Argument Writing. Whooohoo!! Argument instruction is necessary * Argument comprehension is required in school assignments, standardized testing, job

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Argument Writing. Whooohoo!! Argument instruction is necessary * Argument comprehension is required in school assignments, standardized testing, job"

Transcription

1 Argument Writing Whooohoo!! Argument instruction is necessary * Argument comprehension is required in school assignments, standardized testing, job promotion as well as political and personal decision-making * High-school students, however, are not proficient argument processors, evaluators, or producers. * Only 13% of 12 th graders were judged skillful or excellent in a persuasive writing assessment * Only 12% of 12 th graders were at or above the proficient level in producing written arguments Argument Writing in College * Writing clear arguments is a skill that all college students have to develop both for continued success in the academic world as well as for future success in the career world. * Three skills that you should focus on developing: * Presenting a precise claim * Providing elaborated and supportive reasons * Presenting and dismissing common counterarguments Some Problems * Personalizers (two types) personal pronouns on claims and reasons, personal descriptions as evidence * Non-committers claim asserts and reasons support two sides * Listers Unelaborated reasons * Unwarranted reasons reason doesn t support the claim * Alternative claims providing an alternative solution as a reason * Circular reasoning reason is reworded claim * Journalers explore topic without a clear claim and reasons Common problems * Lack of claim precision Only 50% made clear claim on the controversy; many argued for a sub-claim leaving claim for reader to infer * Lack of backing Less than 1 elaboration per reason * My-side bias Only 48% of Unrestricted essays mentioned other side

2 The Elements of an Argument Cell phone use while driving should be permitted. Although this act may be considered dangerous, it actually can potentially save lives because people can immediately report crimes or accidents. Claim Cell phone use while driving should be permitted Reason Cell phones saves lives Backing People can immediately report crimes or accidents. Counter (other side) It is dangerous Warrant: The underlying assumption that connects your data to Backing: Additional logic or reasoning that may be necessary to your claim. support the warrant. Presenting a precise claim * A claim is a disputable statement that an author is trying to persuade the reader to accept. The claim is extremely important because it sets the tone and legitimacy of your argument where your readers will make their initial judgments about your particular issue. * If it is faulty in some way, you ve already lost them and your opportunity to change their minds. Precision is more important in arguments than any other form of writing. When you write your main claim, use clear and exact terms to convey to your reader what topic you ll be exploring as well as the stance you will take. In arguing with friends, we often do not concern ourselves with precision, but when writing arguments it critically important. Each of the following claims are on the same theme (speeding) but have very different stances (is harmful, is immoral, should be illegal, should not be done). * A. Speeding is harmful. (come up with reasons to prove) * B. Speeding is immoral. * C. Speeding should be illegal. * D. Speeding should not be done. Type of claims * There are several types of claims you can make. If you want to get people to agree to change their behavior directly, then you may want to use a policy claim predicate (i.e., verb) such as these two claims: Speeding laws should be strictly enforced. Speeding should be prohibited. * If you want to get people to agree to change their beliefs only, then you may want to use a value claim such as these three claims: Speeding is harmful. Speeding is immoral. * One special type of belief that you can argue is a causal or factual claim is true such as these two claims:

3 Speeding affects our fuel economy. Speeding is driving faster than 55 mph on our local highways. * When writing the main claim of your argument, be very careful in selecting the predicate ("should be enforced", "is harmful", "affects"). It should state what you really want to convince the reader to believe or do. A simple and direct claim is best if you want to be clearly understood. Claim predicate determines reasons * When writing your argument, the type of predicate you select for your claim will affect what evidence can support it. If the claim is that "Speeding laws should be strictly enforced", then you could present evidence that speeding is not currently being enforced or that speeding is so harmful that we need to catch more speeders. * If you are claiming that "Speeding is harmful", then you could present evidence that people have been injured or killed from speeding. * If your claim predicate asserts a causal relationship such as "Speeding affects our fuel economy", then you could present evidence that when a driver drives faster, they get poorer gas mileage. * When writing your claim, pick your words carefully and make sure not to switch what you are arguing throughout your essay. It is easy to drift to a new claim predicate when writing arguments. Policy claims * These types of claims have two parts. These type of arguments must establish that a problem exists and propose a policy that solves the problem. * When reading arguments, first, does the author you are reading convincingly establish that a problem exists? What evidence does he/she provide to support that? Make sure you completely understand this part before offering a solution. If no problem exists, then there is no reason to present a solution. * Second, once you have shown there is or is not a problem, next consider whether the proposed solution is a good one. A good solution should be fair, effective, not overly restrictive, and something that can be regulated by the government. For example, the government cannot regulate the number of pennies that each customer should carry at a given time, or can they? Claim checklist Take a stance on the controversy explicitly Does your claim take a side on this controversy? Don t leave it up to your reader to guess your position from another related claim like cell phones are dangerous because it is possible to argue that cell phones are dangerous but still not conclude that we should or should not ban them. If your main claim is not either there should or should not be a ban on using cell phones while driving, then you should change it.

4 Claim location Because your entire argument is organized around the claim, many author s begin their argument with an presentation of their claim early in the essay. To make sure the reader really got the message and remember it, author s also often end their essay with a restatement of the claim. Although there are other ways to organize an argument, this is a simple and common way to write an argument. Do NOT mark the claim personally When you write an argument, it is obvious that it is your opinion or belief. It weakens your claim when you include phrases like "I believe," or I think," or "Personally." Use the correct form Claims should not be commands (e.g. "Ban cell phones") or questions (e.g. "Should there be a ban on using cell phones while driving?"). Providing Elaborated and Supportive Reasons * An argument is an attempt to persuade readers to change their attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors by providing one or more reasons to support the claim. * One of the most common mistakes is to merely list reasons; however, when writing a strong argument, select the most important 3 or 4 reasons and focus on these. Write at least a single paragraph for each reason and in that paragraph explain, elaborate, give examples, and provide evidence, if possible, that supports the stance of the claim that you ve made. * If your reader doesn t really understand your reason and the implications of that reason, then they will not be convinced by it. Finally, make sure that the reasons you are providing support the exact claim that you have made, and that you haven t accidentally switched claims simply because you ve thought of a good reason. * Each reason must provide strong support for why someone should agree with your claim. If your claim is that we should ban cell phones, then each reason should indicate why this claim is true. Presenting Reasons 1. Present strong, convincing reasons 2. Avoid non-reasons 3. Elaborate on each reason

5 Present strong, convincing reasons * Focus on strong reasons When considering your reasons, you want to select the most important 3 or 4 reasons and focus on these. If these reasons are strong, 3 or 4 will generally be enough to create a serious argument. * Avoid support based on testimonials or personal experience Students arguments often rely too heavily on using their own experience to support their claims. However, using personal experiences as support is weak because they are based on only one person s experience or a small handful of people. Base your reasons on more general principles, such as Schools that use comprehensive exams may be pressured to lowering their standard to pass enough students. Generalizable statements are stronger than personal anecdotes. * Order reasons for impact How should you order your reasons? Research has found that people often recall first and last items the best, so it is good to present your strongest reasons first and last with your weaker reasons in the middle. Avoid non-reasons When thinking of your reasons, make sure they each make the claim more believable. Here are 3 types of "non-reasons" to avoid. Unwarranted reasons An unwarranted reason is one that is not relevant to the specific claim predicate. For example, "NIU should not have comprehensive exams because the exam would be boring". Being boring doesn t make something harmful. It is not a good reason for the university to decide not to do something. To check if a reason is warranted you have to pay special attention to the type of claim you are making "is harmful", "is immoral", "should be prohibited". Alternative claims Providing alternative solutions is not a good reason because they do not make the claim more believable. Consider this argument: "NIU should not have comprehensive exams because students who pass all their classes should be given a diploma. If you do provide an alternative, it is a new claim that needs to be supported by new reasons. Rewording the claim Simply restating the claim does not present a reason because it does not provide support for the claim. For example, "NIU should not have comprehensive exams because exit exams should not be a requirement for getting a diploma". This reason may feel like there is support, but the reason is just another way to say the claim.

6 Elaborate each reason * Write at least a single paragraph for each reason. Each reason must provide strong support for why someone should agree with your claim * In that paragraph explain, elaborate, give examples, and provide evidence, if possible, that supports the reason. If your reader doesn t really understand your reason and its implications, then they will not be convinced by it. * Make sure that the reasons you are providing support the exact claim that you have made, and that you haven t accidentally switched claims simply because you ve thought of a good reason. Presenting and Rebutting Common Counter Arguments * Readers usually think of at least one objection to your main claim, and, often, their objection will preoccupy them to the extent that they won t be able to focus on the argument you are presenting no matter how brilliant. * Address this by posing the potential objections and arguing against them so that the readers can dismiss them and be convinced by the rest of your argument. * Research has found that people are more persuaded by arguments that mention a common counter-argument and then rebut it. Further, your reader will be more convinced of your authority if you can dismiss something that the other side will say because it shows that you ve given the matter critical thought. Response to counter-arguments (We got to this slide)!! There are three main ways to deal with a counter-arguments that, if done well, will strengthen not weaken your argument. 1. Dismiss A dismissal is where you assert that counter-argument is simply false or irrelevant. Avoid or use sparingly! Some say such exams are invalid measures of what people learn, but that is not true. 2. Concessions A concession is where you accept a counter- argument. It is true that many students might find it stressful to take a comprehensive exam. 3. Rebuttal A rebuttal is an argument against a counter-claim. Strongest approach! Some argue that comprehensive exams do more harm than good. However, several studies have shown that universities and colleges that starting giving such exams got a reversal in the decline scores on standardized achievement test.

7 Response: Dismiss * Avoid or use dismissals sparingly. It reminds one of our childhood is not is so exchanges. * An argument is about providing evidence or reasons so rebuttals are more persuasive and better formed than dismissals. * Special audience considerations: * Dismissals can offend audiences, especially hostile audiences, and make you appear unfair or inconsiderate. In general dismissals are bad form and not effective. Dismissing counter-claims can make you appear unknowledgeable or unskilled in argumentation. Response: Concession * In concession, you are acknowledging that there is some merit to the audiences worries or beliefs. There are times where something is not really controversial so you have to concede it. For example, Testing students can be an effective motivator for learning. * Do not concede points that are so important that agreeing to the truth of it will weaken your argument. Conceding a point can be an effective part of your presentation if the claim you accept is not central to your own position and your own rebuttal reason would be weak. Special audience considerations: * Conceding points on which you agree with the audience makes you appear fair and creates common ground, especially to ambivalent and uninformed audiences. Response: Rebut * Rebuttal is when you argue against the opposing view by presenting reasons or evidence to show that it is weak, illogical, irrelevant, or factually wrong. * Select rebuttals that you think will be acceptable to your audience. Just like reasons, rebuttals are not universally strong. Their power depends on the audience s beliefs and knowledge. Special audience considerations: * The rebuttal, if done well, can reinforce a friendly or ambivalent audience s belief in the claim you are arguing for. * A strong rebuttal can undercut other side arguments especially for ambivalent, uninformed and undecided members.

8 Global organization 1. Try to begin your argument by building a connection with audience and getting them to see the importance of the topic. Often it is best to start with this to engage your audience and break through any resistant attitudes they may have adopted before even reading your argument. 2. Make sure to provide enough information or context so your audience will understand your position. This is where you need to consider your audiences knowledge or beliefs. But you definitely don t want to include background or details that are unnecessary. It is insulting and boring. 3. State your claim clearly and present strong reasons that will be acceptable to your target audience. 4. Acknowledge the most obvious objection and rebut it if possible. Be respectful to those you disagree with. 5. Put your counter where it will be most effective for your audience. If you have a hostile audience it may be best to start from their perspective and work them around to your perspective. For other audiences, mention it when it would naturally be thought about. 6. End strong.

3. Detail Example from Text this is directly is where you provide evidence for your opinion in the topic sentence.

3. Detail Example from Text this is directly is where you provide evidence for your opinion in the topic sentence. Body Paragraphs Notes W1: Argumentative Writing a. Claim Statement Introduce precise claim Paragraph Structure organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons,

More information

THE ALLYN & BACON GUIDE TO WRITING

THE ALLYN & BACON GUIDE TO WRITING THE ALLYN & BACON GUIDE TO WRITING SEVENTH EDITION JOHN D. RAMAGE, JOHN C. BEAN, AND JUNE JOHNSON PART 2: WRITING PROJECTS CHAPTER 13 WRITING A CLASSICAL ARGUMENT Chapter 13 Learning Objectives In this

More information

Critical Thinking. Separating Fact From Fiction

Critical Thinking. Separating Fact From Fiction Critical Thinking Separating Fact From Fiction What will be covered today? Part 1: What is critical thinking and why do we need to do it? Part 2: How to assess an argument. Part 3: How to write a critical

More information

Adapted from The Academic Essay: A Brief Anatomy, for the Writing Center at Harvard University by Gordon Harvey. Counter-Argument

Adapted from The Academic Essay: A Brief Anatomy, for the Writing Center at Harvard University by Gordon Harvey. Counter-Argument Adapted from The Academic Essay: A Brief Anatomy, for the Writing Center at Harvard University by Gordon Harvey Counter-Argument When you write an academic essay, you make an argument: you propose a thesis

More information

Writing an Argumentative Essay Counter-Arguments

Writing an Argumentative Essay Counter-Arguments Writing an Argumentative Essay Counter-Arguments Objectives By the end of today s lesson you will be able to: Make a counter-argument to a view that has been expressed, addressing weaknesses in the argument

More information

Argument vs Persuasion vs Propaganda. So many terms...what do they all mean??

Argument vs Persuasion vs Propaganda. So many terms...what do they all mean?? Argument vs Persuasion vs Propaganda So many terms...what do they all mean?? Learning Targets Argumentative Reading Unit LT 1: I can cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports what the text

More information

Argument and Persuasion. Stating Opinions and Proposals

Argument and Persuasion. Stating Opinions and Proposals Argument and Persuasion Stating Opinions and Proposals The Method It all starts with an opinion - something that people can agree or disagree with. The Method Move to action Speak your mind Convince someone

More information

GMAT ANALYTICAL WRITING ASSESSMENT

GMAT ANALYTICAL WRITING ASSESSMENT GMAT ANALYTICAL WRITING ASSESSMENT 30-minute Argument Essay SKILLS TESTED Your ability to articulate complex ideas clearly and effectively Your ability to examine claims and accompanying evidence Your

More information

INJUSTICE ARGUMENT ESSAY

INJUSTICE ARGUMENT ESSAY INJUSTICE ARGUMENT ESSAY INTRODUCTION Hook Thesis/ Claim Hooks can include: Relate a dramatic anecdote. Expose a commonly held belief. Present surprising facts and statistics. Use a fitting quotation.

More information

Rules for NZ Young Farmers Debates

Rules for NZ Young Farmers Debates Rules for NZ Young Farmers Debates All debaters must be financial members of the NZYF Club for which they are debating at the time of each debate. 1. Each team shall consist of three speakers. 2. Responsibilities

More information

ARGUMENT AS INQUIRY: QUESTIONING A TEXT

ARGUMENT AS INQUIRY: QUESTIONING A TEXT ARGUMENT AS INQUIRY: QUESTIONING A TEXT Adapted from Reading Rhetorically (A Reader for Writers), 2nd edition by Virginia A. Chappell and Alice M. Gillam and Writing Arguments: A Rhetoric with Readings,

More information

THE BASIC STRUCTURE OF AN ACADEMIC ESSAY

THE BASIC STRUCTURE OF AN ACADEMIC ESSAY Thesis Statement Your main claim for your paper - This is what you are trying to to prove. Your thesis must take a position that genuinely can be argued from more than one side. It should be factual. It

More information

Ask Yourself: Which points have the best supporting information? For which points can I make the best case? In which points am I most interested?

Ask Yourself: Which points have the best supporting information? For which points can I make the best case? In which points am I most interested? Writing a Thesis Statement 7 th Grade English Argument Essay Ask Yourself: Which points have the best supporting information? For which points can I make the best case? In which points am I most interested?

More information

CRITICAL THINKING. Critical thinking is "reasonably and reflectively deciding what to believe or do." (Ennis (1985)

CRITICAL THINKING. Critical thinking is reasonably and reflectively deciding what to believe or do. (Ennis (1985) CRITICAL THINKING Critical thinking is "reasonably and reflectively deciding what to believe or do." (Ennis (1985) Critical thinking is "the art of thinking about your thinking while you are thinking in

More information

Controlling Idea: Claims

Controlling Idea: Claims Controlling Idea: Claims The controlling idea (thesis) of an essay is the one main idea which the writer wishes the reader to remember. A controlling idea may be expository (informative, explanatory, or

More information

Justified by Faith (not Works) Romans 3:27-4:12

Justified by Faith (not Works) Romans 3:27-4:12 Justified by Faith (not Works) Romans 3:27-4:12 Last week we saw from Romans 3:21-26 that people are justified by faith. To be justified means to be declared righteous. Those who accept by faith that Jesus

More information

Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International Advanced Subsidiary and Advanced Level

Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International Advanced Subsidiary and Advanced Level Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International Advanced Subsidiary and Advanced Level GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES & RESEARCH 9239/01 Component 1 Written Examination For Examination from 2015 SPECIMEN

More information

COACHING THE BASICS: WHAT IS AN ARGUMENT?

COACHING THE BASICS: WHAT IS AN ARGUMENT? COACHING THE BASICS: WHAT IS AN ARGUMENT? Some people think that engaging in argument means being mad at someone. That s one use of the word argument. In debate we use a far different meaning of the term.

More information

Essay Discuss Both Sides and Give your Opinion

Essay Discuss Both Sides and Give your Opinion Essay Discuss Both Sides and Give your Opinion Contents: General Structure: 2 DOs and DONTs 3 Example Answer One: 4 Language for strengthening and weakening 8 Useful Structures 11 What is the overall structure

More information

REVIEW: Marc Lange, Laws and Lawmakers: Science, Metaphysics, and the Laws of Nature.

REVIEW: Marc Lange, Laws and Lawmakers: Science, Metaphysics, and the Laws of Nature. REVIEW: Marc Lange, Laws and Lawmakers: Science, Metaphysics, and the Laws of Nature. Author(s): Christopher Belanger Source: Spontaneous Generations: A Journal for the History and Philosophy of Science,

More information

Debate and Debate Adjudication

Debate and Debate Adjudication Debate and Debate Adjudication Rachmat Nurcahyo,M.A. Yogyakarta State University National Polythecnic English Debate Competition 2012, Tual Maluku Tenggara Overview What is Competitive Debate Understanding

More information

CHAPTER 13: UNDERSTANDING PERSUASIVE. What is persuasion: process of influencing people s belief, attitude, values or behavior.

CHAPTER 13: UNDERSTANDING PERSUASIVE. What is persuasion: process of influencing people s belief, attitude, values or behavior. Logos Ethos Pathos Chapter 13 CHAPTER 13: UNDERSTANDING PERSUASIVE What is persuasion: process of influencing people s belief, attitude, values or behavior. Persuasive speaking: process of doing so in

More information

2. Public Forum Debate seeks to encourage the development of the following skills in the debaters: d. Reasonable demeanor and style of presentation

2. Public Forum Debate seeks to encourage the development of the following skills in the debaters: d. Reasonable demeanor and style of presentation VI. RULES OF PUBLIC FORUM DEBATE A. General 1. Public Forum Debate is a form of two-on-two debate which ask debaters to discuss a current events issue. 2. Public Forum Debate seeks to encourage the development

More information

HAVE WE REASON TO DO AS RATIONALITY REQUIRES? A COMMENT ON RAZ

HAVE WE REASON TO DO AS RATIONALITY REQUIRES? A COMMENT ON RAZ HAVE WE REASON TO DO AS RATIONALITY REQUIRES? A COMMENT ON RAZ BY JOHN BROOME JOURNAL OF ETHICS & SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY SYMPOSIUM I DECEMBER 2005 URL: WWW.JESP.ORG COPYRIGHT JOHN BROOME 2005 HAVE WE REASON

More information

On Liberty by John Stuart Mill

On Liberty by John Stuart Mill Sparks Notes Summary of Mills Sparks Notes Summary of Mills On Liberty, Chapter 2 1 On Liberty by John Stuart Mill From http://www.sparknotes.com/philosophy/onliberty/index.html Context John Stuart Mill

More information

The Critical Mind is A Questioning Mind

The Critical Mind is A Questioning Mind criticalthinking.org http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/the-critical-mind-is-a-questioning-mind/481 The Critical Mind is A Questioning Mind Learning How to Ask Powerful, Probing Questions Introduction

More information

Fallacies. It is particularly easy to slip up and commit a fallacy when you have strong feelings about your. The Writing Center

Fallacies. It is particularly easy to slip up and commit a fallacy when you have strong feelings about your. The Writing Center The Writing Center Fallacies Like 40 people like this. What this handout is about This handout discusses common logical fallacies that you may encounter in your own writing or the writing of others. The

More information

TESTIMONY FROM YOUR OWN WITNESSES: DIRECT EXAMINATION STRATEGIES

TESTIMONY FROM YOUR OWN WITNESSES: DIRECT EXAMINATION STRATEGIES TESTIMONY FROM YOUR OWN WITNESSES: DIRECT EXAMINATION STRATEGIES JAMES L. MITCHELL Payne Mitchell Law Group 2911 Turtle Creek Blvd, Suite 1400 Dallas, Texas 75219 214/252-1888 214/252-1889 (fax) jim@paynemitchell.com

More information

Critical Thinking - Section 1

Critical Thinking - Section 1 Critical Thinking - Section 1 BMAT Course Book Critical Reasoning Tips Mock Questions Step-by-Step Guides Detailed Explanations Page 57 Table of Contents Lesson Page Lesson 1: Introduction to BMAT Section

More information

Louisiana Law Review. Cheney C. Joseph Jr. Louisiana State University Law Center. Volume 35 Number 5 Special Issue Repository Citation

Louisiana Law Review. Cheney C. Joseph Jr. Louisiana State University Law Center. Volume 35 Number 5 Special Issue Repository Citation Louisiana Law Review Volume 35 Number 5 Special Issue 1975 ON GUILT, RESPONSIBILITY AND PUNISHMENT. By Alf Ross. Translated from Danish by Alastair Hannay and Thomas E. Sheahan. London, Stevens and Sons

More information

HANDBOOK (New or substantially modified material appears in boxes.)

HANDBOOK (New or substantially modified material appears in boxes.) 1 HANDBOOK (New or substantially modified material appears in boxes.) I. ARGUMENT RECOGNITION Important Concepts An argument is a unit of reasoning that attempts to prove that a certain idea is true by

More information

Common Logical Fallacies

Common Logical Fallacies Common Logical Fallacies Effective arguments rely on logic and facts for support, yet speakers and authors, whether intentionally or unintentionally, can mislead an audience with a flaw in reasoning. Readers

More information

Instructor s Manual 1

Instructor s Manual 1 Instructor s Manual 1 PREFACE This instructor s manual will help instructors prepare to teach logic using the 14th edition of Irving M. Copi, Carl Cohen, and Kenneth McMahon s Introduction to Logic. The

More information

Basic Concepts and Skills!

Basic Concepts and Skills! Basic Concepts and Skills! Critical Thinking tests rationales,! i.e., reasons connected to conclusions by justifying or explaining principles! Why do CT?! Answer: Opinions without logical or evidential

More information

Faults and Mathematical Disagreement

Faults and Mathematical Disagreement 45 Faults and Mathematical Disagreement María Ponte ILCLI. University of the Basque Country mariaponteazca@gmail.com Abstract: My aim in this paper is to analyse the notion of mathematical disagreements

More information

Prentice Hall United States History 1850 to the Present Florida Edition, 2013

Prentice Hall United States History 1850 to the Present Florida Edition, 2013 A Correlation of Prentice Hall United States History To the & Draft Publishers' Criteria for History/Social Studies Table of Contents Grades 9-10 Reading Standards for Informational Text... 3 Writing Standards...

More information

KNOWLEDGE ON AFFECTIVE TRUST. Arnon Keren

KNOWLEDGE ON AFFECTIVE TRUST. Arnon Keren Abstracta SPECIAL ISSUE VI, pp. 33 46, 2012 KNOWLEDGE ON AFFECTIVE TRUST Arnon Keren Epistemologists of testimony widely agree on the fact that our reliance on other people's testimony is extensive. However,

More information

The Persuasive Speech

The Persuasive Speech The Persuasive Speech INTRODUCTION: Most of the writing of the American Revolution was public and political; much of it was also persuasive in nature. Patrick Henry's "Speech in the Virginia Convention"

More information

AN OUTLINE OF CRITICAL THINKING

AN OUTLINE OF CRITICAL THINKING AN OUTLINE OF CRITICAL THINKING LEVELS OF INQUIRY 1. Information: correct understanding of basic information. 2. Understanding basic ideas: correct understanding of the basic meaning of key ideas. 3. Probing:

More information

(i) Morality is a system; and (ii) It is a system comprised of moral rules and principles.

(i) Morality is a system; and (ii) It is a system comprised of moral rules and principles. Ethics and Morality Ethos (Greek) and Mores (Latin) are terms having to do with custom, habit, and behavior. Ethics is the study of morality. This definition raises two questions: (a) What is morality?

More information

Continuum for Opinion/Argument Writing Sixth Grade Updated 10/4/12 Grade 5 (2 points)

Continuum for Opinion/Argument Writing Sixth Grade Updated 10/4/12 Grade 5 (2 points) Grade 4 Structure Overall Lead Transitions I made a claim about a topic or a text and tried to support my reasons. I wrote a few sentences to hook my reader. I may have done this by asking a question,

More information

COMPARING CONTEXTUALISM AND INVARIANTISM ON THE CORRECTNESS OF CONTEXTUALIST INTUITIONS. Jessica BROWN University of Bristol

COMPARING CONTEXTUALISM AND INVARIANTISM ON THE CORRECTNESS OF CONTEXTUALIST INTUITIONS. Jessica BROWN University of Bristol Grazer Philosophische Studien 69 (2005), xx yy. COMPARING CONTEXTUALISM AND INVARIANTISM ON THE CORRECTNESS OF CONTEXTUALIST INTUITIONS Jessica BROWN University of Bristol Summary Contextualism is motivated

More information

Logical (formal) fallacies

Logical (formal) fallacies Fallacies in academic writing Chad Nilep There are many possible sources of fallacy an idea that is mistakenly thought to be true, even though it may be untrue in academic writing. The phrase logical fallacy

More information

1) What is the universal structure of a topicality violation in the 1NC, shell version?

1) What is the universal structure of a topicality violation in the 1NC, shell version? Varsity Debate Coaching Training Course ASSESSMENT: KEY Name: A) Interpretation (or Definition) B) Violation C) Standards D) Voting Issue School: 1) What is the universal structure of a topicality violation

More information

Purdue OWL Logic in Argumentative Writing

Purdue OWL Logic in Argumentative Writing Contributors: Ryan Weber, Allen Brizee. This resource covers using logic within writing, including logical vocabulary, logical fallacies, and other types of logos-based reasoning. This handout is designed

More information

The Relationship between Rhetoric and Truth. Plato tells us that oratory is the art of enchanting the soul (Phaedrus).

The Relationship between Rhetoric and Truth. Plato tells us that oratory is the art of enchanting the soul (Phaedrus). Samantha Weiss 21W.747 Rhetoric Aden Evens A1D The Relationship between Rhetoric and Truth Plato tells us that oratory is the art of enchanting the soul (Phaedrus). In his piece, Phaedrus, the character

More information

History 145 History of World Religions Fall 2015

History 145 History of World Religions Fall 2015 History 145 History of World Religions Fall 2015 3 units; 3 hours lecture Recommended Preparation: eligibility for English 1A Credit, degree applicable Transfer CSU, UC Section #2439 M. and W. 11:15-12:40

More information

or did not happen. Some questions of fact are easily answered. These include the many

or did not happen. Some questions of fact are easily answered. These include the many Chapter 19: The Persuasive Speech Motivational Principles Questions of Fact Questions of fact concern what is or is not true, what does or does not exist, what did or did not happen. Some questions of

More information

ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY. Refuting opposing arguments

ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY. Refuting opposing arguments ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY Definition Organization Supporting our ideas Refuting opposing arguments Language Sample argumentative essay Definition: In this kind of essay, we not only give information but also

More information

UK to global mission: what really is going on? A Strategic Review for Global Connections

UK to global mission: what really is going on? A Strategic Review for Global Connections UK to global mission: what really is going on? A Strategic Review for Global Connections Updated summary of seminar presentations to Global Connections Conference - Mission in Times of Uncertainty by Paul

More information

Sentence Starters from They Say, I Say

Sentence Starters from They Say, I Say Sentence Starters from They Say, I Say Introducing What They Say A number of have recently suggested that. It has become common today to dismiss. In their recent work, Y and Z have offered harsh critiques

More information

IS IT IMMORAL TO BELIEVE IN GOD?

IS IT IMMORAL TO BELIEVE IN GOD? CHRISTIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE PO Box 8500, Charlotte, NC 28271 Feature Article: JAF7384 IS IT IMMORAL TO BELIEVE IN GOD? by Matthew Flannagan This article first appeared in the CHRISTIAN RESEARCH JOURNAL,

More information

It doesn t take long in reading the Critique before we are faced with interpretive challenges. Consider the very first sentence in the A edition:

It doesn t take long in reading the Critique before we are faced with interpretive challenges. Consider the very first sentence in the A edition: The Preface(s) to the Critique of Pure Reason It doesn t take long in reading the Critique before we are faced with interpretive challenges. Consider the very first sentence in the A edition: Human reason

More information

AP SEMINAR: End- of- Course Exam SAMPLE RESPONSES SECTION I: PART A. The Uncertainty of Science, by Richard Feynman

AP SEMINAR: End- of- Course Exam SAMPLE RESPONSES SECTION I: PART A. The Uncertainty of Science, by Richard Feynman SECTION I: PART A The Uncertainty of Science, by Richard Feynman Question 1 (3 pts): Identify the author s argument, main idea, or thesis. The author s argument is that we should not fear doubt; we should

More information

Case Name: R. v. Singh. Between Regina, and Joga Singh Sahota. [2011] B.C.J. No BCPC W.C.B. (2d) CarswellBC 362

Case Name: R. v. Singh. Between Regina, and Joga Singh Sahota. [2011] B.C.J. No BCPC W.C.B. (2d) CarswellBC 362 Page 1 Case Name: R. v. Singh Between Regina, and Joga Singh Sahota [2011] B.C.J. No. 305 2011 BCPC 42 92 W.C.B. (2d) 780 2011 CarswellBC 362 File No. 54579 Registry: North Vancouver British Columbia Provincial

More information

argument philosophy issue probable standard studied proposition formal persuade

argument philosophy issue probable standard studied proposition formal persuade English 9: Quarter 1 Learning Module thought part used form point reason general truth ask bring show change purpose natural action giving language meant support provide attempt accept obtained claim reader

More information

Note: Tony Miano in Italics Police Interviewer in Regular Script Michael Phillips, solicitor for Mr. Miano italicized and capped by LR:

Note: Tony Miano in Italics Police Interviewer in Regular Script Michael Phillips, solicitor for Mr. Miano italicized and capped by LR: Tony Miano Interview with Police Rough Draft of Transcription Date of Interview: 1 July 2013 Date of Transcription: 4 July 2013 Note: Tony Miano in Italics Police Interviewer in Regular Script Michael

More information

Evidential arguments from evil

Evidential arguments from evil International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 48: 1 10, 2000. 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands. 1 Evidential arguments from evil RICHARD OTTE University of California at Santa

More information

Templates for Research Paper

Templates for Research Paper Templates for Research Paper Templates for introducing what they say A number of have recently suggested that. It has become common today to dismiss. In their recent work, have offered harsh critiques

More information

Logical Fallacies. Define the following logical fallacies and provide an example for each.

Logical Fallacies. Define the following logical fallacies and provide an example for each. Logical Fallacies An argument is a chain of reasons that a person uses to support a claim or a conclusion. To use argument well, you need to know 1) how to draw logical conclusions from sound evidence

More information

Positions 1 and 2 are rarely useful in academic discourse Issues, evidence, underpinning assumptions, context etc. make arguments complex and nuanced

Positions 1 and 2 are rarely useful in academic discourse Issues, evidence, underpinning assumptions, context etc. make arguments complex and nuanced Shaun Theobald S.R.Theobald@kent.ac.uk The Student Learning Advisory Service With any argument, theoretical statement or academic opinion we can adopt 3 positions: 1.Agree 2.Disagree 3.Agree/disagree with

More information

Why Ethics? Lightly Edited Transcript with Slides. Introduction

Why Ethics? Lightly Edited Transcript with Slides. Introduction Why Ethics? Part 1 of a Video Tutorial on Business Ethics Available on YouTube and itunes University Recorded 2012 by John Hooker Professor, Tepper School of Business, Carnegie Mellon University Lightly

More information

AS History. Tsarist and Communist Russia, /1H Autocracy, Reform and Revolution: Russia, Mark scheme.

AS History. Tsarist and Communist Russia, /1H Autocracy, Reform and Revolution: Russia, Mark scheme. AS History Tsarist and Communist Russia, 1855 1964 7041/1H Autocracy, Reform and Revolution: Russia, 1855 1917 Mark scheme 7041 June 2016 Version: 1.0 Final Mark schemes are prepared by the Lead Assessment

More information

CLIMBING THE MOUNTAIN SUMMARY CHAPTER 1 REASONS. 1 Practical Reasons

CLIMBING THE MOUNTAIN SUMMARY CHAPTER 1 REASONS. 1 Practical Reasons CLIMBING THE MOUNTAIN SUMMARY CHAPTER 1 REASONS 1 Practical Reasons We are the animals that can understand and respond to reasons. Facts give us reasons when they count in favour of our having some belief

More information

Rational Argument: Detailing the Parts

Rational Argument: Detailing the Parts Rational Argument: Detailing the Parts A persuasive argument has four key components: the writer's claim the writer's use of logical reasoning and evidence in support of the claim the writer's calculated

More information

I. What is an Argument?

I. What is an Argument? I. What is an Argument? In philosophy, an argument is not a dispute or debate, but rather a structured defense of a claim (statement, assertion) about some topic. When making an argument, one does not

More information

With prompting and support, identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text.

With prompting and support, identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text. Big Idea: Reading for Argumentation ANCHOR STANDARD: Reading #8 HANDOUT TWO Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevancy

More information

Cracking the Code to Writing Legal Arguments: From IRAC to CRARC to Combinations in Between

Cracking the Code to Writing Legal Arguments: From IRAC to CRARC to Combinations in Between Fordham University School of Law From the SelectedWorks of Hon. Gerald Lebovits July, 2010 Cracking the Code to Writing Legal Arguments: From IRAC to CRARC to Combinations in Between Gerald Lebovits Available

More information

Martha C. Nussbaum (4) Outline:

Martha C. Nussbaum (4) Outline: Another problem with people who fail to examine themselves is that they often prove all too easily influenced. When a talented demagogue addressed the Athenians with moving rhetoric but bad arguments,

More information

Chance, Chaos and the Principle of Sufficient Reason

Chance, Chaos and the Principle of Sufficient Reason Chance, Chaos and the Principle of Sufficient Reason Alexander R. Pruss Department of Philosophy Baylor University October 8, 2015 Contents The Principle of Sufficient Reason Against the PSR Chance Fundamental

More information

climate change in the american mind Americans Global Warming Beliefs and Attitudes in March 2012

climate change in the american mind Americans Global Warming Beliefs and Attitudes in March 2012 climate change in the american mind Americans Global Warming Beliefs and Attitudes in March 2012 Climate Change in the American Mind: Americans Global Warming Beliefs and Attitudes in March 2012 Interview

More information

Journal of Philosophy, Inc.

Journal of Philosophy, Inc. Journal of Philosophy, Inc. Time and Physical Geometry Author(s): Hilary Putnam Source: The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 64, No. 8 (Apr. 27, 1967), pp. 240-247 Published by: Journal of Philosophy, Inc.

More information

Three Ways to Respond

Three Ways to Respond FOUR YES / NO / OKAY, BUT Three Ways to Respond OUR FIRST THREE chapters discuss the they say stage of writing, in which you devote your attention to the views of some other person or group. In this chapter

More information

Prentice Hall Literature: Timeless Voices, Timeless Themes, Bronze Level '2002 Correlated to: Oregon Language Arts Content Standards (Grade 7)

Prentice Hall Literature: Timeless Voices, Timeless Themes, Bronze Level '2002 Correlated to: Oregon Language Arts Content Standards (Grade 7) Prentice Hall Literature: Timeless Voices, Timeless Themes, Bronze Level '2002 Oregon Language Arts Content Standards (Grade 7) ENGLISH READING: Comprehend a variety of printed materials. Recognize, pronounce,

More information

Morally Adaptive or Morally Maladaptive: A Look at Compassion, Mercy, and Bravery

Morally Adaptive or Morally Maladaptive: A Look at Compassion, Mercy, and Bravery ESSAI Volume 10 Article 17 4-1-2012 Morally Adaptive or Morally Maladaptive: A Look at Compassion, Mercy, and Bravery Alec Dorner College of DuPage Follow this and additional works at: http://dc.cod.edu/essai

More information

Denying the Antecedent as a Legitimate Argumentative Strategy: A Dialectical Model

Denying the Antecedent as a Legitimate Argumentative Strategy: A Dialectical Model Denying the Antecedent as a Legitimate Argumentative Strategy 219 Denying the Antecedent as a Legitimate Argumentative Strategy: A Dialectical Model DAVID M. GODDEN DOUGLAS WALTON University of Windsor

More information

Focus: Convince Me!: An Introduction to Argumentative Writing Common Core Writing Standard 1

Focus: Convince Me!: An Introduction to Argumentative Writing Common Core Writing Standard 1 Common Core State Standards ELA 11-12: Writing Strand Focus: Convince Me!: An Introduction to Argumentative Writing Common Core Writing Standard 1 Page 1 Overview This lesson is intended to introduce students

More information

Why economics needs ethical theory

Why economics needs ethical theory Why economics needs ethical theory by John Broome, University of Oxford In Arguments for a Better World: Essays in Honour of Amartya Sen. Volume 1 edited by Kaushik Basu and Ravi Kanbur, Oxford University

More information

Writing Arguments CHAPTER 6. What is a written argument? How do I choose a topic and develop a claim for an argument?

Writing Arguments CHAPTER 6. What is a written argument? How do I choose a topic and develop a claim for an argument? How do I choose a topic and develop a claim for an argument? 666b CHAPTER 6 Writing Arguments 6a What is a written argument? When you write an argument, you attempt to convince a reader to agree with you

More information

Ethics is subjective.

Ethics is subjective. Introduction Scientific Method and Research Ethics Ethical Theory Greg Bognar Stockholm University September 22, 2017 Ethics is subjective. If ethics is subjective, then moral claims are subjective in

More information

Ayer and Quine on the a priori

Ayer and Quine on the a priori Ayer and Quine on the a priori November 23, 2004 1 The problem of a priori knowledge Ayer s book is a defense of a thoroughgoing empiricism, not only about what is required for a belief to be justified

More information

Letters.org. APPEAL LETTER TEMPLATE. Included: Appeal letter template

Letters.org.  APPEAL LETTER TEMPLATE. Included: Appeal letter template Letters.org APPEAL LETTER TEMPLATE Included: Introduction Tips Sample 1 Introduction Appeal letters are meant to get any type of favour from any type of authorities that have been denied to you on account

More information

ASSEMBLIES OF THE LORD JESUS CHRIST

ASSEMBLIES OF THE LORD JESUS CHRIST ASSEMBLIES OF THE LORD JESUS CHRIST JUDICIAL PROCEDURE Printed: February 2006 ASSEMBLIES OF THE LORD JESUS CHRIST JUDICIAL PROCEDURE Printed: February 2006 JUDICIAL PROCEDURE INTRODUCTION The purpose of

More information

Minnesota Debate Teachers Association Public Forum Guide. A student and coach s guide to Public Forum Debate DRAFT

Minnesota Debate Teachers Association Public Forum Guide. A student and coach s guide to Public Forum Debate DRAFT Minnesota Debate Teachers Association Public Forum Guide A student and coach s guide to Public Forum Debate DRAFT Page 2 CHAPTER I: WHAT IS DEBATE?... 5 BEING ON THE DEBATE TEAM... 5 THE BENEFITS OF DEBATE...

More information

Tribute to Professor Calvin William Sharpe

Tribute to Professor Calvin William Sharpe Case Western Reserve Law Review Volume 64 Issue 1 2013 Laura J. Cooper Follow this and additional works at: http://scholarlycommons.law.case.edu/caselrev Part of the Law Commons Recommended Citation Laura

More information

Writing a Persuasive Essay

Writing a Persuasive Essay Writing a Persuasive Essay First Steps Develop essential questions surrounding your topic! Research! Articles from credible Internet sources, books, journals, magazines, etc. Evidence Evidence should support

More information

Performance Tasks Causation: Cities and the Rise and Fall of States

Performance Tasks Causation: Cities and the Rise and Fall of States s Causation: Cities and the Rise and Fall of States Setting the Stage Building Block A concept: Students will analyze how the process of state-formation, expansion, and dissolution influenced and was influenced

More information

ACADEMIC SKILLS PROGRAM STUDENT SERVICES AND DEVELOPMENT

ACADEMIC SKILLS PROGRAM STUDENT SERVICES AND DEVELOPMENT TEMPLATES FOR ACADEMIC CONVERSATION (Balancing sources and your own thoughts) *The following templates and suggestions are taken from the text They Say, I Say by Gerald Graff and Cathy Birkenstein, published

More information

SCIENTIFIC THEORIES ABOUT THE ORIGINS OF THE WORLD AND HUMANITY

SCIENTIFIC THEORIES ABOUT THE ORIGINS OF THE WORLD AND HUMANITY SCIENTIFIC THEORIES ABOUT THE ORIGINS OF THE WORLD AND HUMANITY Key ideas: Cosmology is about the origins of the universe which most scientists believe is caused by the Big Bang. Evolution concerns the

More information

Recognizing the Voice of God

Recognizing the Voice of God Recognizing the Voice of God I John 4:1 We're continuing in our series on Hearing From God. Last week we talked about some ways you can hear God speak. One of the ways is God gives us impressions in our

More information

Truth and Molinism * Trenton Merricks. Molinism: The Contemporary Debate edited by Ken Perszyk. Oxford University Press, 2011.

Truth and Molinism * Trenton Merricks. Molinism: The Contemporary Debate edited by Ken Perszyk. Oxford University Press, 2011. Truth and Molinism * Trenton Merricks Molinism: The Contemporary Debate edited by Ken Perszyk. Oxford University Press, 2011. According to Luis de Molina, God knows what each and every possible human would

More information

Chapter 15. Elements of Argument: Claims and Exceptions

Chapter 15. Elements of Argument: Claims and Exceptions Chapter 15 Elements of Argument: Claims and Exceptions Debate is a process in which individuals exchange arguments about controversial topics. Debate could not exist without arguments. Arguments are the

More information

Catholic Social Justice Formation Program for Youth. The Beatitudes Year C

Catholic Social Justice Formation Program for Youth. The Beatitudes Year C Catholic Social Justice Formation Program for Youth The Beatitudes Year C June 9-13, 2013 Cameron Retreat Center St. Dominic Archdiocesan Center Houston, TX 1 Archdiocese of Galveston-Houston Office of

More information

Testimony on ENDA and the Religious Exemption. Rabbi David Saperstein. Director, Religious Action Center of Reform Judaism

Testimony on ENDA and the Religious Exemption. Rabbi David Saperstein. Director, Religious Action Center of Reform Judaism Testimony on ENDA and the Religious Exemption Rabbi David Saperstein Director, Religious Action Center of Reform Judaism House Committee on Education and Labor September 23, 2009 Thank you for inviting

More information

Scanlon on Double Effect

Scanlon on Double Effect Scanlon on Double Effect RALPH WEDGWOOD Merton College, University of Oxford In this new book Moral Dimensions, T. M. Scanlon (2008) explores the ethical significance of the intentions and motives with

More information

1 EVALUATING CORROBORATIVE EVIDENCE

1 EVALUATING CORROBORATIVE EVIDENCE 1 EVALUATING CORROBORATIVE EVIDENCE In this paper, we study something called corroborative evidence. A typical example would be a case where a witness saw the accused leaving a crime scene, and physical

More information

Putting Good Deeds In Headlines May Not Be So Good By Tovia Smith 2013

Putting Good Deeds In Headlines May Not Be So Good By Tovia Smith 2013 Name: Class: Putting Good Deeds In Headlines May Not Be So Good By Tovia Smith 2013 When Glen James, a homeless man from Boston, found a backpack filled with $42,000 in cash and turned it in, the media

More information

King james version of the bible. The conclusion is the last The of the 5 bible descriptive king..

King james version of the bible. The conclusion is the last The of the 5 bible descriptive king.. King james version of the bible. The conclusion is the last The of the 5 bible descriptive king.. King james version of the bible >>>CLICK HERE

More information

Fatalism. chapter 2. Earl Conee. Introduction

Fatalism. chapter 2. Earl Conee. Introduction chapter 2 Fatalism Earl Conee Introduction Open possibilities are open to choice or chance. This status matters to us. We are hopeful about the positive possibilities. We worry about the threatening ones.

More information