. Chapter 7c The World Think by Simon Blackburn Chapter 7c The World Idealism Despite the power of Berkeley s critique, his resulting metaphysical view is highly problematic. Essentially, Berkeley concludes that there is no

More information

Logic clearly dictates that the needs of the many outweigh the needs of the few or the needs of the one (Spock and Captain Kirk).

Logic clearly dictates that the needs of the many outweigh the needs of the few or the needs of the one (Spock and Captain Kirk). Logic clearly dictates that the needs of the many outweigh the needs of the few or the needs of the one (Spock and Captain Kirk). Discuss Logic cannot show that the needs of the many outweigh the needs

More information

Conventionalism and the linguistic doctrine of logical truth

Conventionalism and the linguistic doctrine of logical truth 1 Conventionalism and the linguistic doctrine of logical truth 1.1 Introduction Quine s work on analyticity, translation, and reference has sweeping philosophical implications. In his first important philosophical

More information

In Defense of Pure Reason: A Rationalist Account of A Priori Justification, by Laurence BonJour. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,

In Defense of Pure Reason: A Rationalist Account of A Priori Justification, by Laurence BonJour. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Book Reviews 1 In Defense of Pure Reason: A Rationalist Account of A Priori Justification, by Laurence BonJour. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Pp. xiv + 232. H/b 37.50, $54.95, P/b 13.95,

More information

Aspects of Western Philosophy Dr. Sreekumar Nellickappilly Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras

Aspects of Western Philosophy Dr. Sreekumar Nellickappilly Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Aspects of Western Philosophy Dr. Sreekumar Nellickappilly Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Module - 21 Lecture - 21 Kant Forms of sensibility Categories

More information

Philosophical Logic. LECTURE TWO MICHAELMAS 2017 Dr Maarten Steenhagen

Philosophical Logic. LECTURE TWO MICHAELMAS 2017 Dr Maarten Steenhagen Philosophical Logic LECTURE TWO MICHAELMAS 2017 Dr Maarten Steenhagen ms2416@cam.ac.uk Last Week Lecture 1: Necessity, Analyticity, and the A Priori Lecture 2: Reference, Description, and Rigid Designation

More information

PHI2391: Logical Empiricism I 8.0

PHI2391: Logical Empiricism I 8.0 1 2 3 4 5 PHI2391: Logical Empiricism I 8.0 Hume and Kant! Remember Hume s question:! Are we rationally justified in inferring causes from experimental observations?! Kant s answer: we can give a transcendental

More information

Logic, Truth & Epistemology. Ross Arnold, Summer 2014 Lakeside institute of Theology

Logic, Truth & Epistemology. Ross Arnold, Summer 2014 Lakeside institute of Theology Logic, Truth & Epistemology Ross Arnold, Summer 2014 Lakeside institute of Theology Philosophical Theology 1 (TH5) Aug. 15 Intro to Philosophical Theology; Logic Aug. 22 Truth & Epistemology Aug. 29 Metaphysics

More information

24.01 Classics of Western Philosophy

24.01 Classics of Western Philosophy 1 Plan: Kant Lecture #2: How are pure mathematics and pure natural science possible? 1. Review: Problem of Metaphysics 2. Kantian Commitments 3. Pure Mathematics 4. Transcendental Idealism 5. Pure Natural

More information

Chapter Summaries: Language and Theology by Clark, Chapter 2. on secular philosophies of language. Many religious writers, he states, deny the

Chapter Summaries: Language and Theology by Clark, Chapter 2. on secular philosophies of language. Many religious writers, he states, deny the Chapter Summaries: Language and Theology by Clark, Chapter 1 In chapter 1, Clark reviews the scope and importance of this book and this section on secular philosophies of language. Many religious writers,

More information

Quine and the a priori

Quine and the a priori To be published in A Companion to W.V.O. Quine, edited by Gilbert Harman and Ernie Lepore (John Wiley & Sons.) Lars Bergström Quine and the a priori Roughly speaking, a priori knowledge is knowledge that

More information

A. J. Ayer ( )

A. J. Ayer ( ) 16 A. J. Ayer (1910 1989) Language, Truth and Logic General character of the book A. J. Ayer rose to early philosophical fame with the publication in 1936, when he was 25 years old, of what remained his

More information

PHILOSOPHY OF KNOWLEDGE & REALITY

PHILOSOPHY OF KNOWLEDGE & REALITY PHILOSOPHY OF KNOWLEDGE & REALITY W E E K 7 - D A Y 2 ( T / T H ) : E P I S T E M O L O G Y E M P I R I C I S M, R A T I O N A L I S M, M I D T E R M D I S C U S S I O N REVIEW: EPISTEMOLOGY How do We

More information

Rationalism. A. He, like others at the time, was obsessed with questions of truth and doubt

Rationalism. A. He, like others at the time, was obsessed with questions of truth and doubt Rationalism I. Descartes (1596-1650) A. He, like others at the time, was obsessed with questions of truth and doubt 1. How could one be certain in the absence of religious guidance and trustworthy senses

More information

Varieties of Apriority

Varieties of Apriority S E V E N T H E X C U R S U S Varieties of Apriority T he notions of a priori knowledge and justification play a central role in this work. There are many ways in which one can understand the a priori,

More information

SWINBURNE ON THE EUTHYPHRO DILEMMA. CAN SUPERVENIENCE SAVE HIM?

SWINBURNE ON THE EUTHYPHRO DILEMMA. CAN SUPERVENIENCE SAVE HIM? 17 SWINBURNE ON THE EUTHYPHRO DILEMMA. CAN SUPERVENIENCE SAVE HIM? SIMINI RAHIMI Heythrop College, University of London Abstract. Modern philosophers normally either reject the divine command theory of

More information

In The California Undergraduate Philosophy Review, vol. 1, pp Fresno, CA: California State University, Fresno.

In The California Undergraduate Philosophy Review, vol. 1, pp Fresno, CA: California State University, Fresno. A Distinction Without a Difference? The Analytic-Synthetic Distinction and Immanuel Kant s Critique of Metaphysics Brandon Clark Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo Abstract: In this paper I pose and answer the

More information

Kant Lecture 4 Review Synthetic a priori knowledge

Kant Lecture 4 Review Synthetic a priori knowledge Kant Lecture 4 Review Synthetic a priori knowledge Statements involving necessity or strict universality could never be known on the basis of sense experience, and are thus known (if known at all) a priori.

More information

1/9. The First Analogy

1/9. The First Analogy 1/9 The First Analogy So far we have looked at the mathematical principles but now we are going to turn to the dynamical principles, of which there are two sorts, the Analogies of Experience and the Postulates

More information

Class #17: October 25 Conventionalism

Class #17: October 25 Conventionalism Philosophy 405: Knowledge, Truth and Mathematics Fall 2010 Hamilton College Russell Marcus Class #17: October 25 Conventionalism I. A Fourth School We have discussed the three main positions in the philosophy

More information

GROUP A WESTERN PHILOSOPHY (40 marks)

GROUP A WESTERN PHILOSOPHY (40 marks) GROUP A WESTERN PHILOSOPHY (40 marks) Chapter 1 CONCEPT OF PHILOSOPHY (4 marks allotted) MCQ 1X2 = 2 SAQ -- 1X2 = 2 (a) Nature of Philosophy: The word Philosophy is originated from two Greek words Philos

More information

What da ya know? (And how do you know?)

What da ya know? (And how do you know?) What da ya know? (And how do you know?) I know Epistemology: A short history and overview I know Epistemology: A short history and overview that I have a hand. I know Epistemology: A short history and

More information

Aspects of Western Philosophy Dr. Sreekumar Nellickappilly Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras

Aspects of Western Philosophy Dr. Sreekumar Nellickappilly Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Aspects of Western Philosophy Dr. Sreekumar Nellickappilly Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Module - 22 Lecture - 22 Kant The idea of Reason Soul, God

More information

- We might, now, wonder whether the resulting concept of justification is sufficiently strong. According to BonJour, apparent rational insight is

- We might, now, wonder whether the resulting concept of justification is sufficiently strong. According to BonJour, apparent rational insight is BonJour I PHIL410 BonJour s Moderate Rationalism - BonJour develops and defends a moderate form of Rationalism. - Rationalism, generally (as used here), is the view according to which the primary tool

More information

Dumitrescu Bogdan Andrei - The incompatibility of analytic statements with Quine s universal revisability

Dumitrescu Bogdan Andrei - The incompatibility of analytic statements with Quine s universal revisability Dumitrescu Bogdan Andrei - The incompatibility of analytic statements with Quine s universal revisability Abstract: This very brief essay is concerned with Grice and Strawson s article In Defense of a

More information

Epistemology. Diogenes: Master Cynic. The Ancient Greek Skeptics 4/6/2011. But is it really possible to claim knowledge of anything?

Epistemology. Diogenes: Master Cynic. The Ancient Greek Skeptics 4/6/2011. But is it really possible to claim knowledge of anything? Epistemology a branch of philosophy that investigates the origin, nature, methods, and limits of human knowledge (Dictionary.com v 1.1). Epistemology attempts to answer the question how do we know what

More information

CRITIQUE OF THE ANALYTIC/SYNTHETIC DISTINCTION. by Marty Fields

CRITIQUE OF THE ANALYTIC/SYNTHETIC DISTINCTION. by Marty Fields IIIM Magazine Online, Volume 2, Number 36, September 4 to September 10, 2000 Introduction CRITIQUE OF THE ANALYTIC/SYNTHETIC DISTINCTION by Marty Fields To any student of the history of philosophy it becomes

More information

Absolute Totality, Causality, and Quantum: The Problem of Metaphysics in the Critique of Pure Reason

Absolute Totality, Causality, and Quantum: The Problem of Metaphysics in the Critique of Pure Reason International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education (IJHSSE) Volume 4, Issue 4, April 2017, PP 72-81 ISSN 2349-0373 (Print) & ISSN 2349-0381 (Online) http://dx.doi.org/10.20431/2349-0381.0404008

More information

24.09 Minds and Machines Fall 11 HASS-D CI

24.09 Minds and Machines Fall 11 HASS-D CI 24.09 Minds and Machines Fall 11 HASS-D CI dualism, contd. 1 Image by MIT OpenCourseWare. argument A again 1. 2. C. I cannot doubt that I exist I can doubt that my body exists [or that anything physical

More information

Cory Juhl, Eric Loomis, Analyticity (New York: Routledge, 2010).

Cory Juhl, Eric Loomis, Analyticity (New York: Routledge, 2010). Cory Juhl, Eric Loomis, Analyticity (New York: Routledge, 2010). Reviewed by Viorel Ţuţui 1 Since it was introduced by Immanuel Kant in the Critique of Pure Reason, the analytic synthetic distinction had

More information

Junior Research Fellow and Lecturer in Philosophy Worcester College, University of Oxford Walton Street Oxford OX1 2HB Great Britain

Junior Research Fellow and Lecturer in Philosophy Worcester College, University of Oxford Walton Street Oxford OX1 2HB Great Britain Essay Title: Author: Meaning (verification theory) Markus Schrenk Junior Research Fellow and Lecturer in Philosophy Worcester College, University of Oxford Walton Street Oxford OX1 2HB Great Britain ESSAY

More information

Absolute Totality, Causality, and Quantum: The Problem of Metaphysics in the Critique of Pure Reason. Kazuhiko Yamamoto, Kyushu University, Japan

Absolute Totality, Causality, and Quantum: The Problem of Metaphysics in the Critique of Pure Reason. Kazuhiko Yamamoto, Kyushu University, Japan Absolute Totality, Causality, and Quantum: The Problem of Metaphysics in the Critique of Pure Reason Kazuhiko Yamamoto, Kyushu University, Japan The Asian Conference on Ethics, Religion & Philosophy 2017

More information

Fr. Copleston vs. Bertrand Russell: The Famous 1948 BBC Radio Debate on the Existence of God

Fr. Copleston vs. Bertrand Russell: The Famous 1948 BBC Radio Debate on the Existence of God Fr. Copleston vs. Bertrand Russell: The Famous 1948 BBC Radio Debate on the Existence of God Father Frederick C. Copleston (Jesuit Catholic priest) versus Bertrand Russell (agnostic philosopher) Copleston:

More information

What is an Argument? Validity vs. Soundess of Arguments

What is an Argument? Validity vs. Soundess of Arguments What is an Argument? An argument consists of a set of statements called premises that support a conclusion. Example: An argument for Cartesian Substance Dualism: 1. My essential nature is to be a thinking

More information

Wittgenstein s Logical Atomism. Seminar 8 PHIL2120 Topics in Analytic Philosophy 16 November 2012

Wittgenstein s Logical Atomism. Seminar 8 PHIL2120 Topics in Analytic Philosophy 16 November 2012 Wittgenstein s Logical Atomism Seminar 8 PHIL2120 Topics in Analytic Philosophy 16 November 2012 1 Admin Required reading for this seminar: Soames, Ch 9+10 New Schedule: 23 November: The Tractarian Test

More information

Class #9: Kant Our in class discussion of these notes will be lamentably abbreviated, focused on the first three sections.

Class #9: Kant Our in class discussion of these notes will be lamentably abbreviated, focused on the first three sections. Philosophy 405: Knowledge, Truth and Mathematics Fall 2014 Hamilton College Russell Marcus Class #9: Kant Our in class discussion of these notes will be lamentably abbreviated, focused on the first three

More information

The CopernicanRevolution

The CopernicanRevolution Immanuel Kant: The Copernican Revolution The CopernicanRevolution Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) The Critique of Pure Reason (1781) is Kant s best known work. In this monumental work, he begins a Copernican-like

More information

KANT S EXPLANATION OF THE NECESSITY OF GEOMETRICAL TRUTHS. John Watling

KANT S EXPLANATION OF THE NECESSITY OF GEOMETRICAL TRUTHS. John Watling KANT S EXPLANATION OF THE NECESSITY OF GEOMETRICAL TRUTHS John Watling Kant was an idealist. His idealism was in some ways, it is true, less extreme than that of Berkeley. He distinguished his own by calling

More information

Class #19: November 1 Two Dogmas of Empiricism

Class #19: November 1 Two Dogmas of Empiricism Philosophy 405: Knowledge, Truth and Mathematics Fall 2010 Hamilton College Russell Marcus Class #19: November 1 Two Dogmas of Empiricism I. Two Dogmas, Mathematics, and Indispensability Our interest in

More information

1/7. The Postulates of Empirical Thought

1/7. The Postulates of Empirical Thought 1/7 The Postulates of Empirical Thought This week we are focusing on the final section of the Analytic of Principles in which Kant schematizes the last set of categories. This set of categories are what

More information

THE ELIMINATION OF METAPHYSICS

THE ELIMINATION OF METAPHYSICS THE ELIMINATION OF METAPHYSICS Alfred Jules Ayer Introduction, H. Gene Blocker IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY the Scottish philosopher David Hume argued that all knowledge must be of one of two kinds: either

More information

24.09 Minds and Machines spring 2007

24.09 Minds and Machines spring 2007 24.09 Minds and Machines spring 2007 after class salon today handouts in study material section argument A 1. I cannot doubt that my mind exists 2. I can doubt that my brain exists [or that anything physical

More information

In Defense of Radical Empiricism. Joseph Benjamin Riegel. Chapel Hill 2006

In Defense of Radical Empiricism. Joseph Benjamin Riegel. Chapel Hill 2006 In Defense of Radical Empiricism Joseph Benjamin Riegel A thesis submitted to the faculty of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

More information

This handout follows the handout on The nature of the sceptic s challenge. You should read that handout first.

This handout follows the handout on The nature of the sceptic s challenge. You should read that handout first. Michael Lacewing Three responses to scepticism This handout follows the handout on The nature of the sceptic s challenge. You should read that handout first. MITIGATED SCEPTICISM The term mitigated scepticism

More information

CHAPTER III KANT S APPROACH TO A PRIORI AND A POSTERIORI

CHAPTER III KANT S APPROACH TO A PRIORI AND A POSTERIORI CHAPTER III KANT S APPROACH TO A PRIORI AND A POSTERIORI Introduction One could easily find out two most influential epistemological doctrines, namely, rationalism and empiricism that have inadequate solutions

More information

PHILOSOPHY IAS MAINS: QUESTIONS TREND ANALYSIS

PHILOSOPHY IAS MAINS: QUESTIONS TREND ANALYSIS VISION IAS www.visionias.wordpress.com www.visionias.cfsites.org www.visioniasonline.com Under the Guidance of Ajay Kumar Singh ( B.Tech. IIT Roorkee, Director & Founder : Vision IAS ) PHILOSOPHY IAS MAINS:

More information

Minds and Machines spring The explanatory gap and Kripke s argument revisited spring 03

Minds and Machines spring The explanatory gap and Kripke s argument revisited spring 03 Minds and Machines spring 2003 The explanatory gap and Kripke s argument revisited 1 preliminaries handouts on the knowledge argument and qualia on the website 2 Materialism and qualia: the explanatory

More information

WHY THERE REALLY ARE NO IRREDUCIBLY NORMATIVE PROPERTIES

WHY THERE REALLY ARE NO IRREDUCIBLY NORMATIVE PROPERTIES WHY THERE REALLY ARE NO IRREDUCIBLY NORMATIVE PROPERTIES Bart Streumer b.streumer@rug.nl In David Bakhurst, Brad Hooker and Margaret Little (eds.), Thinking About Reasons: Essays in Honour of Jonathan

More information

90 Days UPSC Mains Optional Answer Writing Initiative

90 Days UPSC Mains Optional Answer Writing Initiative 1 90 Days UPSC Mains Optional Answer Writing Initiative Philosophy Paper 1 Question and Model Answers from Subject Experts 2 04-Dec-2017 Question 1 In what sense ideas be both immanent and transcendent?

More information

SAMPLE. Science and Epistemology. Chapter An uneasy relationship

SAMPLE. Science and Epistemology. Chapter An uneasy relationship Chapter 14 Science and Epistemology In this chapter first we will bring our story more or less up-to-date, and second we will round out some issues concerning the concepts of knowledge and justification;

More information

COURSE GOALS: PROFESSOR: Chris Latiolais Philosophy Department Kalamazoo College Humphrey House #202 Telephone # Offices Hours:

COURSE GOALS: PROFESSOR: Chris Latiolais Philosophy Department Kalamazoo College Humphrey House #202 Telephone # Offices Hours: PROFESSOR: Chris Latiolais Philosophy Department Kalamazoo College Humphrey House #202 Telephone # 337-7076 Offices Hours: 1) Mon. 11:30-1:30. 2) Tues. 11:30-12:30. 3) By Appointment. COURSE GOALS: As

More information

Philosophy 203 History of Modern Western Philosophy. Russell Marcus Hamilton College Spring 2011

Philosophy 203 History of Modern Western Philosophy. Russell Marcus Hamilton College Spring 2011 Philosophy 203 History of Modern Western Philosophy Russell Marcus Hamilton College Spring 2011 Class 28 - May 5 First Antinomy On the Ontological Argument Marcus, Modern Philosophy, Slide 1 Business P

More information

FIL 4600/10/20: KANT S CRITIQUE AND CRITICAL METAPHYSICS

FIL 4600/10/20: KANT S CRITIQUE AND CRITICAL METAPHYSICS FIL 4600/10/20: KANT S CRITIQUE AND CRITICAL METAPHYSICS Autumn 2012, University of Oslo Thursdays, 14 16, Georg Morgenstiernes hus 219, Blindern Toni Kannisto t.t.kannisto@ifikk.uio.no SHORT PLAN 1 23/8:

More information