Nietzsche s Philosophy as Background to an Examination of Tolkien s The Lord of the Rings

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Nietzsche s Philosophy as Background to an Examination of Tolkien s The Lord of the Rings"

Transcription

1 Nietzsche s Philosophy as Background to an Examination of Tolkien s The Lord of the Rings

2 Friedrich Nietzsche Nietzsche once stated, God is dead. And we have killed him. He meant that no absolute truth / no clear moral code exist. All is relative and depends upon one s perspective. Nietzsche (along with his contemporaries Freud, Darwin, and Marx) brought attention to the deep and burgeoning cultural shift perceived in Europe, already prior to WWI. Nietzsche is one of the philosophers and thinkers who sets the stage for the movement eventually known as Existentialism.

3 The following slides will present some of the defining beliefs described by Nietzsche. They are by no means all-inclusive. Also, please note that they do not purport to be Truth, nor even true. They are merely one philosophical viewpoint embraced during the modern period. Anyway, remember, Truth does not exist in the modern and postmodern periods.

4 We have absolute freedom to create our own values. But, this creates a loss of orientation and results in nihilism, i.e. values emptiness. The crisis of nihilism How do we create meaning in the moral void? (Nietzsche s answer is coming in a few slides!) Nietzsche identified 2 kinds of nihilism Nietzsche and Nihilism

5 Passive Nihilism - Nihilism as an end point. A rejection of all traditional sources of meaning, truth, knowledge and value with no further progress being possible. - Characterized by fatalism, rejection, paralysis, withdrawal, defeat, and suicide (literal or figurative).

6 Active Nihilism - Nihilism as a starting point. A rejection of all traditional sources of meaning, truth, knowledge and value and an embrace of the resulting freedom. - Characterized by the active creation of new sources of meaning, truth, knowledge and value out of the freedom of nothingness.

7 Mortality and Anxiety Existentialists posit that: the human consciousness of death creates anxiety. death is a state of nothingness, of non-being. After WWI, this fear encompasses not only of individual death, but the death of entire cultures. This is premise of Tolkien s The Lord of the Rings.

8 Nietzsche s Ugly Truth According to Nietzsche: Life s meaningless and purposelessness are too ugly for us to bear. Good and Evil do not exist in any measurable form, and any objective morality is pointless and unnatural. Doing good deeds because we believe that God assigns moral value to these things is merely lying to ourselves. Science led us to nihilism, and only art can distract us from that terror. Beauty will save us from truth. Artists affirm life in the midst of great suffering and pain. Technology is dangerous! It denies imagination and creativity, and alienates us from who we really are (from our origins).

9 NIETZSCHE S THEORY OF THE WILL TO POWER Reality is the Will to Power. It is seen in the struggle for survival between species and men, in the exercise of power over others. The highest level is seen in power over oneself, in the self-mastery of artists and geniuses. Domination over another confesses an inability to dominate one s internal conflicts.

10 Nietzsche identifies two types of modern humans: 1) The Slave, made up of the masses = the wretched and the botched, who assign blame and seek sympathy for their suffering. The masses are frightened by the death of God, since it places responsibility for creating values on them. The Slave denies the will to power, and invents afterworlds (life after death). 2) The Master, or noble man = a human capable of overcoming mere humanity, of honestly facing and accepting the meaninglessness of life, of assigning to it whatever values or purposes the Master finds acceptable/responsible. In this way, one can become the mythical hero (Superman, or Übermensch). The Master affirms the will to power. The superior individual assumes this responsibility without fear and also utilizes fear to achieve what he/she believes is right. Master Soul / Slave Soul

11 The Slave Soul Slaves refuse to give up established moral codes/religion. They are nostalgic for a better past. They believe that good still exists, and that the good person is meek and humble, while the bad person is prideful. Nietzsche believes that this inability to accept reality (i.e., no morality, no afterlife, no God, etc.) stems from an unconscious resentment of the weak against the strong (i.e., those who accept and embrace the Will to Power).

12 THE MASTER SOUL The noble man/superman does not require others approval May helps the unfortunate, not out of pity, but rather out of an impulse generated by his immense power and generosity The Master Soul has power over himself (self-will) The Master takes pleasure in subjecting himself to great severity and hardships.

13 Nietzsche, Myth, and Modernism Again, according to Nietzsche: o o o Every vital society has a unifying myth, but rationalism (science) has destroyed every such myth in the West. The rebirth of the West from its present nihilism requires a new myth of the Superman. The Superman lives dangerously, risking himself, renouncing security, exhausting his health in heroic effort. One should die with one s boots on. One should stride forth and embrace one s fate (amor fati).

14 Tolkien s Version of Modernism - A Master/Superman asserts a continual effort of his/her free will to be virtuous in a world without objective virtue. - In more existential (and modern) terms, a Superman chooses the difficult or impossible, but fundamentally virtuous answer to problems, over the easy and personally satisfying solution. - The Lord of the Rings is, in some respects, a response to Nietzsche s call for a new myth of the Superman. Resistance to temptation and indomitable endurance are key concepts. However, in Tolkien s world, personal choice is still based on compassion, pity, preservation, and a conscious pursuit of common good. This is a nostalgic notion. - In other words, some of Tolkien s work is modernist, and some is traditional.

15 Memory and Forgetfulness Memories can come upon us unawares, and lead either to joy or anguish. All memories are not always accessible to us, and memory is therefore beyond our control, beyond our will. Because some memories hurt our ability to live a full and useful life, Nietzsche believes that many humans tend to run from memory, by keeping active and never stopping to think or allow thoughts to come naturally. We flee from our past, which can haunt us, and make us inauthentic beings. Nietzsche believes that we should strive to remember the positive, but forget the harmful, that which will keep us from living an authentic life. (I m pretty sure Freud would disagree! Can you say repression?)

16 History as Memory Nietzsche differentiates three attitudes toward history: 1. Historical (geschichtlich): memory is needed to our survival. We need history to remember the past and stabilize our identity. Remember who you are. 2. Unhistorical (ungeschichtlich): But if it is necessary, we must be able to forget the past for our happiness. Forget what weakens you. 3. Super-historical (übergeschichtlich): history is cyclical, we live our lives over and over again the past can teach us the meaning of the future and anticipate the future.

17 Authentic vs. Inauthentic Life Inauthentic Life: Lived by people who never seriously question themselves or whether or not they are simply being led around by the institutions designed to help them. Are they genuine, or merely acting a part? If humans never know who they really are as individuals, they lead a zombie kind of existence. They forget who they are.

18 Authentic vs. Inauthentic Life Authentic Life: Lived by people who recognize and dissolve the artificial chains that bind us, and that come from outside forces, such as religion. Nietzsche concludes there is no originating force that creates a man, and that this fact "alone is the great liberation" (65). To break free of imposed restraints is to accept responsibility for one s fate, and to affirm life, even in the face of great suffering. People who lead an authentic life remember who they are.

19 This all leads to Existentialism A) Existence precedes essence (hence the name existentialism ): there are no pre-existing conditions that guide or determine man s behavior or essence. B) This leads to the absurd condition man seeks meaning in a meaningless world (universe unconscious of our existence). C) Man is condemned to be free. A lack of external meaning leads to modern despair, due to man s overwhelming sense of responsibility and recognition of his fundamental aloneness in an indifferent universe. D) However, the artist and the existentialist achieve meaningful happiness by facing the pain and still affirming life.

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION. A. Research Background. being as opposed to society as a one organism (Macquarrie, 1973). Existentialism mainly finds

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION. A. Research Background. being as opposed to society as a one organism (Macquarrie, 1973). Existentialism mainly finds CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Research Background Existentialism believes that philosophical thinking begins with a living, acting human being as opposed to society as a one organism (Macquarrie, 1973). Existentialism

More information

Misfortune: Creating Opportunity, or Impeding Happiness? in accordance with some virtue, good fortune dictates whether we will experience

Misfortune: Creating Opportunity, or Impeding Happiness? in accordance with some virtue, good fortune dictates whether we will experience Kerns 1 Kristine A. Kerns Professor Jonas Cope English 1000H 10 April 2011 Misfortune: Creating Opportunity, or Impeding Happiness? According to Aristotle, there are many requirements for being happy.

More information

MEDICAL WARNING: AS WITH THEORIES OF EVOLUTION, PSYCHOANALYSIS, BUDDHISM (AND SO ON) THAT WE WILL LOOK AT THIS YEAR, EXISTENTIALISM DEALS WITH

MEDICAL WARNING: AS WITH THEORIES OF EVOLUTION, PSYCHOANALYSIS, BUDDHISM (AND SO ON) THAT WE WILL LOOK AT THIS YEAR, EXISTENTIALISM DEALS WITH MEDICAL WARNING: AS WITH THEORIES OF EVOLUTION, PSYCHOANALYSIS, BUDDHISM (AND SO ON) THAT WE WILL LOOK AT THIS YEAR, EXISTENTIALISM DEALS WITH INTENSE THEOLOGICAL ( RELIGIOUS STUDY ) AND ONTOLOGICAL (

More information

Ludwig Feuerbach The Essence of Christianity (excerpts) 1 PHIL101 Prof. Oakes updated: 10/23/13 9:10 AM. Section III: How do I know? Reading III.

Ludwig Feuerbach The Essence of Christianity (excerpts) 1 PHIL101 Prof. Oakes updated: 10/23/13 9:10 AM. Section III: How do I know? Reading III. Ludwig Feuerbach The Essence of Christianity (excerpts) 1 PHIL101 Prof. Oakes updated: 10/23/13 9:10 AM Section III: How do I know? Reading III.6 The German philosopher, Ludwig Feuerbach, develops a humanist

More information

The Influence of Fatalism and absolute Power on Doctor Faustus and The Lord of the Rings

The Influence of Fatalism and absolute Power on Doctor Faustus and The Lord of the Rings The Influence of Fatalism and absolute Power on Doctor Faustus and The Lord of the Rings Christopher Marlowe and J.R.R Tolkien Teacher Yunya Huang ( 黃筠雅老師 ) Book Doctor Faustus and The Lord of the Rings

More information

Searching for an Educational Response to Nihilism in Our Time: An Examination of Keiji Nishitani s Philosophy of Emptiness 1

Searching for an Educational Response to Nihilism in Our Time: An Examination of Keiji Nishitani s Philosophy of Emptiness 1 284 Searching for an Educational Response to Nihilism in Our Time: An Examination of 1 Yoshiko Nakama Teachers College, Columbia University INTRODUCTION Many scholars of education consider our age an age

More information

Nietzsche and Existentialism. by: Khail Sims. Eric Matos, Cameron Crosby, and Trevor Nelson

Nietzsche and Existentialism. by: Khail Sims. Eric Matos, Cameron Crosby, and Trevor Nelson Nietzsche and Existentialism by: Khail Sims. Eric Matos, Cameron Crosby, and Trevor Nelson Bio.com. A&E Networks Television. Web. 02 Feb. 2016. Biography German philosopher born on october 15 1844 in Röcken

More information

LYING TEACHER S NOTES

LYING TEACHER S NOTES TEACHER S NOTES INTRO Each student has to choose one of the following topics. The other students have to ask questions on that topic. During the discussion, the student has to lie once. The other students

More information

CHAPTER ONE What is Philosophy? What s In It For Me?

CHAPTER ONE What is Philosophy? What s In It For Me? CHAPTER ONE What is Philosophy? What s In It For Me? General Overview Welcome to the world of philosophy. Whether we like to acknowledge it or not, an inevitable fact of classroom life after the introductions

More information

Nietzsche. How did Nietzsche define the human will? Nietzsche. When you think of the human will what comes to your mind? How would you define it?

Nietzsche. How did Nietzsche define the human will? Nietzsche. When you think of the human will what comes to your mind? How would you define it? Atheist Intellectual Nietzsche Society driven by human will Literally worked self sick Wrote 20 books Helped forge the field on Anthropology Nietzsche Had a negative reaction to science and reason. Believed

More information

God s Process For Life Change Moving From Despair To Hope (Part 2)

God s Process For Life Change Moving From Despair To Hope (Part 2) Mailing Address: PO Box 797 Molalla, OR 97038 Phone: 503-829-5101 Fax: 503-829-9502 Pastor Dale Satrum God s Process For Life Change Moving From Despair To Hope (Part 2) Intro: Life change is impossible

More information

Freedom and servitude: the master and slave dialectic in Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit

Freedom and servitude: the master and slave dialectic in Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit Boston University OpenBU Theses & Dissertations http://open.bu.edu Boston University Theses & Dissertations 2014 Freedom and servitude: the master and slave dialectic in Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit

More information

Definition: The denial of the possibility of knowledge, philosophy, and value in anything.

Definition: The denial of the possibility of knowledge, philosophy, and value in anything. Christoph Koehler Roundtable of Ideologies Spring 2009 Nihilism 1 Definition: The denial of the possibility of knowledge, philosophy, and value in anything. Prominent Philosophers: Friedrich Nietzsche,

More information

God, please help me face and be rid of the things in myself which have been blocking me from You, other people and myself.

God, please help me face and be rid of the things in myself which have been blocking me from You, other people and myself. Set Aside Prayer: God, please set aside everything that we think we know about ourselves, the book, sobriety, the 12 Steps, and you God. God please help each and every one of us to have an open mind so

More information

Religious Studies Scheme of Work Yr9 Existentialism

Religious Studies Scheme of Work Yr9 Existentialism Religious Studies Scheme of Work Yr9 Existentialism Lesson title, aim and outcomes Introduction to Existentialism Aim: What is existentialism? MUST be able to explain what the existential attitude is SHOULD

More information

Theology of the Body. Chapter One: Created for Love

Theology of the Body. Chapter One: Created for Love Theology of the Body Chapter One: Created for Love Why is there so much pain and suffering in the world? Original sin Concupiscence- tendency to sin Members of a society that is damaged and hurting from

More information

THE RULE OF SAINT AUGUSTINE AUGUSTINIAN SPIRITUALITY FOR PAROCHIAL MINISTRY

THE RULE OF SAINT AUGUSTINE AUGUSTINIAN SPIRITUALITY FOR PAROCHIAL MINISTRY THE RULE OF SAINT AUGUSTINE AUGUSTINIAN SPIRITUALITY FOR PAROCHIAL MINISTRY North American Augustinians From the Introduction: Before all else, dear brothers, love God and then your neighbor, because these

More information

Transformation: Facing the Anxiety of Being

Transformation: Facing the Anxiety of Being Anxiety of Being 1 Transformation: Facing the Anxiety of Being By Gabrielle Taylor Transformation: Facing the Anxiety of Being Anxiety of Being 2 I have been thinking about what it means for a client to

More information

Absolute truth or relative terms? Apologetics to believe 1

Absolute truth or relative terms? Apologetics to believe 1 Absolute truth or relative terms? Apologetics to believe 1 On an Airline flight... What have we become? 3 4 And What is Truth? 5 Absolute truth or relative terms? And what is truth? 6 Absolute truth or

More information

Section 1 of chapter 1 of The Moral Sense advances the thesis that we have a

Section 1 of chapter 1 of The Moral Sense advances the thesis that we have a Extracting Morality from the Moral Sense Scott Soames Character and the Moral Sense: James Q. Wilson and the Future of Public Policy February 28, 2014 Wilburn Auditorium Pepperdine University Malibu, California

More information

There are three tools you can use:

There are three tools you can use: Slide 1: What the Buddha Thought How can we know if something we read or hear about Buddhism really reflects the Buddha s own teachings? There are three tools you can use: Slide 2: 1. When delivering his

More information

Nietzsche and Aristotle in contemporary virtue ethics

Nietzsche and Aristotle in contemporary virtue ethics Ethical Theory and Practice - Final Paper 3 February 2005 Tibor Goossens - 0439940 CS Ethics 1A - WBMA3014 Faculty of Philosophy - Utrecht University Table of contents 1. Introduction and research question...

More information

LESSON SEVEN WHEN I AM TEMPTED

LESSON SEVEN WHEN I AM TEMPTED LESSON SEVEN WHEN I AM TEMPTED "Blessed is the man that endureth temptation: for when he is tried he shall receive the crown of life, which the Lord hath promised to them that love him." (James 1:12) The

More information

I m a new Christian: Why is it. so hard? Looking Deeper

I m a new Christian: Why is it. so hard? Looking Deeper I m a new Christian: Why is it so hard? Looking Deeper Looking Deeper I m a new Christian: Why is it so hard? The Christian life makes me think of climbing a mountain. When I first came to Jesus, I was

More information

The Unveiling of Illusion in Nietzschean Aesthetics

The Unveiling of Illusion in Nietzschean Aesthetics The Unveiling of Illusion in Nietzschean Aesthetics Carolyn Gregoire McGill University, Class of 2011 Illusion works impenetrable, Weaving webs innumerable, Her gay pictures never fail, Crowds each other,

More information

Differences between Psychosynthesis and Jungian Psychology 2017 by Catherine Ann Lombard. Conceptual differences

Differences between Psychosynthesis and Jungian Psychology 2017 by Catherine Ann Lombard. Conceptual differences Conceptual differences Archetypes The Self I Psychosynthesis (Assagioli, 1978, 1993, 2000, 2002) Archetypes are spiritual energies of higher ideas emerging from a transpersonal unconsciousness or transpersonal

More information

Lecture 18: Rationalism

Lecture 18: Rationalism Lecture 18: Rationalism I. INTRODUCTION A. Introduction Descartes notion of innate ideas is consistent with rationalism Rationalism is a view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification.

More information

The Reference of Nietzsche s Moral Philosophy to Remodel Chinese s Personality

The Reference of Nietzsche s Moral Philosophy to Remodel Chinese s Personality Asian Social Science; Vol. 12, No. 4; 2016 ISSN 1911-2017 E-ISSN 1911-2025 Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education The Reference of Nietzsche s Moral Philosophy to Remodel Chinese s Personality

More information

The Iliad -- Study Guide #1 -- Ancient Studies Tuttle/Rogers

The Iliad -- Study Guide #1 -- Ancient Studies Tuttle/Rogers Ancient Studies Assignment Bulletin - Unit 1: The Iliad Homer # Due Date Iliad Book: Lines Pages #1 T 9/6 Book 1: 1-317 1-10 #2 W* 9/7 Book 1: 318-643 10-19 #3 W* 9/7 Book 2: 1-54, 226-300 20-23 W* 9/7

More information

Morally Adaptive or Morally Maladaptive: A Look at Compassion, Mercy, and Bravery

Morally Adaptive or Morally Maladaptive: A Look at Compassion, Mercy, and Bravery ESSAI Volume 10 Article 17 4-1-2012 Morally Adaptive or Morally Maladaptive: A Look at Compassion, Mercy, and Bravery Alec Dorner College of DuPage Follow this and additional works at: http://dc.cod.edu/essai

More information

Environmental Theology in Sikhism

Environmental Theology in Sikhism Environmental Theology in Sikhism "Creating the world, God has made it a place to practice spirituality" (Guru Granth Sahib, page 1035.) The Sikh scripture declares that the purpose of human beings is

More information

The role of ethical judgment based on the supposed right action to perform in a given

The role of ethical judgment based on the supposed right action to perform in a given Applying the Social Contract Theory in Opposing Animal Rights by Stephen C. Sanders Copyright 2016. All rights reserved. The role of ethical judgment based on the supposed right action to perform in a

More information

Series James. This Message Faith Without Obedience is Dead Do not merely listen to the word; do what it says. Scripture James 1:19-27

Series James. This Message Faith Without Obedience is Dead Do not merely listen to the word; do what it says. Scripture James 1:19-27 Series James This Message Faith Without Obedience is Dead Do not merely listen to the word; do what it says Scripture James 1:19-27 Some commentators consider the letter written by James to be the most

More information

DOES ETHICS NEED GOD?

DOES ETHICS NEED GOD? DOES ETHICS NEED GOD? Linda Zagzebski ntis essay presents a moral argument for the rationality of theistic belief. If all I have to go on morally are my own moral intuitions and reasoning and those of

More information

To be able to define human nature and psychological egoism. To explain how our views of human nature influence our relationships with other

To be able to define human nature and psychological egoism. To explain how our views of human nature influence our relationships with other Velasquez, Philosophy TRACK 1: CHAPTER REVIEW CHAPTER 2: Human Nature 2.1: Why Does Your View of Human Nature Matter? Learning objectives: To be able to define human nature and psychological egoism To

More information

Phil 114, Wednesday, April 11, 2012 Hegel, The Philosophy of Right 1 7, 10 12, 14 16, 22 23, 27 33, 135, 141

Phil 114, Wednesday, April 11, 2012 Hegel, The Philosophy of Right 1 7, 10 12, 14 16, 22 23, 27 33, 135, 141 Phil 114, Wednesday, April 11, 2012 Hegel, The Philosophy of Right 1 7, 10 12, 14 16, 22 23, 27 33, 135, 141 Dialectic: For Hegel, dialectic is a process governed by a principle of development, i.e., Reason

More information

Daily prayers for August

Daily prayers for August Daily prayers for August Tuesday, August 1 st : There s a running joke that if all else fails, read the directions! That holds true for life; we ve been given an instruction manual that can make things

More information

Thank you for listening to our interview on the topic of

Thank you for listening to our interview on the topic of Thank you for listening to our interview on the topic of Forgiveness. Here are some handouts that may assist you as you begin to practice the Art of Forgiveness. To Your Happiness, For more on forgiveness

More information

The Role of Repression in Nathanial Hawthorn s Young Goodman Brown. In Nathanial Hawthorn s Young Goodman Brown the struggle of the main character can

The Role of Repression in Nathanial Hawthorn s Young Goodman Brown. In Nathanial Hawthorn s Young Goodman Brown the struggle of the main character can Kristoff 1 Dan Kristoff Dr. Pennington Psychoanalysis 10-10-14 The Role of Repression in Nathanial Hawthorn s Young Goodman Brown In Nathanial Hawthorn s Young Goodman Brown the struggle of the main character

More information

Nietzsche s Man of Action

Nietzsche s Man of Action Trinity College Trinity College Digital Repository The First-Year Papers (2010 - present) Trinity serial publications (1850 - present) Summer 2012 Nietzsche s Man of Action Michaela Powers Trinity College,

More information

St. Hilary Men s Group

St. Hilary Men s Group St. Hilary Men s Group 1.12.2013 The Seven Capital Virues Time for Real Resolutions Part#1 We people of God are Spiritual Beings having a Human Experience and not Human Beings having a Spiritual Experience.

More information

Introduction to culture and worldview analysis. Asking questions to better understand ourselves and others

Introduction to culture and worldview analysis. Asking questions to better understand ourselves and others Introduction to culture and worldview analysis Asking questions to better understand ourselves and others What is culture? How would you answer this? Get in small groups of 2 or 3 to discuss this question.

More information

STANISŁAW BRZOZOWSKI S CRITICAL HERMENEUTICS

STANISŁAW BRZOZOWSKI S CRITICAL HERMENEUTICS NORBERT LEŚNIEWSKI STANISŁAW BRZOZOWSKI S CRITICAL HERMENEUTICS Understanding is approachable only for one who is able to force for deep sympathy in the field of spirit and tragic history, for being perturbed

More information

Introduction: So it was with the church of Ephesus. It may be the same with us.

Introduction: So it was with the church of Ephesus. It may be the same with us. Revelation 2:1-7 The Honeymoon Is Over Introduction: We ve all had the experience. Initial enthusiasm gives way to persistent dissatisfaction. Of course it happens in marriage and that s where we get the

More information

La Belle Epoque

La Belle Epoque La Belle Epoque 1871-1914 Materialism Inner Zone = Britain, France, Belgium, Germany, N. Italy & W. Austria Outer Zone = Ireland, Iberian Peninsula, Most of Italy & Central and Eastern Europe Demographic

More information

FIRST STUDY. The Existential Dialectical Basic Assumption of Kierkegaard s Analysis of Despair

FIRST STUDY. The Existential Dialectical Basic Assumption of Kierkegaard s Analysis of Despair FIRST STUDY The Existential Dialectical Basic Assumption of Kierkegaard s Analysis of Despair I 1. In recent decades, our understanding of the philosophy of philosophers such as Kant or Hegel has been

More information

Self-esteem. By Ross Callaghan

Self-esteem. By Ross Callaghan Self-esteem By Ross Callaghan http://rosscallaghan.yolasite.com Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind and with all your strength. Love your neighbour

More information

Review the results from the Spiritual Growth Challenge last week if applicable.

Review the results from the Spiritual Growth Challenge last week if applicable. 1:1-11 (1:1) First Peter was written just before the time that the Roman emperor Nero began his persecution of Christians. Second Peter was written two or three years later (between A.D. 66 and 68), after

More information

THE UPSIDE OF CONFLICT

THE UPSIDE OF CONFLICT THE UPSIDE OF CONFLICT What causes fights and quarrels among you? Don t they come from your desires that battle within you? You desire but do not have, so you kill. You covet but you cannot get what you

More information

My Evolving Views on Drugs and Human Consciousness. By Julian Cooney American University Washington, DC April 19, 2005

My Evolving Views on Drugs and Human Consciousness. By Julian Cooney American University Washington, DC April 19, 2005 My Evolving Views on Drugs and Human Consciousness By Julian Cooney jc5692a@american.edu American University Washington, DC April 19, 2005 This course [Drugs, Consciousness & Human Fulfillment] has profoundly

More information

Subject: The Nature and Need of Christian Doctrine

Subject: The Nature and Need of Christian Doctrine 1 Subject: The Nature and Need of Christian Doctrine In this introductory setting, we will try to make a preliminary survey of our subject. Certain questions naturally arise in approaching any study such

More information

Psychological Egoism, Hedonism and Ethical Egoism

Psychological Egoism, Hedonism and Ethical Egoism Psychological Egoism, Hedonism and Ethical Egoism It s all about me. 2 Psychological Egoism, Hedonism and Ethical Egoism Psychological Egoism is the general term used to describe the basic observation

More information

Environmental Ethics in Buddhism: A Virtues Approach

Environmental Ethics in Buddhism: A Virtues Approach Journal of Buddhist Ethics ISSN 1076-9005 http://www.buddhistethics.org/ Volume 18, 2011 Environmental Ethics in Buddhism: A Virtues Approach Reviewed by Deepa Nag Haksar University of Delhi nh.deepa@gmail.com

More information

An Introduction to Objectivism

An Introduction to Objectivism An Introduction to Objectivism By the Virginia Tech Objectivist Club My philosophy, in essence, is the concept of man as a heroic being, with his own happiness as the moral purpose of his life, with productive

More information

The Human Deficit according to Immanuel Kant: The Gap between the Moral Law and Human Inability to Live by It. Pieter Vos 1

The Human Deficit according to Immanuel Kant: The Gap between the Moral Law and Human Inability to Live by It. Pieter Vos 1 The Human Deficit according to Immanuel Kant: The Gap between the Moral Law and Human Inability to Live by It Pieter Vos 1 Note from Sophie editor: This Month of Philosophy deals with the human deficit

More information

DEONTOLOGY AND MORAL RESPONSIBILITY

DEONTOLOGY AND MORAL RESPONSIBILITY Current Ethical Debates UNIT 2 DEONTOLOGY AND MORAL RESPONSIBILITY Contents 2.0 Objectives 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Good Will 2.3 Categorical Imperative 2.4 Freedom as One of the Three Postulates 2.5 Human

More information

Philosophy of Life in Contemporary Society Masahiro Morioka *

Philosophy of Life in Contemporary Society Masahiro Morioka * The Review of Life Studies Vol.8 (October 2017):15-22 Philosophy of Life in Contemporary Society Masahiro Morioka * 1. Introduction Academic bioethics and environmental ethics were imported from the United

More information

Interpretation of American Heroism from Superman

Interpretation of American Heroism from Superman Interpretation of American Heroism from Superman Jiayun Zhao Xi an International University 18292467450 1 Interpretation of American Heroism from Superman Abstract: When we are talking about American heroism,

More information

Changing Your Thought Patterns

Changing Your Thought Patterns Changing Your Thought Patterns How can I stop having lustful thoughts? How can I have victory over my negative, critical, pessimistic thinking? How can I keep from feeling angry, jealous, guilty, depressed,

More information

CHANGES THAT HEAL - 1

CHANGES THAT HEAL - 1 CHANGES THAT HEAL - 1 (Developed from the books Changes That Heal by Henry Cloud and Boundaries by Henry Cloud and John Townsend.) Learning Objective: To understand and value ingredients necessary for

More information

Ownness and Property-All and Nothing

Ownness and Property-All and Nothing Ownness and Property-All and Nothing From The Self-Overcoming of Nihilism Keiji Nishitani 1990 The self as egoist was present all along as the object of the most basic negations of the God of religion

More information

How Sin is Overcome (Part 1): Romans 6

How Sin is Overcome (Part 1): Romans 6 How Sin is Overcome (Part 1): Romans 6 Ever tried to overcome sin by using will power or determination? If we rely on our own strength, we will never be free from bondage--no matter how hard we try. If

More information

tests: white Myth and Religion

tests: white Myth and Religion tests: white Myth and Religion Joseph Campbell Literalism can lead to Us versus Them My book s right and theirs is wrong! conflict between Religion and Science Skepticism about the received myths of our

More information

Friedrich Nietzsche s Pessimistic Birth of Empowerment Abstract. Cody A. Drolc

Friedrich Nietzsche s Pessimistic Birth of Empowerment Abstract. Cody A. Drolc Friedrich Nietzsche s Pessimistic Birth of Empowerment Abstract Cody A. Drolc An author s legacy is never truly known until years after their death. Friedrich Nietzsche is among those who follow this fate,

More information

CHRIST DWELLING IN YOU

CHRIST DWELLING IN YOU CHRIST DWELLING IN YOU BY: NORMAN GRUBB In Christ I m a free son of god, living a normal human life, but dead to sin. But by myself I am helpless, a slave to my flesh which in this self-loving world forces

More information

PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION D A Y : N O S O U L, E X P L A N A T I O N S O F R E L I G I O N

PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION D A Y : N O S O U L, E X P L A N A T I O N S O F R E L I G I O N PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION D A Y 1 3-1 4 : N O S O U L, E X P L A N A T I O N S O F R E L I G I O N REVIEW FROM LAST CLASS During our last class we looked at the following question concerning the soul, death,

More information

The Clothing of Gratitude Colossians 3: The text for this sermon, the theme of which is, The Clothing of Gratitude,

The Clothing of Gratitude Colossians 3: The text for this sermon, the theme of which is, The Clothing of Gratitude, Thanksgiving Eve The Clothing of Gratitude Colossians 3:12-17 The text for this sermon, the theme of which is, The Clothing of Gratitude, is Colossians 3:12-17 Put on then, as God s chosen ones, holy and

More information

Antigone. Teaching Unit. Advanced Placement in English Literature and Composition. Individual Learning Packet. by Sophocles

Antigone. Teaching Unit. Advanced Placement in English Literature and Composition. Individual Learning Packet. by Sophocles Advanced Placement in English Literature and Composition Individual Learning Packet Teaching Unit by Sophocles written by Tom Zolpar Copyright 2008 by Prestwick House Inc., P.O. Box 658, Clayton, DE 19938.

More information

The Unexamined Life An Examination Commencement Address Eric Boyer May 7, 2011

The Unexamined Life An Examination Commencement Address Eric Boyer May 7, 2011 The Unexamined Life An Examination Commencement Address Eric Boyer May 7, 2011 Thank you Deb for that humbling introduction. Thank you President Galligan, members of the Board of Trustees, Honored Guests,

More information

Chakras and Feng Shui: Balancing Inner and Outer Space

Chakras and Feng Shui: Balancing Inner and Outer Space Chakras and Feng Shui: Balancing Inner and Outer Space Margaret M. Donahue and Karen L. Kallie 2010, Living Energy LLC, All Rights Reserved. www.livingenergyworks.com Living Energy LLC, 2010 Chakras and

More information

ACIM Edmonton - Sarah's Reflections. LESSON 131 No one can fail who seeks* to reach the truth.

ACIM Edmonton - Sarah's Reflections. LESSON 131 No one can fail who seeks* to reach the truth. ACIM Edmonton - Sarah's Reflections Sarah's Commentary: LESSON 131 No one can fail who seeks* to reach the truth. Isn't it reassuring to know that we can delay our journey to truth, wander off, procrastinate,

More information

MILL. The principle of utility determines the rightness of acts (or rules of action?) by their effect on the total happiness.

MILL. The principle of utility determines the rightness of acts (or rules of action?) by their effect on the total happiness. MILL The principle of utility determines the rightness of acts (or rules of action?) by their effect on the total happiness. Mill s principle of utility [A]ctions are right in proportion as they tend to

More information

UNDERSTANDING POVERTY & HELPING THE POOR

UNDERSTANDING POVERTY & HELPING THE POOR UNDERSTANDING POVERTY & HELPING THE POOR Why are People Poor? What are the Causes of Poverty? What keeps the Poor poor? If we are going to help the poor, who are the poor? What are their problems? What

More information

Ancient Greek Thinkers

Ancient Greek Thinkers Ancient Greek Thinkers Time line 624 546 BCE: Thales of Miletus: first known Greek Philosopher 569 BCE- Pythagoras: Greek Thinker who combined philosophy and Mathematics 551 BCE- Confucius: Philosophy

More information

EDEN, A MODERN MYTH. Anthony Mountain

EDEN, A MODERN MYTH. Anthony Mountain Anthony Mountain EDEN, A MODERN MYTH Jacques Ellul says some extremely interesting things in his article on "Modern Myths". 1 Instead of following many thinkers in this area and asserting, for example,

More information

First Principles. Principles of Reality. Undeniability.

First Principles. Principles of Reality. Undeniability. First Principles. First principles are the foundation of knowledge. Without them nothing could be known (see FOUNDATIONALISM). Even coherentism uses the first principle of noncontradiction to test the

More information

24.02 Moral Problems and the Good Life

24.02 Moral Problems and the Good Life MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu 24.02 Moral Problems and the Good Life Fall 2008 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms. Three Moral Theories

More information

The Soul Journey Education for Higher Consciousness

The Soul Journey Education for Higher Consciousness An Introduction to The Soul Journey Education for Higher Consciousness A 6 e-book series by Andrew Schneider What is the soul journey? What does The Soul Journey program offer you? Is this program right

More information

Do we still have universal values?

Do we still have universal values? Third Global Ethic Lecture Do we still have universal values? By the Secretary General of the United Nations Kofi Annan at the University of Tübingen on December 12, 2003 Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen,

More information

Nagel, T. The View from Nowhere. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Nagel, T. The View from Nowhere. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986. Nagel Notes PHIL312 Prof. Oakes Winthrop University Nagel, T. The View from Nowhere. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986. Thesis: the whole of reality cannot be captured in a single objective view,

More information

God s Process of Transformation It s Thinking That Changes Your Life (Part 1)

God s Process of Transformation It s Thinking That Changes Your Life (Part 1) God s Process of Transformation It s Thinking That Changes Your Life (Part 1) Intro: There is no doubt that God wants to transform our lives...but do you ever find yourself discouraged with the lack of

More information

5 Essential Keys to Change Habit Patterns

5 Essential Keys to Change Habit Patterns 5 Essential Keys to Change Habit Patterns I hope you find this report helpful. If so, I would love to hear from you. We are not meant to know everything or do everything alone. Getting the needed support

More information

PRINCIPLES OF CATHOLIC MORALITY

PRINCIPLES OF CATHOLIC MORALITY PRINCIPLES OF CATHOLIC MORALITY What Is Morality? Faith = the doctrines of the Catholic faith. What we believe. Morals = the principles of right and wrong re human conduct. The Church is our authority

More information

The Problem of Normativity

The Problem of Normativity The Problem of Normativity facts moral judgments Enlightenment Legacy Two thoughts emerge from the Enlightenment in the17th and 18th centuries that shape the ideas of the Twentieth Century I. Normativity

More information

Safeguards for Using Technology. Along with your companion and other missionaries, prayerfully commit to:

Safeguards for Using Technology. Along with your companion and other missionaries, prayerfully commit to: Safeguards for Using Technology Along with your companion and other missionaries, prayerfully commit to: Safeguards for Using Technology Introduction... 1 Safeguards for Using Technology... 3 Safeguard

More information

Nihilism Unbound: Strauss, Nietzsche and Foucault as Nihilist Thinkers

Nihilism Unbound: Strauss, Nietzsche and Foucault as Nihilist Thinkers Portland State University PDXScholar Dissertations and Theses Dissertations and Theses 1-1-2010 Nihilism Unbound: Strauss, Nietzsche and Foucault as Nihilist Thinkers Jeffrey Jacob Wade Portland State

More information

PASTORAL CONSTITUTION ON THE CHURCH IN THE MODERN WORLD GAUDIUM ET SPES PROMULGATED BY HIS HOLINESS, POPE PAUL VI ON DECEMBER 7, 1965

PASTORAL CONSTITUTION ON THE CHURCH IN THE MODERN WORLD GAUDIUM ET SPES PROMULGATED BY HIS HOLINESS, POPE PAUL VI ON DECEMBER 7, 1965 PASTORAL CONSTITUTION ON THE CHURCH IN THE MODERN WORLD GAUDIUM ET SPES PROMULGATED BY HIS HOLINESS, POPE PAUL VI ON DECEMBER 7, 1965 Please note: The notes included in this document also offers a commentary

More information

From "The Teachings of Tibetan Yoga", translated by Garma C. C. Chang

From The Teachings of Tibetan Yoga, translated by Garma C. C. Chang 1 From "The Teachings of Tibetan Yoga", translated by Garma C. C. Chang The Essentials of Mahamudra Practice As Given by The Venerable Lama Kong Ka Lama Kong Ka said: "To practice this Mahamudra meditation

More information

The first 3 dwelling places deal with what we can do through our own efforts, as Teresa says, always assisted by God.

The first 3 dwelling places deal with what we can do through our own efforts, as Teresa says, always assisted by God. THE INTERIOR CASTLE: Intro St. Teresa wrote THE INTERIOR CASTLE five years after attaining spiritual marriage, and it is considered the jewel of her writings. She states that she was then able to understand

More information

Gurdjieff s Aphorisms

Gurdjieff s Aphorisms Gurdjieff s Aphorisms With Commentary by Kennith Walker M.D. Gurdjieff had the capacity to convey so much in some forceful saying that his words echoed for a long time in the hearers minds. His maxims

More information

Summary. Lisa Beardsley-Hardy, Director of Education, General Conference of Seventh-day Adventist

Summary. Lisa Beardsley-Hardy, Director of Education, General Conference of Seventh-day Adventist Summary Lisa Beardsley-Hardy, Director of Education, General Conference of Seventh-day Adventist It s Complicated Learning Objectives 1. Biblical teaching on alternative sexualities 2. Developmental and

More information

Warnings and Encouragement Sermons From Pastoral Rule, Book 3 July 17, 2016

Warnings and Encouragement Sermons From Pastoral Rule, Book 3 July 17, 2016 Warnings and Encouragement Sermons From Pastoral Rule, Book 3 July 17, 2016 I. Exhorting and encouraging those who are humble and those who are prideful. A. Scriptures 1. James 4:6b...God is opposed to

More information

Psychological Understanding of Religion Domenic Marbaniang

Psychological Understanding of Religion Domenic Marbaniang Psychological Understanding of Religion Domenic Marbaniang The word psychology is a combination of two Greek words psyche meaning soul, spirit, or mind and logos meaning science or study of. The science

More information

Summary of Kant s Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals

Summary of Kant s Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals Summary of Kant s Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals Version 1.1 Richard Baron 2 October 2016 1 Contents 1 Introduction 3 1.1 Availability and licence............ 3 2 Definitions of key terms 4 3

More information

Hebrews Hebrews 12:3-11 God s Discipline February 28, 2010

Hebrews Hebrews 12:3-11 God s Discipline February 28, 2010 Hebrews Hebrews 12:3-11 God s Discipline February 28, 2010 I. The Necessity of God s Discipline for Living A Life of Faith A. Hebrews 12:3-11... For consider Him who has endured such hostility by sinners

More information

ST. ARMANDS KEY LUTHERAN CHURCH. THE BLESSEDNESS OF MERCY (Matthew 5:7)

ST. ARMANDS KEY LUTHERAN CHURCH. THE BLESSEDNESS OF MERCY (Matthew 5:7) ST. ARMANDS KEY LUTHERAN CHURCH SARASOTA, FLORIDA STUDY NOTES FOR SAKLC CONVERSATIONS ON THE BEATITUDES OF JESUS FEBRUARY 18, 2016 THE BLESSEDNESS OF MERCY (Matthew 5:7) [SEVERAL COMPARATIVE TRANSLATIONS]

More information

REMEMBER, THE GOAL IS NOT SO MUCH TO TEACH PHILIPPIANS AS IT IS TO EMBED THE DISCIPLINE OF READING THE BIBLE.

REMEMBER, THE GOAL IS NOT SO MUCH TO TEACH PHILIPPIANS AS IT IS TO EMBED THE DISCIPLINE OF READING THE BIBLE. SERIES: Discuss how everyone did during the past week of devotions. As they read through the passages did anything really stand out to them? Did they learn anything new? Gain a new insight? Did anyone

More information

THE FOOLISHNESS & WEAKNESS OF GOD 1 Corinthians 1: 18-31; 1 Samuel 17: 1-11, 41-50

THE FOOLISHNESS & WEAKNESS OF GOD 1 Corinthians 1: 18-31; 1 Samuel 17: 1-11, 41-50 Harris Athanasiadis March 8, 2015 THE FOOLISHNESS & WEAKNESS OF GOD 1 Corinthians 1: 18-31; 1 Samuel 17: 1-11, 41-50 What do you want to achieve in life? What do you want to do with your life? Well, whatever

More information

TRANSFORMED. How God Changes Us Week #3 Daily Devotions--Transformed in My Mental Health

TRANSFORMED. How God Changes Us Week #3 Daily Devotions--Transformed in My Mental Health TRANSFORMED How God Changes Us Week #3 Daily Devotions--Transformed in My Mental Health Day 15 "You will keep him in perfect peace, whose mind is stayed on you, because he trusts in you. Isaiah 26:3 (NKJV)

More information