THE ROLE OF APRIORI, EMPIRICAL, ANALYTIC AND SYNTHETIC IN PHILOSOPHY OF MATHEMATICS.

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "THE ROLE OF APRIORI, EMPIRICAL, ANALYTIC AND SYNTHETIC IN PHILOSOPHY OF MATHEMATICS."

Transcription

1 American Journal of Social Issues & Humanities (ISSN: ) Vol.1(2) pp Nov Available online American Journal of Social Issues & Humanities THE ROLE OF APRIORI, EMPIRICAL, ANALYTIC AND SYNTHETIC IN PHILOSOPHY OF MATHEMATICS. Abstract ETTA, EMMANUEL EFEM, PhD, AND KYRIAN, A. OJONG, PhD DEPARTMENT OF PHILOSOPHY, UNIVERSITY OF CALABAR Philosophy is said to be a reflective discipline of the humanities or of the social sciences as the case may be, which investigates all claims to knowledge through it s peculiar sources and tools. However, in spite of the foundational relevance of philosophy in almost every academic field and the historic fact that philosophy is the mother of all disciplines, little or nothing is usually known about their functions in relation to other disciplines. Consequently, this paper is an attempt to explore the place of philosophic tools such as the apriori, empirical, analytic and synthetic in philosophy of mathematics as a latest dimension in philosophy. Key words: Empirical; Apriori; Synthetic; Epistemology; Analytic Introduction Philosophy of mathematics as a foundational study presupposed epistemology. Hence, this paper examines critically, from an epistemological perspective the place of apriori, empirical, analytic and synthetic tools of philosophy and their function in philosophy of mathematics. It is also true however, that certain philosophical problems become salient only when the appropriate area of mathematics is taken into consideration (Mancosu 2008:2).In light of above, A.N. Whitehead (1948)

2 while supporting the complementary disciplinary influence between philosophy and mathematics, observed that, in the age of Galileo, Descartes, Spinoza, Newton and Leibniz, mathematics was an influence of the first magnitude in the formation of philosophical ideas (35). The apriori is associated with the rationalist school of thought. It holds that reason can alone attain certainty about true knowledge without or independent of experience. According to J. R. Brown (2008), even though mathematics is a priori, it need not be certain, because the mind s eye is subject to illusions and the vicissitudes of concepts for concepts formation jus s the empirical senses are (23). However, Whitehead opines that, the certainly of mathematics depends upon its complete abstract generality. But however, contends that, we can have no apriori certainty that we are right in believing that the observed entities in the concrete universe forms a particular instance of what falls under our general reasoning (28). It is pertinent to reconcile or juxtapose this is position with his earlier argument, where the same Whitehead opined, that the originality of mathematics consists in the fact that mathematical science connections between things are exhibited which, apart from the agency of human reason are extremely unobvious (27). The empiricists are of the view that true knowledge is attained through human sense experience or observation of the physical world.here, Whitehead attempts to point out how the empirical is related to mathematics. For him the generality of mathematics is the most complete generality consistent with the community of occasion which constitutes our metaphysical situation (31).In like manner, E. Robson and J. Stedall (2008) in their work The Oxford Handbook of the History of Mathematics, strongly support the positive relevance of the empirical science to mathematics. Hence, they explain that, at presence the general opinion among historians of mathematics is that such a view of mathematical concepts as time, place, and context-independent is not very fruitful if one wants to understand the historical development of mathematics. Rather, a much more rewarding approach is to focus on concrete practices of AJSIH Vol.1 No.2. (Nov.2011) Etta, Kyrian 83

3 mathematics, acknowledging that despite its universal character, mathematical knowledge is produced by mathematicians who live, interact, and communicate in concrete social settings(5). The analytic proposition means a statement which says something about a subject but what the predicate says about the subject is already contained in the subject, hence it does not say anything new. Its truth is internal and deductive. Synthetic proposition on the other hand is a statement which says something about the subject. The predicate here says something new about the subject that was not already contained in the subject. It is in other words known as external or inductive proposition. The question as to, whether the propositions mentioned above have relevance to mathematics forms the basis for this work. Here, I shall try to show that the above mentioned tools are relevance to the attainment of mathematical knowledge. This is rather historic. Hence Pythagoras is quoted by Whitehead, as having insisted on the importance of the utmost generality in reasoning. Consequently, he divined the importance of number as an aid to the construction of any representation of the conditions involved in the order of nature (32). This task shall be accomplished by first of all giving the meaning of each of the tools, acknowledging theorists and their postulation on each of the tools, and as these relate to mathematics. A brief analysis shall be given from where I shall show that the various tools are truly means to attaining mathematical knowledge. The roles of each tool in philosophy of mathematics would be articulated, and then a conclusion. Methodology Apriori Apriori knowledge is knowledge that is known independently of experience (that is it is nonempirical, or arrived at beforehand, usually by reason)(wikipedia 2010:7).The apriori is a term which is associated with the rationalists school of thought in epistemology as a branch of philosophy. The rationalists claim that the mind has the power to know with certainty various truth about the universe AJSIH Vol.1 No.2. (Nov.2011) Etta, Kyrian 84

4 which outward observation can never give us. According to this rationalist school, absolutely certain knowledge of general principles gained independently of observations is called apriori knowledge (Randall & Buchler 1971:76). John Harman Randall and Justus Bachler(1971) posited further that by apriori, in a version interpreted by the empiricist, it meant generally statements known to be true, that is, with certainty yet without empirical testing. Joseph Omoregbe(1990) in his book knowing Philosophy, argues that apriori is a claim by the rationalists that reason alone can and does attain knowledge without any reference to experience. Such knowledge according to the rationalists, acquired by reason alone independently of experience is known as apriori knowledge (42). This apriori for J. Omoregbe is in contrast with the aposterior knowledge of the empiricist which holds that all knowledge derives from experience Empirical According to J. P. Ekarika(1986), in his book Philosophy; introduction to philosophy, preliminary notions in logic, metaphysics and theory of knowledge, an empirical knowledge is knowing something by our given senses or sense experience. It is a way of knowing the physical world and things by seeing, hearing, touching, smelling and testing (31). This position is similarly supported by Randall and Buchler when they said that an empirical knowledge is knowing something external and objective, the world of fact or nature (87). Analytic This term is used to stand for or explain statement which says something about things within the same statement. When in a proposition or statement, the predicate says something about the subject that is already contained in the notion of the subject, the proposition is said to be analytic. The predicate does not say anything new about the subject since what it says about it is already contained in the notion of the subject. Analytic statements are necessarily true, and cannot be denied AJSIH Vol.1 No.2. (Nov.2011) Etta, Kyrian 85

5 without contradicting oneself (43). Alan Ryan(1970) posits that since analytic statements have its truth or falsity within itself, it is an internal statement because knowledge is derivable within or in the internal logic of the statement. Consequently, he adds that analytic knowledge is deductive (28). Synthetic According to Leila Haaparanta (2009)in one sense, propositions are said to be contents of propositional attitudes like beliefs, knowledge, will, among others, the class of these attitudes is somewhat vague(565).synthetic propositions on the other hand are statement in which what is affirmed in the predicate is not already contained in the notion of the subject. This type of proposition is called synthetic. The predicate in this case affirms something new about the subject. This proposition is not necessarily true; there can be true or false hence there is no contradiction involved in denying those (143). According to Alan Ryan(1970), synthetic statements are known to be external in the sense that the truth or falsity of such statements are or rest on the correspondence of the statement to an outside world. Consequently, he maintained that a synthetic statement of knowledge is inductive (28). In light of the above, this paper asserts that these tools as explained are used by philosophers of mathematics, to arrive at certain goals. The roles they place in philosophy of mathematics are thus foundational, epistemological, methodological, historical and justificatory as I have already articulated and or pointed out. Relationship between apriori, empirical, analytic and synthetic tools and mathematics The task of this subsection as it relates to the topic of this work is to investigate various theoretical postulation by different philosophers and or scholars on apriori, empirical analytic and synthetic propositions, to enable us ascertain their place or function in philosophy of mathematics. AJSIH Vol.1 No.2. (Nov.2011) Etta, Kyrian 86

6 A priori proposition as defined in an earlier section of this work, states that reason alone is capable of attaining certainty of truth independent of experience. Our question is, can reason attain certain mathematic truth? The answer is affirmative. Hence, according to Condorcet (1988), reason was basic to human nature, and with reason it was possible to guarantee universal agreement on questions about the world as well as about matters of mathematics. He adds that reason enabled us to discover the intricate, abstract truths of mathematics, and to apply these to our understanding of the working of the universe (10). In other words, this school of thought is of the view that reason (a priori) is a sure method for acquiring mathematical knowledge. The above position is substantially supported by John Hospers (1997) when he said that mathematics is a matter of pure reason, not of experience. He illustrated by saying that when we add which is equal to 4 we arrive at it not by experience, but through reason (132).To corroborate the above, J. R. Brown (2008),avers that mathematics is apriori, not empirical. This is because empirical knowledge is based on sensory experience. That is, based on input from the usual physical senses: seeing, hearing, tasting, smelling, touching. But seeing with the mind s eye is not included on this list. It is a kind of experience that is independent of physical sense and, to that extent, apriori (22). The empirical school holds that knowledge truth certainty is gotten, justified, from empirical observable evidence, through our sense organs. In relation to mathematical knowledge acquisition, J. S. Mill contends that mathematical knowledge rests on empirical evidence. Explaining further, Mill maintained that arithmetical knowledge is simply a generalization of observed instance in which sets of physical objects are counted (Lehman 1979:155). According to Putnam (1979), to give satisfactory explanations of empirical data, physicians must make mathematical assumptions. These assumptions for him are justified by the same empirical AJSIH Vol.1 No.2. (Nov.2011) Etta, Kyrian 87

7 evidence which justifies the non-mathematical assumptions which enter into such explanations. For the factionalist as represented by Vaihinger and Korner (1979), it is empirical verification that justifies the use of mathematics. Put differently, this school of thought has its basic opinion that a theory including its mathematical postulates, are justified by the evidence provided that the observable consequences of the theory is verified. And also, that mathematical principles such as the axioms of real number theory are known to be true because they have been strongly confirmed empirically (156). In other words, proof is essential in knowing. Consequently, James R. Brown argues that with a proof, the result is certain; without it, belief should be suspended. He explains further that, sometimes mathematicians believe mathematical propositions even though they lack a proof. But however opines that, without a proof, a mathematical proposition is not justified and should not be used to desire other mathematical propositions (10). In a nutshell, what the empirical or empiricist school is putting across here is that empirical observation, sense experience or physical data, evidence verification are all means to attaining and justifying any knowledge that can be said to be mathematically true and or valid. The analytic school is of the opinion that the truth and falsity of a statement or knowledge claim is in the language structure, that is, internal, deductive, and that its truths is necessary. This position of the analytic school has been or is part of the views upheld by philosophers of mathematics. Hence, according to A. J. Ayer(1979), analytic proposition do not provide any information about any matter or fact. In other words, they are entirely devoid of factual content. In claiming that mathematical propositions are devoid of factual content, philosophers such as Ayer and Hempel, were making two claims. Firstly, that mathematical propositons are not confirmable or verifiable by reference to sensory observation. In other words, we do not know propositions such as 3+2=5 because of anything that we have observed. Such statements are neither confirmable nor AJSIH Vol.1 No.2. (Nov.2011) Etta, Kyrian 88

8 refutable by reference to observations. There are no sensory observations which anyone needs to make in order for men to know that 3+2=5. Secondly, they were saying that mathematical propositions have no ontological import. That is, even though statements such as 3+2=5 are true, this does not mean that anything exists. Such statements would be true even if nothing existed. This means such statements do not correspond to any external reality. Nor are they true because of such correspondence (27). To further prove that analytic statements with regards to its claim of necessary truth, are relevant to the mathematician or philosophers of mathematics, it will be pertinent to recognize John Hospers (1997) in this regard. Thus, in his book introduction to philosophical analysis, he opined that mathematics like logic, consists of necessary truths by this, he means that when we say 1+4 = 5, the truth and falsity of it is internal and necessary, thus it will be a contradiction to deny its truth (133). According to this school of thought as further buttressed by Korner(1979), mathematical principles are known through an inferential process which accords with the hypothetic deductive pattern of reasoning. For him, mathematics proceeds from a set of hypothesis and assumptions about particular experimental or observation set-ups plus theoretical assumptions, and further observational consequences are deduced by valid forms of argument (149). Furthermore, John Hospers (1997) in supporting the above position, maintained that there are laboratories for discovering truths about nature, but there are no mathematical laboratories, because mathematicians don t need them, nor do they need test tubes and Bunsen burner to discover that 3 x 12 = 36; this is because the mathematician has a way of figuring it out, deductively, as it is done in logic (132). This analytic school which claim internality is otherwise deductive in my opinion was given a summary treatment by Descartes a soaring speculator as well as a mathematical philosopher of the modern period in the history of philosophy. He postulated that, it is clear that mathematics must be AJSIH Vol.1 No.2. (Nov.2011) Etta, Kyrian 89

9 the sole and adequate key to unlock the truths of nature. Our next question is what is this mathematical method for Descartes? According to Descartes, his method is deduction. By deduction he means a chain of necessary inference from facts intuitively known, the certitude of this conclusion being known by the intuitions and memory of their necessary connection in thought. That is, it is rational deduction of consequences (Burtt 1980:106). The synthetic proposition, which claims to know truth externally and inductively, has also been noted, to have relevance in mathematical method of acquiring knowledge. This claim is spotted in the words of Descartes when he said, Now mathematics is just that universal science that deals with order and measurement generally. That is why arithmetic and geometry are the sciences in which sure and indubitable knowledge is possible. They deal with an object so pure and uncomplicated that they need make no assumptions at all that experience renders uncertain, but wholly consist in the rational deduction of consequences. This does not mean that the objects of mathematics are imaginary entities without existence in the physical world. For whoever demises that objects of pure mathematics exists, can hardly maintain that our geometrical ideas have been abstracted from existing things (107). In a nutshell, what Descartes meant in the above quotation is that mathematical knowledge is acquired through external and inductive methods which have to do with appeal to data in the observable physical world, otherwise synthetic. Having examined the various theoretical postulations about the apriori, empirical analytic and synthetic propositions, the other issue that occupies one s mind is, does these propositions, based on the theoretical postulations about them, in relation to mathematical method of attaining true AJSIH Vol.1 No.2. (Nov.2011) Etta, Kyrian 90

10 knowledge hold water? The answer to the above question can be partly negative and partly positive. This is in view of the limit of each of the proposition, if taken individually as method. The empirical school holds that apriori (reason) is inadequate while the rationalists school (apriori)is of the view that the empirical school (sense experience) is limited also. The inadequacy of the analytic proposition, as not providing new knowledge has been noted in recent times, likewise the shortcomings of the synthetic propositional method. The controversy between the empiricists and the rationalists schools led to the synthetic apriori proposition of Kant, while the quarrel between the analytic and synthetic proposition has led to the emergence of synthetic analytic respectively. From the above analysis, one would see that each of the schools can only achieve success in attaining truth if it proceeds in cooperation with other methods or propositions. To state that the above propositions; apriori, empirical, analytic and synthetic, cannot and does not lead to attainment of mathematical knowledge would be an understatement. This is because, I agree with the various theorists as examined above that, if one adds 1+1 to arrive at 2, then 1 is placed physically side by side, and eventually added, it appeals to sense experience. But at other times, when one does not see or count before adding to get 2, and quickly says 1+1 = 2, it is reason working at such times. In light of above, A.N. Whitehead (1948) argues that mathematics is thought moving in the sphere of complete abstraction from any particular instance of what it is talking about (27). This also shows that, if object of arithmetic are external and internal, inductive and deductive as the analytic and synthetic schools have claimed respectively, it follows that mathematical knowledge are arrived at through reason from that which is given in the physical observable data, visaviz. The Role of APriori, Empirical, Analytic and Synthetic Tools in Philosophy of Mathematics AJSIH Vol.1 No.2. (Nov.2011) Etta, Kyrian 91

11 1. According to Descartes, his mathematical method of deduction which is otherwise analytic has the role of shifting the focus of attention onto knowledge of relation. 2. Secondly, Descartes maintained that it is a consequence of adopting his model that knowledge has to have a foundation. That is, how we acquire knowledge of the first principles, the foundation. 3. Thirdly, Descartes is of the view that his strategy was to show that his method is selfvalidating; that is, it can itself be deployed to reveal and secure the foundation of mathematical and scientific knowledge. 4. Fourthly, Descartes believed that his method was the sure way for clear and distinct knowledge (Tiles 1993:106). From my exposition of the theorists and their theoretical postulation, about how mathematical knowledge are arrived at through apriori, empirical, analytic and synthetic processes, analysis, and subsequent presentation of the roles played by the above tools, as articulated by Descartes, it would be pertinent to deduce that the roles played by the apriori, empirical, analytic and synthetic tools of philosophy in the philosophy of mathematics are as follows; (i) They play a foundational role. This is because they try to locate the first principles upon which mathematical method is built upon. (ii) They also play methodological role because they try to pin point the logic behind the attainment of mathematical knowledge. (iii) They play epistemological role. This is because through the propositional tools they try to locate and investigate the sources and certainty of mathematical knowledge. (iv) These tools also play historical role. This is due to its interest in knowing the source of the method of mathematical knowledge. AJSIH Vol.1 No.2. (Nov.2011) Etta, Kyrian 92

12 (v) They play justificatory role also. This is because as each of the tools try to claim originality of its method, it is in other words justifying its claim and position so long as mathematical knowledge acquisition is concerned. Conclusion We have examined the apriori empirical, analytic and synthetic through clarification of terms, theoretical postulations by various theorists on each of the tools and how these relate to attainment of knowledge in mathematics. From the postulates presented by different theorists on these tools, it does show that apriori, empirical, analytic and synthetic propositions in philosophy have some foundational relevance in philosophy of mathematics. This is because when one relates one thing to another in order to get two without appeal to physical object before arriving at two,it is arrived at through reason. But if the two is arrived at after seeing or counting objects, this is gotten through sense experience. When the truth about mathematical knowledge is arrived at through logic in the internal or deductive arrangement, it is analytic, and when the truth about mathematical knowledge is arrived at through observation or addition of particular instances, while it is external or inductive, it is synthetic. AJSIH Vol.1 No.2. (Nov.2011) Etta, Kyrian 93

13 References Brown, James Robert. Philosophy of Mathematics A Contemporary Introduction to the World of Proofs and Pictures. London: Routledge, Burtt, E. A. The metaphysical foundations of modern sciences, London: Routledge & Kegan, Ekarika, J. P. Philosophy, Introduction to Philosophy (vol. 1) Marcon Venice, Italy, Haaparanta, Leila. The Development of Modern Logic (Ed) New York: Oxford University Press, Hosper, J. An Introduction to Philosophical Analysis, London: Routledge Publishers, Joseph, O. Knowing Philosophy. Lagos: Joja Press Limited, Lehman, H. Introduction to the Philosophy of Mathematics, London: Basil Blackwell Publishers, Mancosu, Paolo. The Philosophy of Mathematical Practice (Ed). New York: Oxford University Press Randall, J. H. and Buchler, J. Philosophy: An Introduction, London: Barnes & Noble Books Publishers, Robson, Eleanor and Stedall, Jacqueline. The Oxford Handbook of the History of Mathematics. New York: Oxford University Press Ryan, A. The Philosophy of the Social Sciences. London: Macmillan Press Ltd., Tiles, M. and Tiles, J. An Introduction to Historical Epistemology: The Authority of Knowledge, USA: Blackwell Publishers, Whitehead, A. N. Science and the Modern World, England: Cambridge University press, 1948 Wikipedia,The Free Encyclopedia.Epistemology. AJSIH Vol.1 No.2. (Nov.2011) Etta, Kyrian 94

Has Logical Positivism Eliminated Metaphysics?

Has Logical Positivism Eliminated Metaphysics? International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention ISSN (Online): 2319 7722, ISSN (Print): 2319 7714 Volume 3 Issue 11 ǁ November. 2014 ǁ PP.38-42 Has Logical Positivism Eliminated Metaphysics?

More information

Aspects of Western Philosophy Dr. Sreekumar Nellickappilly Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras

Aspects of Western Philosophy Dr. Sreekumar Nellickappilly Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Aspects of Western Philosophy Dr. Sreekumar Nellickappilly Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Module - 20 Lecture - 20 Critical Philosophy: Kant s objectives

More information

1/5. The Critique of Theology

1/5. The Critique of Theology 1/5 The Critique of Theology The argument of the Transcendental Dialectic has demonstrated that there is no science of rational psychology and that the province of any rational cosmology is strictly limited.

More information

Remarks on the philosophy of mathematics (1969) Paul Bernays

Remarks on the philosophy of mathematics (1969) Paul Bernays Bernays Project: Text No. 26 Remarks on the philosophy of mathematics (1969) Paul Bernays (Bemerkungen zur Philosophie der Mathematik) Translation by: Dirk Schlimm Comments: With corrections by Charles

More information

The British Empiricism

The British Empiricism The British Empiricism Locke, Berkeley and Hume copyleft: nicolazuin.2018 nowxhere.wordpress.com The terrible heritage of Descartes: Skepticism, Empiricism, Rationalism The problem originates from the

More information

Ibuanyidanda (Complementary Reflection), African Philosophy and General Issues in Philosophy

Ibuanyidanda (Complementary Reflection), African Philosophy and General Issues in Philosophy HOME Ibuanyidanda (Complementary Reflection), African Philosophy and General Issues in Philosophy Back to Home Page: http://www.frasouzu.com/ for more essays from a complementary perspective THE IDEA OF

More information

Kant s Transcendental Exposition of Space and Time in the Transcendental Aesthetic : A Critique

Kant s Transcendental Exposition of Space and Time in the Transcendental Aesthetic : A Critique 34 An International Multidisciplinary Journal, Ethiopia Vol. 10(1), Serial No.40, January, 2016: 34-45 ISSN 1994-9057 (Print) ISSN 2070--0083 (Online) Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/afrrev.v10i1.4 Kant

More information

Epistemology. Diogenes: Master Cynic. The Ancient Greek Skeptics 4/6/2011. But is it really possible to claim knowledge of anything?

Epistemology. Diogenes: Master Cynic. The Ancient Greek Skeptics 4/6/2011. But is it really possible to claim knowledge of anything? Epistemology a branch of philosophy that investigates the origin, nature, methods, and limits of human knowledge (Dictionary.com v 1.1). Epistemology attempts to answer the question how do we know what

More information

Ayer s linguistic theory of the a priori

Ayer s linguistic theory of the a priori Ayer s linguistic theory of the a priori phil 43904 Jeff Speaks December 4, 2007 1 The problem of a priori knowledge....................... 1 2 Necessity and the a priori............................ 2

More information

1/7. The Postulates of Empirical Thought

1/7. The Postulates of Empirical Thought 1/7 The Postulates of Empirical Thought This week we are focusing on the final section of the Analytic of Principles in which Kant schematizes the last set of categories. This set of categories are what

More information

1/12. The A Paralogisms

1/12. The A Paralogisms 1/12 The A Paralogisms The character of the Paralogisms is described early in the chapter. Kant describes them as being syllogisms which contain no empirical premises and states that in them we conclude

More information

The CopernicanRevolution

The CopernicanRevolution Immanuel Kant: The Copernican Revolution The CopernicanRevolution Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) The Critique of Pure Reason (1781) is Kant s best known work. In this monumental work, he begins a Copernican-like

More information

WHAT IS HUME S FORK? Certainty does not exist in science.

WHAT IS HUME S FORK?  Certainty does not exist in science. WHAT IS HUME S FORK? www.prshockley.org Certainty does not exist in science. I. Introduction: A. Hume divides all objects of human reason into two different kinds: Relation of Ideas & Matters of Fact.

More information

24.01 Classics of Western Philosophy

24.01 Classics of Western Philosophy 1 Plan: Kant Lecture #2: How are pure mathematics and pure natural science possible? 1. Review: Problem of Metaphysics 2. Kantian Commitments 3. Pure Mathematics 4. Transcendental Idealism 5. Pure Natural

More information

On the epistemological status of mathematical objects in Plato s philosophical system

On the epistemological status of mathematical objects in Plato s philosophical system On the epistemological status of mathematical objects in Plato s philosophical system Floris T. van Vugt University College Utrecht University, The Netherlands October 22, 2003 Abstract The main question

More information

Chapter 18 David Hume: Theory of Knowledge

Chapter 18 David Hume: Theory of Knowledge Key Words Chapter 18 David Hume: Theory of Knowledge Empiricism, skepticism, personal identity, necessary connection, causal connection, induction, impressions, ideas. DAVID HUME (1711-76) is one of the

More information

Ayer and Quine on the a priori

Ayer and Quine on the a priori Ayer and Quine on the a priori November 23, 2004 1 The problem of a priori knowledge Ayer s book is a defense of a thoroughgoing empiricism, not only about what is required for a belief to be justified

More information

WHAT DOES KRIPKE MEAN BY A PRIORI?

WHAT DOES KRIPKE MEAN BY A PRIORI? Diametros nr 28 (czerwiec 2011): 1-7 WHAT DOES KRIPKE MEAN BY A PRIORI? Pierre Baumann In Naming and Necessity (1980), Kripke stressed the importance of distinguishing three different pairs of notions:

More information

Rationalism. A. He, like others at the time, was obsessed with questions of truth and doubt

Rationalism. A. He, like others at the time, was obsessed with questions of truth and doubt Rationalism I. Descartes (1596-1650) A. He, like others at the time, was obsessed with questions of truth and doubt 1. How could one be certain in the absence of religious guidance and trustworthy senses

More information

1/10. The Fourth Paralogism and the Refutation of Idealism

1/10. The Fourth Paralogism and the Refutation of Idealism 1/10 The Fourth Paralogism and the Refutation of Idealism The Fourth Paralogism is quite different from the three that preceded it because, although it is treated as a part of rational psychology, it main

More information

Aspects of Western Philosophy Dr. Sreekumar Nellickappilly Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras

Aspects of Western Philosophy Dr. Sreekumar Nellickappilly Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Aspects of Western Philosophy Dr. Sreekumar Nellickappilly Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Module - 21 Lecture - 21 Kant Forms of sensibility Categories

More information

PHI2391: Logical Empiricism I 8.0

PHI2391: Logical Empiricism I 8.0 1 2 3 4 5 PHI2391: Logical Empiricism I 8.0 Hume and Kant! Remember Hume s question:! Are we rationally justified in inferring causes from experimental observations?! Kant s answer: we can give a transcendental

More information

From Transcendental Logic to Transcendental Deduction

From Transcendental Logic to Transcendental Deduction From Transcendental Logic to Transcendental Deduction Let me see if I can say a few things to re-cap our first discussion of the Transcendental Logic, and help you get a foothold for what follows. Kant

More information

CHAPTER III KANT S APPROACH TO A PRIORI AND A POSTERIORI

CHAPTER III KANT S APPROACH TO A PRIORI AND A POSTERIORI CHAPTER III KANT S APPROACH TO A PRIORI AND A POSTERIORI Introduction One could easily find out two most influential epistemological doctrines, namely, rationalism and empiricism that have inadequate solutions

More information

Ayer on the criterion of verifiability

Ayer on the criterion of verifiability Ayer on the criterion of verifiability November 19, 2004 1 The critique of metaphysics............................. 1 2 Observation statements............................... 2 3 In principle verifiability...............................

More information

Do we have knowledge of the external world?

Do we have knowledge of the external world? Do we have knowledge of the external world? This book discusses the skeptical arguments presented in Descartes' Meditations 1 and 2, as well as how Descartes attempts to refute skepticism by building our

More information

1/8. Introduction to Kant: The Project of Critique

1/8. Introduction to Kant: The Project of Critique 1/8 Introduction to Kant: The Project of Critique This course is focused on the interpretation of one book: The Critique of Pure Reason and we will, during the course, read the majority of the key sections

More information

Chapter Summaries: Three Types of Religious Philosophy by Clark, Chapter 1

Chapter Summaries: Three Types of Religious Philosophy by Clark, Chapter 1 Chapter Summaries: Three Types of Religious Philosophy by Clark, Chapter 1 In chapter 1, Clark begins by stating that this book will really not provide a definition of religion as such, except that it

More information

Theory of Knowledge. 5. That which can be asserted without evidence can be dismissed without evidence. (Christopher Hitchens). Do you agree?

Theory of Knowledge. 5. That which can be asserted without evidence can be dismissed without evidence. (Christopher Hitchens). Do you agree? Theory of Knowledge 5. That which can be asserted without evidence can be dismissed without evidence. (Christopher Hitchens). Do you agree? Candidate Name: Syed Tousif Ahmed Candidate Number: 006644 009

More information

THE STUDY OF UNKNOWN AND UNKNOWABILITY IN KANT S PHILOSOPHY

THE STUDY OF UNKNOWN AND UNKNOWABILITY IN KANT S PHILOSOPHY THE STUDY OF UNKNOWN AND UNKNOWABILITY IN KANT S PHILOSOPHY Subhankari Pati Research Scholar Pondicherry University, Pondicherry The present aim of this paper is to highlights the shortcomings in Kant

More information

GROUP A WESTERN PHILOSOPHY (40 marks)

GROUP A WESTERN PHILOSOPHY (40 marks) GROUP A WESTERN PHILOSOPHY (40 marks) Chapter 1 CONCEPT OF PHILOSOPHY (4 marks allotted) MCQ 1X2 = 2 SAQ -- 1X2 = 2 (a) Nature of Philosophy: The word Philosophy is originated from two Greek words Philos

More information

Analytic Philosophy IUC Dubrovnik,

Analytic Philosophy IUC Dubrovnik, Analytic Philosophy IUC Dubrovnik, 10.5.-14.5.2010. Debating neo-logicism Majda Trobok University of Rijeka trobok@ffri.hr In this talk I will not address our official topic. Instead I will discuss some

More information

SCIENCE AND METAPHYSICS Part III SCIENTIFIC EPISTEMOLOGY? David Tin Win α & Thandee Kywe β. Abstract

SCIENCE AND METAPHYSICS Part III SCIENTIFIC EPISTEMOLOGY? David Tin Win α & Thandee Kywe β. Abstract SCIENCE AND METAPHYSICS Part III SCIENTIFIC EPISTEMOLOGY? David Tin Win α & Thandee Kywe β Abstract The major factor that limits application of science in episte-mology is identified as the blindness of

More information

CONTENTS A SYSTEM OF LOGIC

CONTENTS A SYSTEM OF LOGIC EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION NOTE ON THE TEXT. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY XV xlix I /' ~, r ' o>

More information

Intuitive evidence and formal evidence in proof-formation

Intuitive evidence and formal evidence in proof-formation Intuitive evidence and formal evidence in proof-formation Okada Mitsuhiro Section I. Introduction. I would like to discuss proof formation 1 as a general methodology of sciences and philosophy, with a

More information

PHILOSOPHICAL RAMIFICATIONS: THEORY, EXPERIMENT, & EMPIRICAL TRUTH

PHILOSOPHICAL RAMIFICATIONS: THEORY, EXPERIMENT, & EMPIRICAL TRUTH PHILOSOPHICAL RAMIFICATIONS: THEORY, EXPERIMENT, & EMPIRICAL TRUTH PCES 3.42 Even before Newton published his revolutionary work, philosophers had already been trying to come to grips with the questions

More information

Kant s Critique of Pure Reason1 (Critique) was published in For. Learning to Count Again: On Arithmetical Knowledge in Kant s Prolegomena

Kant s Critique of Pure Reason1 (Critique) was published in For. Learning to Count Again: On Arithmetical Knowledge in Kant s Prolegomena Aporia vol. 24 no. 1 2014 Learning to Count Again: On Arithmetical Knowledge in Kant s Prolegomena Charles Dalrymple - Fraser One might indeed think at first that the proposition 7+5 =12 is a merely analytic

More information

What one needs to know to prepare for'spinoza's method is to be found in the treatise, On the Improvement

What one needs to know to prepare for'spinoza's method is to be found in the treatise, On the Improvement SPINOZA'S METHOD Donald Mangum The primary aim of this paper will be to provide the reader of Spinoza with a certain approach to the Ethics. The approach is designed to prevent what I believe to be certain

More information

WITTGENSTEIN ON EPISTEMOLOGICAL STATUS OF LOGIC 1

WITTGENSTEIN ON EPISTEMOLOGICAL STATUS OF LOGIC 1 FILOZOFIA Roč. 68, 2013, č. 4 WITTGENSTEIN ON EPISTEMOLOGICAL STATUS OF LOGIC 1 TOMÁŠ ČANA, Katedra filozofie FF UCM, Trnava ČANA, T.: Wittgenstein on Epistemological Status of Logic FILOZOFIA 68, 2013,

More information

MY PURPOSE IN THIS BOOK IS TO PRESENT A

MY PURPOSE IN THIS BOOK IS TO PRESENT A I Holistic Pragmatism and the Philosophy of Culture MY PURPOSE IN THIS BOOK IS TO PRESENT A philosophical discussion of the main elements of civilization or culture such as science, law, religion, politics,

More information

Philosophy 5340 Epistemology Topic 4: Skepticism. Part 1: The Scope of Skepticism and Two Main Types of Skeptical Argument

Philosophy 5340 Epistemology Topic 4: Skepticism. Part 1: The Scope of Skepticism and Two Main Types of Skeptical Argument 1. The Scope of Skepticism Philosophy 5340 Epistemology Topic 4: Skepticism Part 1: The Scope of Skepticism and Two Main Types of Skeptical Argument The scope of skeptical challenges can vary in a number

More information

Logic: Deductive and Inductive by Carveth Read M.A. CHAPTER IX CHAPTER IX FORMAL CONDITIONS OF MEDIATE INFERENCE

Logic: Deductive and Inductive by Carveth Read M.A. CHAPTER IX CHAPTER IX FORMAL CONDITIONS OF MEDIATE INFERENCE CHAPTER IX CHAPTER IX FORMAL CONDITIONS OF MEDIATE INFERENCE Section 1. A Mediate Inference is a proposition that depends for proof upon two or more other propositions, so connected together by one or

More information

Philosophy of Mathematics Kant

Philosophy of Mathematics Kant Philosophy of Mathematics Kant Owen Griffiths oeg21@cam.ac.uk St John s College, Cambridge 20/10/15 Immanuel Kant Born in 1724 in Königsberg, Prussia. Enrolled at the University of Königsberg in 1740 and

More information

Semantic Foundations for Deductive Methods

Semantic Foundations for Deductive Methods Semantic Foundations for Deductive Methods delineating the scope of deductive reason Roger Bishop Jones Abstract. The scope of deductive reason is considered. First a connection is discussed between the

More information

KANT, MORAL DUTY AND THE DEMANDS OF PURE PRACTICAL REASON. The law is reason unaffected by desire.

KANT, MORAL DUTY AND THE DEMANDS OF PURE PRACTICAL REASON. The law is reason unaffected by desire. KANT, MORAL DUTY AND THE DEMANDS OF PURE PRACTICAL REASON The law is reason unaffected by desire. Aristotle, Politics Book III (1287a32) THE BIG IDEAS TO MASTER Kantian formalism Kantian constructivism

More information

Kant & Transcendental Idealism

Kant & Transcendental Idealism Kant & Transcendental Idealism HZT4U1 - Mr. Wittmann - Unit 3 - Lecture 4 Empiricists and rationalists alike are dupes of the same illusion. Both take partial notions for real parts. -Henri Bergson Enlightenment

More information

METHODENSTREIT WHY CARL MENGER WAS, AND IS, RIGHT

METHODENSTREIT WHY CARL MENGER WAS, AND IS, RIGHT METHODENSTREIT WHY CARL MENGER WAS, AND IS, RIGHT BY THORSTEN POLLEIT* PRESENTED AT THE SPRING CONFERENCE RESEARCH ON MONEY IN THE ECONOMY (ROME) FRANKFURT, 20 MAY 2011 *FRANKFURT SCHOOL OF FINANCE & MANAGEMENT

More information

Verificationism. PHIL September 27, 2011

Verificationism. PHIL September 27, 2011 Verificationism PHIL 83104 September 27, 2011 1. The critique of metaphysics... 1 2. Observation statements... 2 3. In principle verifiability... 3 4. Strong verifiability... 3 4.1. Conclusive verifiability

More information

From Critique of Pure Reason Preface to the second edition

From Critique of Pure Reason Preface to the second edition From Critique of Pure Reason Preface to the second edition Immanuel Kant translated by J. M. D. Meiklejohn Whether the treatment of that portion of our knowledge which lies within the province of pure

More information

SUMMARIES AND TEST QUESTIONS UNIT David Hume: The Origin of Our Ideas and Skepticism about Causal Reasoning

SUMMARIES AND TEST QUESTIONS UNIT David Hume: The Origin of Our Ideas and Skepticism about Causal Reasoning SUMMARIES AND TEST QUESTIONS UNIT 2 Textbook: Louis P. Pojman, Editor. Philosophy: The quest for truth. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. ISBN-10: 0199697310; ISBN-13: 9780199697311 (6th Edition)

More information

Boghossian & Harman on the analytic theory of the a priori

Boghossian & Harman on the analytic theory of the a priori Boghossian & Harman on the analytic theory of the a priori PHIL 83104 November 2, 2011 Both Boghossian and Harman address themselves to the question of whether our a priori knowledge can be explained in

More information

! Jumping ahead 2000 years:! Consider the theory of the self.! What am I? What certain knowledge do I have?! Key figure: René Descartes.

! Jumping ahead 2000 years:! Consider the theory of the self.! What am I? What certain knowledge do I have?! Key figure: René Descartes. ! Jumping ahead 2000 years:! Consider the theory of the self.! What am I? What certain knowledge do I have?! What is the relation between that knowledge and that given in the sciences?! Key figure: René

More information

Freedom as Morality. UWM Digital Commons. University of Wisconsin Milwaukee. Hao Liang University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Theses and Dissertations

Freedom as Morality. UWM Digital Commons. University of Wisconsin Milwaukee. Hao Liang University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Theses and Dissertations University of Wisconsin Milwaukee UWM Digital Commons Theses and Dissertations May 2014 Freedom as Morality Hao Liang University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Follow this and additional works at: http://dc.uwm.edu/etd

More information

KANT S EXPLANATION OF THE NECESSITY OF GEOMETRICAL TRUTHS. John Watling

KANT S EXPLANATION OF THE NECESSITY OF GEOMETRICAL TRUTHS. John Watling KANT S EXPLANATION OF THE NECESSITY OF GEOMETRICAL TRUTHS John Watling Kant was an idealist. His idealism was in some ways, it is true, less extreme than that of Berkeley. He distinguished his own by calling

More information

The Coherence of Kant s Synthetic A Priori

The Coherence of Kant s Synthetic A Priori The Coherence of Kant s Synthetic A Priori Simon Marcus October 2009 Is there synthetic a priori knowledge? The question can be rephrased as Sellars puts it: Are there any universal propositions which,

More information

Naturalized Epistemology. 1. What is naturalized Epistemology? Quine PY4613

Naturalized Epistemology. 1. What is naturalized Epistemology? Quine PY4613 Naturalized Epistemology Quine PY4613 1. What is naturalized Epistemology? a. How is it motivated? b. What are its doctrines? c. Naturalized Epistemology in the context of Quine s philosophy 2. Naturalized

More information

Course Description and Objectives:

Course Description and Objectives: Course Description and Objectives: Philosophy 4120: History of Modern Philosophy Fall 2011 Meeting time and location: MWF 11:50 AM-12:40 PM MEB 2325 Instructor: Anya Plutynski email: plutynski@philosophy.utah.edu

More information

DEFEASIBLE A PRIORI JUSTIFICATION: A REPLY TO THUROW

DEFEASIBLE A PRIORI JUSTIFICATION: A REPLY TO THUROW The Philosophical Quarterly Vol. 58, No. 231 April 2008 ISSN 0031 8094 doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9213.2007.512.x DEFEASIBLE A PRIORI JUSTIFICATION: A REPLY TO THUROW BY ALBERT CASULLO Joshua Thurow offers a

More information

LENT 2018 THEORY OF MEANING DR MAARTEN STEENHAGEN

LENT 2018 THEORY OF MEANING DR MAARTEN STEENHAGEN LENT 2018 THEORY OF MEANING DR MAARTEN STEENHAGEN HTTP://MSTEENHAGEN.GITHUB.IO/TEACHING/2018TOM THE EINSTEIN-BERGSON DEBATE SCIENCE AND METAPHYSICS Henri Bergson and Albert Einstein met on the 6th of

More information

2 FREE CHOICE The heretical thesis of Hobbes is the orthodox position today. So much is this the case that most of the contemporary literature

2 FREE CHOICE The heretical thesis of Hobbes is the orthodox position today. So much is this the case that most of the contemporary literature Introduction The philosophical controversy about free will and determinism is perennial. Like many perennial controversies, this one involves a tangle of distinct but closely related issues. Thus, the

More information

Notes on Bertrand Russell s The Problems of Philosophy (Hackett 1990 reprint of the 1912 Oxford edition, Chapters XII, XIII, XIV, )

Notes on Bertrand Russell s The Problems of Philosophy (Hackett 1990 reprint of the 1912 Oxford edition, Chapters XII, XIII, XIV, ) Notes on Bertrand Russell s The Problems of Philosophy (Hackett 1990 reprint of the 1912 Oxford edition, Chapters XII, XIII, XIV, 119-152) Chapter XII Truth and Falsehood [pp. 119-130] Russell begins here

More information

CHAPTER 1 KNOWLEDGE : ITS FORMATION PROCESS AND SOURCES

CHAPTER 1 KNOWLEDGE : ITS FORMATION PROCESS AND SOURCES CHAPTER 1 KNOWLEDGE : ITS FORMATION PROCESS AND SOURCES 11 The concept of knowledge has occupied the minds of philosophers throughout the history of the discipline. No attempt has been made in this chapter

More information

Excerpt from J. Garvey, The Twenty Greatest Philosophy Books (Continuum, 2007): Immanuel Kant s Critique of Pure Reason

Excerpt from J. Garvey, The Twenty Greatest Philosophy Books (Continuum, 2007): Immanuel Kant s Critique of Pure Reason Excerpt from J. Garvey, The Twenty Greatest Philosophy Books (Continuum, 2007): Immanuel Kant s Critique of Pure Reason In a letter to Moses Mendelssohn, Kant says this about the Critique of Pure Reason:

More information

Hume on Ideas, Impressions, and Knowledge

Hume on Ideas, Impressions, and Knowledge Hume on Ideas, Impressions, and Knowledge in class. Let my try one more time to make clear the ideas we discussed today Ideas and Impressions First off, Hume, like Descartes, Locke, and Berkeley, believes

More information

Chapter I. Introduction

Chapter I. Introduction Chapter I Introduction The philosophical ideas propounded by John Locke have far-reaching consequences in the field of classical philosophy. However, his writings have been studied exhaustively by only

More information

Philosophy of Science. Ross Arnold, Summer 2014 Lakeside institute of Theology

Philosophy of Science. Ross Arnold, Summer 2014 Lakeside institute of Theology Philosophy of Science Ross Arnold, Summer 2014 Lakeside institute of Theology Philosophical Theology 1 (TH5) Aug. 15 Intro to Philosophical Theology; Logic Aug. 22 Truth & Epistemology Aug. 29 Metaphysics

More information

Logic, Truth & Epistemology. Ross Arnold, Summer 2014 Lakeside institute of Theology

Logic, Truth & Epistemology. Ross Arnold, Summer 2014 Lakeside institute of Theology Logic, Truth & Epistemology Ross Arnold, Summer 2014 Lakeside institute of Theology Philosophical Theology 1 (TH5) Aug. 15 Intro to Philosophical Theology; Logic Aug. 22 Truth & Epistemology Aug. 29 Metaphysics

More information

Two Ways of Thinking

Two Ways of Thinking Two Ways of Thinking Dick Stoute An abstract Overview In Western philosophy deductive reasoning following the principles of logic is widely accepted as the way to analyze information. Perhaps the Turing

More information

Divisibility, Logic, Radical Empiricism, and Metaphysics

Divisibility, Logic, Radical Empiricism, and Metaphysics Abstract: Divisibility, Logic, Radical Empiricism, and Metaphysics We will explore the problem of the manner in which the world may be divided into parts, and how this affects the application of logic.

More information

How Do We Know Anything about Mathematics? - A Defence of Platonism

How Do We Know Anything about Mathematics? - A Defence of Platonism How Do We Know Anything about Mathematics? - A Defence of Platonism Majda Trobok University of Rijeka original scientific paper UDK: 141.131 1:51 510.21 ABSTRACT In this paper I will try to say something

More information

Neurophilosophy and free will VI

Neurophilosophy and free will VI Neurophilosophy and free will VI Introductory remarks Neurophilosophy is a programme that has been intensively studied for the last few decades. It strives towards a unified mind-brain theory in which

More information

THE CRISIS OF THE SCmNCES AS EXPRESSION OF THE RADICAL LIFE-CRISIS OF EUROPEAN HUMANITY

THE CRISIS OF THE SCmNCES AS EXPRESSION OF THE RADICAL LIFE-CRISIS OF EUROPEAN HUMANITY Contents Translator's Introduction / xv PART I THE CRISIS OF THE SCmNCES AS EXPRESSION OF THE RADICAL LIFE-CRISIS OF EUROPEAN HUMANITY I. Is there, in view of their constant successes, really a crisis

More information

Sydenham College of Commerce & Economics. * Dr. Sunil S. Shete. * Associate Professor

Sydenham College of Commerce & Economics. * Dr. Sunil S. Shete. * Associate Professor Sydenham College of Commerce & Economics * Dr. Sunil S. Shete * Associate Professor Keywords: Philosophy of science, research methods, Logic, Business research Abstract This paper review Popper s epistemology

More information

International Journal of Asian Social Science, 1(4), pp

International Journal of Asian Social Science, 1(4), pp Francis Bacon s Qualification As A Principal Empiricist Philosopher Abstract Author Ochulor, Chinenye Leo Department Of Philosophy University Of Calabar P.M.B. 1115 Calabar Nigeria Email: Leoochulor@Yahoo.Com

More information

PH 1000 Introduction to Philosophy, or PH 1001 Practical Reasoning

PH 1000 Introduction to Philosophy, or PH 1001 Practical Reasoning DEREE COLLEGE SYLLABUS FOR: PH 3118 THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE (previously PH 2118) (Updated SPRING 2016) PREREQUISITES: CATALOG DESCRIPTION: RATIONALE: LEARNING OUTCOMES: METHOD OF TEACHING AND LEARNING: UK

More information

1/9. The First Analogy

1/9. The First Analogy 1/9 The First Analogy So far we have looked at the mathematical principles but now we are going to turn to the dynamical principles, of which there are two sorts, the Analogies of Experience and the Postulates

More information

The Problem of Major Premise in Buddhist Logic

The Problem of Major Premise in Buddhist Logic The Problem of Major Premise in Buddhist Logic TANG Mingjun The Institute of Philosophy Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences Shanghai, P.R. China Abstract: This paper is a preliminary inquiry into the main

More information

Philosophy 203 History of Modern Western Philosophy. Russell Marcus Hamilton College Spring 2010

Philosophy 203 History of Modern Western Philosophy. Russell Marcus Hamilton College Spring 2010 Philosophy 203 History of Modern Western Philosophy Russell Marcus Hamilton College Spring 2010 Class 3 - Meditations Two and Three too much material, but we ll do what we can Marcus, Modern Philosophy,

More information

Fr. Copleston vs. Bertrand Russell: The Famous 1948 BBC Radio Debate on the Existence of God

Fr. Copleston vs. Bertrand Russell: The Famous 1948 BBC Radio Debate on the Existence of God Fr. Copleston vs. Bertrand Russell: The Famous 1948 BBC Radio Debate on the Existence of God Father Frederick C. Copleston (Jesuit Catholic priest) versus Bertrand Russell (agnostic philosopher) Copleston:

More information

EPISTEMOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS OF KANT S NOTION OF SPACE AND TIME

EPISTEMOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS OF KANT S NOTION OF SPACE AND TIME EPISTEMOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS OF KANT S NOTION OF SPACE AND TIME Kyrian A. Ojong, PhD Enyimba, Maduka Department of Philosophy University of Calabar, Calabar Abstract: Immanuel Kant is by far one of the

More information

Reid Against Skepticism

Reid Against Skepticism Thus we see, that Descartes and Locke take the road that leads to skepticism without knowing the end of it, but they stop short for want of light to carry them farther. Berkeley, frightened at the appearance

More information

Aspects of Western Philosophy Dr. Sreekumar Nellickappilly Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras

Aspects of Western Philosophy Dr. Sreekumar Nellickappilly Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Aspects of Western Philosophy Dr. Sreekumar Nellickappilly Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Module - 22 Lecture - 22 Kant The idea of Reason Soul, God

More information

Qué es la filosofía? What is philosophy? Philosophy

Qué es la filosofía? What is philosophy? Philosophy Philosophy PHILOSOPHY AS A WAY OF THINKING WHAT IS IT? WHO HAS IT? WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A WAY OF THINKING AND A DISCIPLINE? It is the propensity to seek out answers to the questions that we ask

More information

SAMPLE. Science and Epistemology. Chapter An uneasy relationship

SAMPLE. Science and Epistemology. Chapter An uneasy relationship Chapter 14 Science and Epistemology In this chapter first we will bring our story more or less up-to-date, and second we will round out some issues concerning the concepts of knowledge and justification;

More information

In The California Undergraduate Philosophy Review, vol. 1, pp Fresno, CA: California State University, Fresno.

In The California Undergraduate Philosophy Review, vol. 1, pp Fresno, CA: California State University, Fresno. A Distinction Without a Difference? The Analytic-Synthetic Distinction and Immanuel Kant s Critique of Metaphysics Brandon Clark Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo Abstract: In this paper I pose and answer the

More information

VERIFICATION AND METAPHYSICS

VERIFICATION AND METAPHYSICS Michael Lacewing The project of logical positivism VERIFICATION AND METAPHYSICS In the 1930s, a school of philosophy arose called logical positivism. Like much philosophy, it was concerned with the foundations

More information

A Priori Knowledge: Analytic? Synthetic A Priori (again) Is All A Priori Knowledge Analytic?

A Priori Knowledge: Analytic? Synthetic A Priori (again) Is All A Priori Knowledge Analytic? A Priori Knowledge: Analytic? Synthetic A Priori (again) Is All A Priori Knowledge Analytic? Recap A Priori Knowledge Knowledge independent of experience Kant: necessary and universal A Posteriori Knowledge

More information

Unit 2. WoK 1 - Perception. Tuesday, October 7, 14

Unit 2. WoK 1 - Perception. Tuesday, October 7, 14 Unit 2 WoK 1 - Perception Russell Reading - Appearance and Reality The Russell document provides a basic framework for looking at the limitations of our senses. In small groups, discuss and record what

More information

Philosophy 203 History of Modern Western Philosophy. Russell Marcus Hamilton College Spring 2014

Philosophy 203 History of Modern Western Philosophy. Russell Marcus Hamilton College Spring 2014 Philosophy 203 History of Modern Western Philosophy Russell Marcus Hamilton College Spring 2014 Class #26 Kant s Copernican Revolution The Synthetic A Priori Forms of Intuition Marcus, Modern Philosophy,

More information

INTUITION AND CONSCIOUS REASONING

INTUITION AND CONSCIOUS REASONING The Philosophical Quarterly Vol. 63, No. 253 October 2013 ISSN 0031-8094 doi: 10.1111/1467-9213.12071 INTUITION AND CONSCIOUS REASONING BY OLE KOKSVIK This paper argues that, contrary to common opinion,

More information

The Human Science Debate: Positivist, Anti-Positivist, and Postpositivist Inquiry. By Rebecca Joy Norlander. November 20, 2007

The Human Science Debate: Positivist, Anti-Positivist, and Postpositivist Inquiry. By Rebecca Joy Norlander. November 20, 2007 The Human Science Debate: Positivist, Anti-Positivist, and Postpositivist Inquiry By Rebecca Joy Norlander November 20, 2007 2 What is knowledge and how is it acquired through the process of inquiry? Is

More information

IDHEF Chapter 2 Why Should Anyone Believe Anything At All?

IDHEF Chapter 2 Why Should Anyone Believe Anything At All? IDHEF Chapter 2 Why Should Anyone Believe Anything At All? -You might have heard someone say, It doesn t really matter what you believe, as long as you believe something. While many people think this is

More information

The Greatest Mistake: A Case for the Failure of Hegel s Idealism

The Greatest Mistake: A Case for the Failure of Hegel s Idealism The Greatest Mistake: A Case for the Failure of Hegel s Idealism What is a great mistake? Nietzsche once said that a great error is worth more than a multitude of trivial truths. A truly great mistake

More information

Predicate logic. Miguel Palomino Dpto. Sistemas Informáticos y Computación (UCM) Madrid Spain

Predicate logic. Miguel Palomino Dpto. Sistemas Informáticos y Computación (UCM) Madrid Spain Predicate logic Miguel Palomino Dpto. Sistemas Informáticos y Computación (UCM) 28040 Madrid Spain Synonyms. First-order logic. Question 1. Describe this discipline/sub-discipline, and some of its more

More information

Foundationalism Vs. Skepticism: The Greater Philosophical Ideology

Foundationalism Vs. Skepticism: The Greater Philosophical Ideology 1. Introduction Ryan C. Smith Philosophy 125W- Final Paper April 24, 2010 Foundationalism Vs. Skepticism: The Greater Philosophical Ideology Throughout this paper, the goal will be to accomplish three

More information

Kant and his Successors

Kant and his Successors Kant and his Successors G. J. Mattey Winter, 2011 / Philosophy 151 The Sorry State of Metaphysics Kant s Critique of Pure Reason (1781) was an attempt to put metaphysics on a scientific basis. Metaphysics

More information

Overview. Is there a priori knowledge? No: Mill, Quine. Is there synthetic a priori knowledge? Yes: faculty of a priori intuition (Rationalism, Kant)

Overview. Is there a priori knowledge? No: Mill, Quine. Is there synthetic a priori knowledge? Yes: faculty of a priori intuition (Rationalism, Kant) Overview Is there a priori knowledge? Is there synthetic a priori knowledge? No: Mill, Quine Yes: faculty of a priori intuition (Rationalism, Kant) No: all a priori knowledge analytic (Ayer) No A Priori

More information

LOCKE STUDIES Vol ISSN: X

LOCKE STUDIES Vol ISSN: X LOCKE STUDIES Vol. 18 https://doi.org/10.5206/ls.2018.3525 ISSN: 2561-925X Submitted: 28 JUNE 2018 Published online: 30 JULY 2018 For more information, see this article s homepage. 2018. Nathan Rockwood

More information

Broad on Theological Arguments. I. The Ontological Argument

Broad on Theological Arguments. I. The Ontological Argument Broad on God Broad on Theological Arguments I. The Ontological Argument Sample Ontological Argument: Suppose that God is the most perfect or most excellent being. Consider two things: (1)An entity that

More information

Comparison between Rene Descartes and Francis Bacon s Scientific Method. Course. Date

Comparison between Rene Descartes and Francis Bacon s Scientific Method. Course. Date 1 Comparison between Rene Descartes and Francis Bacon s Scientific Method Course Date 2 Similarities and Differences between Descartes and Francis Bacon s Scientific method Introduction Science and Philosophy

More information