A Judgmental Formulation of Modal Logic

Save this PDF as:
Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "A Judgmental Formulation of Modal Logic"

Transcription

1 A Judgmental Formulation of Modal Logic Sungwoo Park Pohang University of Science and Technology South Korea Estonian Theory Days Jan 30, 2009

2 Outline Study of logic Model theory vs Proof theory Classical logic vs Constructive logic Judgmental analysis of propositional logic Modal logic Summary 2

3 Model vs. Proof Model I Model theory Eg. assignment of truth values Semantic consequence A 1,, A n I C A 1,, A n C Proof theory Inference rules use premises to obtain the conclusion Syntactic entailment A 1,, A n C 3

4 Classical Logic Every proposition is either true or false. Concerned with: "whether a given proposition is true or not." Tautologies in classical logic 4

5 Constructive Logic We know only what we can prove. Concerned with: "how a given proposition becomes true." Not provable in constructive logic 5

6 This talk is about Constructive Proof Theory. Per Martin-Löf. On the meaning of the logical constants and the justifications of the logical laws, Nordic Journal of Philosophical Logic, 1(1):11-60, Frank Pfenning and Rowan Davies. A judgmental reconstruction of modal logic, Mathematical Structures in Computer Science, 11(4) , 2001.

7 Outline Study of logic Model theory vs Proof theory Classical logic vs Constructive logic Judgmental analysis of propositional logic Judgmental analysis of modal logic Summary 7

8 Judgments and Proofs A judgment = an object of knowledge that may or may not be provable. If there exists a proof, the judgment becomes evident. we know the judgment. Examples "1-1 is equal to 0" is true. "1 + 1 is equal to 0" is false. "It is snowing" is true. "1-1 is equal to 0" is false. 8

9 Inference Rules and Axioms A proof consists of applications of inference rules. J i are premises (1 i n). J is a conclusion. "If J 1 through J n (premises) hold, then J (conclusion) holds." If n = 0 (no premise), the inference rule is an axiom. 9

10 Proposition A statement such that we know what counts as a verification of it. If A is a proposition, we know how to check the validity of the proof of its truth. Example: "It is raining." Secondary notion 10

11 Proposition Without arithmetic rules, what is the meaning of "1-1 is equal to 0"? 11

12 Propositions Propositional Logic Judgments: 12

13 Natural Deduction System Introduced by Gentzen, 1934 For each connective,,,... introduction rule: how to establish a proof elimination rule: how to exploit an existing proof 13

14 Implication 14

15 Disjunction 15

16 Truth and Falsehood 16

17 What if Elimination Rules were Too strong Too weak 17

18 Elimination Rules are OK Local soundness Elimination rules are not too strong. Local completeness Elimination rules are not too weak 18

19 Local Soundness and Completeness 19

20 Definition Hypothetical Judgments Substitution principle 20

21 Inference Rules 21

22 Study of logic Outline Judgmental analysis of propositional logic Judgmental analysis of modal logic Modal necessity Modal possibility Lax modality O Summary 22

23 POSTECH 23

24 Modalities and A : necessarily A A : possibly A Spatial interpretation: A : everywhere A A : somewhere A Temporal interpretation: A : always A A : sometime A Modal Logic 24

25 Modal necessity First Judgments, Then Propositions.

26 Validity Judgment A valid A is valid if A is true at a world about which we know nothing, or at any world. Modal proposition A Introduction rule 26

27 New Forms of Hypothetical Judgments Definition Substitution principle 27

28 Modal necessity 28

29 Local Soundness and Completeness 29

30 Axiomatic Characterization (S4) 30

31 Modal possibility Again, First Judgments, Then Propositions.

32 Possibility Judgment A poss A is possibly true if A is true at a certain world. 32

33 Modal possibility 33

34 Local Soundness and Completeness 34

35 Axiomatic Characterization 35

36 Lax modality O Yet again, First Judgments, Then Propositions.

37 Lax Judgment A lax A is true under a certain constraint. 37

38 Lax Modality O 38

39 Local Soundness and Completeness 39

40 Axiomatic Characterization 40

41 Study of logic Outline Judgmental analysis of propositional logic Judgmental analysis of modal logic Modal necessity Modal possibility Lax modality O Summary 41

42 Applications, Type system for staged computation Type system for distributed computation O Type system for effectful computation Monad in functional language Haskell 42

43 Internalizing Normal Proofs Normal proofs Internalizing normal proofs using a modality Introduction and elimination rules 43

44 Uses two judgments Sequent Calculus Satisfies cut-elimination 44

45 Thank you.

Artificial Intelligence: Valid Arguments and Proof Systems. Prof. Deepak Khemani. Department of Computer Science and Engineering

Artificial Intelligence: Valid Arguments and Proof Systems. Prof. Deepak Khemani. Department of Computer Science and Engineering Artificial Intelligence: Valid Arguments and Proof Systems Prof. Deepak Khemani Department of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Module 02 Lecture - 03 So in the last

More information

Semantic Entailment and Natural Deduction

Semantic Entailment and Natural Deduction Semantic Entailment and Natural Deduction Alice Gao Lecture 6, September 26, 2017 Entailment 1/55 Learning goals Semantic entailment Define semantic entailment. Explain subtleties of semantic entailment.

More information

An Introduction to. Formal Logic. Second edition. Peter Smith, February 27, 2019

An Introduction to. Formal Logic. Second edition. Peter Smith, February 27, 2019 An Introduction to Formal Logic Second edition Peter Smith February 27, 2019 Peter Smith 2018. Not for re-posting or re-circulation. Comments and corrections please to ps218 at cam dot ac dot uk 1 What

More information

Logic and Pragmatics: linear logic for inferential practice

Logic and Pragmatics: linear logic for inferential practice Logic and Pragmatics: linear logic for inferential practice Daniele Porello danieleporello@gmail.com Institute for Logic, Language & Computation (ILLC) University of Amsterdam, Plantage Muidergracht 24

More information

Lecture Notes on Classical Logic

Lecture Notes on Classical Logic Lecture Notes on Classical Logic 15-317: Constructive Logic William Lovas Lecture 7 September 15, 2009 1 Introduction In this lecture, we design a judgmental formulation of classical logic To gain an intuition,

More information

Revisiting the Socrates Example

Revisiting the Socrates Example Section 1.6 Section Summary Valid Arguments Inference Rules for Propositional Logic Using Rules of Inference to Build Arguments Rules of Inference for Quantified Statements Building Arguments for Quantified

More information

A Model of Decidable Introspective Reasoning with Quantifying-In

A Model of Decidable Introspective Reasoning with Quantifying-In A Model of Decidable Introspective Reasoning with Quantifying-In Gerhard Lakemeyer* Institut fur Informatik III Universitat Bonn Romerstr. 164 W-5300 Bonn 1, Germany e-mail: gerhard@uran.informatik.uni-bonn,de

More information

UC Berkeley, Philosophy 142, Spring 2016

UC Berkeley, Philosophy 142, Spring 2016 Logical Consequence UC Berkeley, Philosophy 142, Spring 2016 John MacFarlane 1 Intuitive characterizations of consequence Modal: It is necessary (or apriori) that, if the premises are true, the conclusion

More information

Boghossian & Harman on the analytic theory of the a priori

Boghossian & Harman on the analytic theory of the a priori Boghossian & Harman on the analytic theory of the a priori PHIL 83104 November 2, 2011 Both Boghossian and Harman address themselves to the question of whether our a priori knowledge can be explained in

More information

Basic Concepts and Skills!

Basic Concepts and Skills! Basic Concepts and Skills! Critical Thinking tests rationales,! i.e., reasons connected to conclusions by justifying or explaining principles! Why do CT?! Answer: Opinions without logical or evidential

More information

Entailment, with nods to Lewy and Smiley

Entailment, with nods to Lewy and Smiley Entailment, with nods to Lewy and Smiley Peter Smith November 20, 2009 Last week, we talked a bit about the Anderson-Belnap logic of entailment, as discussed in Priest s Introduction to Non-Classical Logic.

More information

Logic: The Science that Evaluates Arguments

Logic: The Science that Evaluates Arguments Logic: The Science that Evaluates Arguments Logic teaches us to develop a system of methods and principles to use as criteria for evaluating the arguments of others to guide us in constructing arguments

More information

Reductio ad Absurdum, Modulation, and Logical Forms. Miguel López-Astorga 1

Reductio ad Absurdum, Modulation, and Logical Forms. Miguel López-Astorga 1 International Journal of Philosophy and Theology June 25, Vol. 3, No., pp. 59-65 ISSN: 2333-575 (Print), 2333-5769 (Online) Copyright The Author(s). All Rights Reserved. Published by American Research

More information

Evaluating Classical Identity and Its Alternatives by Tamoghna Sarkar

Evaluating Classical Identity and Its Alternatives by Tamoghna Sarkar Evaluating Classical Identity and Its Alternatives by Tamoghna Sarkar Western Classical theory of identity encompasses either the concept of identity as introduced in the first-order logic or language

More information

Quantificational logic and empty names

Quantificational logic and empty names Quantificational logic and empty names Andrew Bacon 26th of March 2013 1 A Puzzle For Classical Quantificational Theory Empty Names: Consider the sentence 1. There is something identical to Pegasus On

More information

What is the Nature of Logic? Judy Pelham Philosophy, York University, Canada July 16, 2013 Pan-Hellenic Logic Symposium Athens, Greece

What is the Nature of Logic? Judy Pelham Philosophy, York University, Canada July 16, 2013 Pan-Hellenic Logic Symposium Athens, Greece What is the Nature of Logic? Judy Pelham Philosophy, York University, Canada July 16, 2013 Pan-Hellenic Logic Symposium Athens, Greece Outline of this Talk 1. What is the nature of logic? Some history

More information

Review of "The Tarskian Turn: Deflationism and Axiomatic Truth"

Review of The Tarskian Turn: Deflationism and Axiomatic Truth Essays in Philosophy Volume 13 Issue 2 Aesthetics and the Senses Article 19 August 2012 Review of "The Tarskian Turn: Deflationism and Axiomatic Truth" Matthew McKeon Michigan State University Follow this

More information

Philosophy of Mathematics Kant

Philosophy of Mathematics Kant Philosophy of Mathematics Kant Owen Griffiths oeg21@cam.ac.uk St John s College, Cambridge 20/10/15 Immanuel Kant Born in 1724 in Königsberg, Prussia. Enrolled at the University of Königsberg in 1740 and

More information

G. H. von Wright Deontic Logic

G. H. von Wright Deontic Logic G. H. von Wright Deontic Logic Kian Mintz-Woo University of Amsterdam January 9, 2009 January 9, 2009 Logic of Norms 2010 1/17 INTRODUCTION In von Wright s 1951 formulation, deontic logic is intended to

More information

Beyond Symbolic Logic

Beyond Symbolic Logic Beyond Symbolic Logic 1. The Problem of Incompleteness: Many believe that mathematics can explain *everything*. Gottlob Frege proposed that ALL truths can be captured in terms of mathematical entities;

More information

prohibition, moral commitment and other normative matters. Although often described as a branch

prohibition, moral commitment and other normative matters. Although often described as a branch Logic, deontic. The study of principles of reasoning pertaining to obligation, permission, prohibition, moral commitment and other normative matters. Although often described as a branch of logic, deontic

More information

Instrumental reasoning* John Broome

Instrumental reasoning* John Broome Instrumental reasoning* John Broome For: Rationality, Rules and Structure, edited by Julian Nida-Rümelin and Wolfgang Spohn, Kluwer. * This paper was written while I was a visiting fellow at the Swedish

More information

International Phenomenological Society

International Phenomenological Society International Phenomenological Society The Semantic Conception of Truth: and the Foundations of Semantics Author(s): Alfred Tarski Source: Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, Vol. 4, No. 3 (Mar.,

More information

Logical Constants as Punctuation Marks

Logical Constants as Punctuation Marks 362 Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic Volume 30, Number 3, Summer 1989 Logical Constants as Punctuation Marks KOSTA DOSEN* Abstract This paper presents a proof-theoretical approach to the question "What

More information

A Liar Paradox. Richard G. Heck, Jr. Brown University

A Liar Paradox. Richard G. Heck, Jr. Brown University A Liar Paradox Richard G. Heck, Jr. Brown University It is widely supposed nowadays that, whatever the right theory of truth may be, it needs to satisfy a principle sometimes known as transparency : Any

More information

Predicate logic. Miguel Palomino Dpto. Sistemas Informáticos y Computación (UCM) Madrid Spain

Predicate logic. Miguel Palomino Dpto. Sistemas Informáticos y Computación (UCM) Madrid Spain Predicate logic Miguel Palomino Dpto. Sistemas Informáticos y Computación (UCM) 28040 Madrid Spain Synonyms. First-order logic. Question 1. Describe this discipline/sub-discipline, and some of its more

More information

Logic I or Moving in on the Monkey & Bananas Problem

Logic I or Moving in on the Monkey & Bananas Problem Logic I or Moving in on the Monkey & Bananas Problem We said that an agent receives percepts from its environment, and performs actions on that environment; and that the action sequence can be based on

More information

Introduction. I. Proof of the Minor Premise ( All reality is completely intelligible )

Introduction. I. Proof of the Minor Premise ( All reality is completely intelligible ) Philosophical Proof of God: Derived from Principles in Bernard Lonergan s Insight May 2014 Robert J. Spitzer, S.J., Ph.D. Magis Center of Reason and Faith Lonergan s proof may be stated as follows: Introduction

More information

Is the law of excluded middle a law of logic?

Is the law of excluded middle a law of logic? Is the law of excluded middle a law of logic? Introduction I will conclude that the intuitionist s attempt to rule out the law of excluded middle as a law of logic fails. They do so by appealing to harmony

More information

Does Deduction really rest on a more secure epistemological footing than Induction?

Does Deduction really rest on a more secure epistemological footing than Induction? Does Deduction really rest on a more secure epistemological footing than Induction? We argue that, if deduction is taken to at least include classical logic (CL, henceforth), justifying CL - and thus deduction

More information

1. Lukasiewicz s Logic

1. Lukasiewicz s Logic Bulletin of the Section of Logic Volume 29/3 (2000), pp. 115 124 Dale Jacquette AN INTERNAL DETERMINACY METATHEOREM FOR LUKASIEWICZ S AUSSAGENKALKÜLS Abstract An internal determinacy metatheorem is proved

More information

A Generalization of Hume s Thesis

A Generalization of Hume s Thesis Philosophia Scientiæ Travaux d'histoire et de philosophie des sciences 10-1 2006 Jerzy Kalinowski : logique et normativité A Generalization of Hume s Thesis Jan Woleński Publisher Editions Kimé Electronic

More information

BOOK REVIEWS. About a new solution to the problem of future contingents

BOOK REVIEWS. About a new solution to the problem of future contingents Logic and Logical Philosophy Volume 26 (2017), 277 281 DOI: 10.12775/LLP.2016.024 BOOK REVIEWS About a new solution to the problem of future contingents Marcin Tkaczyk, Futura contingentia, Wydawnictwo

More information

Semantic Foundations for Deductive Methods

Semantic Foundations for Deductive Methods Semantic Foundations for Deductive Methods delineating the scope of deductive reason Roger Bishop Jones Abstract. The scope of deductive reason is considered. First a connection is discussed between the

More information

Proof as a cluster concept in mathematical practice. Keith Weber Rutgers University

Proof as a cluster concept in mathematical practice. Keith Weber Rutgers University Proof as a cluster concept in mathematical practice Keith Weber Rutgers University Approaches for defining proof In the philosophy of mathematics, there are two approaches to defining proof: Logical or

More information

How Gödelian Ontological Arguments Fail

How Gödelian Ontological Arguments Fail How Gödelian Ontological Arguments Fail Matthew W. Parker Abstract. Ontological arguments like those of Gödel (1995) and Pruss (2009; 2012) rely on premises that initially seem plausible, but on closer

More information

GROUNDING AND LOGICAL BASING PERMISSIONS

GROUNDING AND LOGICAL BASING PERMISSIONS Diametros 50 (2016): 81 96 doi: 10.13153/diam.50.2016.979 GROUNDING AND LOGICAL BASING PERMISSIONS Diego Tajer Abstract. The relation between logic and rationality has recently re-emerged as an important

More information

Module 5. Knowledge Representation and Logic (Propositional Logic) Version 2 CSE IIT, Kharagpur

Module 5. Knowledge Representation and Logic (Propositional Logic) Version 2 CSE IIT, Kharagpur Module 5 Knowledge Representation and Logic (Propositional Logic) Lesson 12 Propositional Logic inference rules 5.5 Rules of Inference Here are some examples of sound rules of inference. Each can be shown

More information

2.4 Notational Definition

2.4 Notational Definition 24 Notational Definition 15 24 Notational Definition The jdgments, propositions, and inference rles we have defined so far collectively form a system of natral dedction It is a minor variant of a system

More information

Overview of Today s Lecture

Overview of Today s Lecture Branden Fitelson Philosophy 12A Notes 1 Overview of Today s Lecture Music: Robin Trower, Daydream (King Biscuit Flower Hour concert, 1977) Administrative Stuff (lots of it) Course Website/Syllabus [i.e.,

More information

Semantics and the Justification of Deductive Inference

Semantics and the Justification of Deductive Inference Semantics and the Justification of Deductive Inference Ebba Gullberg ebba.gullberg@philos.umu.se Sten Lindström sten.lindstrom@philos.umu.se Umeå University Abstract Is it possible to give a justification

More information

Circumscribing Inconsistency

Circumscribing Inconsistency Circumscribing Inconsistency Philippe Besnard IRISA Campus de Beaulieu F-35042 Rennes Cedex Torsten H. Schaub* Institut fur Informatik Universitat Potsdam, Postfach 60 15 53 D-14415 Potsdam Abstract We

More information

Verification and Validation

Verification and Validation 2012-2013 Verification and Validation Part III : Proof-based Verification Burkhart Wolff Département Informatique Université Paris-Sud / Orsay " Now, can we build a Logic for Programs??? 05/11/14 B. Wolff

More information

What would count as Ibn Sīnā (11th century Persia) having first order logic?

What would count as Ibn Sīnā (11th century Persia) having first order logic? 1 2 What would count as Ibn Sīnā (11th century Persia) having first order logic? Wilfrid Hodges Herons Brook, Sticklepath, Okehampton March 2012 http://wilfridhodges.co.uk Ibn Sina, 980 1037 3 4 Ibn Sīnā

More information

Broad on Theological Arguments. I. The Ontological Argument

Broad on Theological Arguments. I. The Ontological Argument Broad on God Broad on Theological Arguments I. The Ontological Argument Sample Ontological Argument: Suppose that God is the most perfect or most excellent being. Consider two things: (1)An entity that

More information

Appeared in: Al-Mukhatabat. A Trilingual Journal For Logic, Epistemology and Analytical Philosophy, Issue 6: April 2013.

Appeared in: Al-Mukhatabat. A Trilingual Journal For Logic, Epistemology and Analytical Philosophy, Issue 6: April 2013. Appeared in: Al-Mukhatabat. A Trilingual Journal For Logic, Epistemology and Analytical Philosophy, Issue 6: April 2013. Panu Raatikainen Intuitionistic Logic and Its Philosophy Formally, intuitionistic

More information

Conditionals II: no truth conditions?

Conditionals II: no truth conditions? Conditionals II: no truth conditions? UC Berkeley, Philosophy 142, Spring 2016 John MacFarlane 1 Arguments for the material conditional analysis As Edgington [1] notes, there are some powerful reasons

More information

Intuitive evidence and formal evidence in proof-formation

Intuitive evidence and formal evidence in proof-formation Intuitive evidence and formal evidence in proof-formation Okada Mitsuhiro Section I. Introduction. I would like to discuss proof formation 1 as a general methodology of sciences and philosophy, with a

More information

Constructive Logic, Truth and Warranted Assertibility

Constructive Logic, Truth and Warranted Assertibility Constructive Logic, Truth and Warranted Assertibility Greg Restall Department of Philosophy Macquarie University Version of May 20, 2000....................................................................

More information

LOGIC LECTURE #3: DEDUCTION AND INDUCTION. Source: A Concise Introduction to Logic, 11 th Ed. (Patrick Hurley, 2012)

LOGIC LECTURE #3: DEDUCTION AND INDUCTION. Source: A Concise Introduction to Logic, 11 th Ed. (Patrick Hurley, 2012) LOGIC LECTURE #3: DEDUCTION AND INDUCTION Source: A Concise Introduction to Logic, 11 th Ed. (Patrick Hurley, 2012) Deductive Vs. Inductive If the conclusion is claimed to follow with strict certainty

More information

Instructor s Manual 1

Instructor s Manual 1 Instructor s Manual 1 PREFACE This instructor s manual will help instructors prepare to teach logic using the 14th edition of Irving M. Copi, Carl Cohen, and Kenneth McMahon s Introduction to Logic. The

More information

Lonergan on General Transcendent Knowledge. In General Transcendent Knowledge, Chapter 19 of Insight, Lonergan does several things:

Lonergan on General Transcendent Knowledge. In General Transcendent Knowledge, Chapter 19 of Insight, Lonergan does several things: Lonergan on General Transcendent Knowledge In General Transcendent Knowledge, Chapter 19 of Insight, Lonergan does several things: 1-3--He provides a radical reinterpretation of the meaning of transcendence

More information

IS THE SYLLOGISTIC A LOGIC? it is not a theory or formal ontology, a system concerned with general features of the

IS THE SYLLOGISTIC A LOGIC? it is not a theory or formal ontology, a system concerned with general features of the IS THE SYLLOGISTIC A LOGIC? Much of the last fifty years of scholarship on Aristotle s syllogistic suggests a conceptual framework under which the syllogistic is a logic, a system of inferential reasoning,

More information

An alternative understanding of interpretations: Incompatibility Semantics

An alternative understanding of interpretations: Incompatibility Semantics An alternative understanding of interpretations: Incompatibility Semantics 1. In traditional (truth-theoretic) semantics, interpretations serve to specify when statements are true and when they are false.

More information

Bob Hale: Necessary Beings

Bob Hale: Necessary Beings Bob Hale: Necessary Beings Nils Kürbis In Necessary Beings, Bob Hale brings together his views on the source and explanation of necessity. It is a very thorough book and Hale covers a lot of ground. It

More information

On Priest on nonmonotonic and inductive logic

On Priest on nonmonotonic and inductive logic On Priest on nonmonotonic and inductive logic Greg Restall School of Historical and Philosophical Studies The University of Melbourne Parkville, 3010, Australia restall@unimelb.edu.au http://consequently.org/

More information

All They Know: A Study in Multi-Agent Autoepistemic Reasoning

All They Know: A Study in Multi-Agent Autoepistemic Reasoning All They Know: A Study in Multi-Agent Autoepistemic Reasoning PRELIMINARY REPORT Gerhard Lakemeyer Institute of Computer Science III University of Bonn Romerstr. 164 5300 Bonn 1, Germany gerhard@cs.uni-bonn.de

More information

TOWARDS A PHILOSOPHICAL UNDERSTANDING OF THE LOGICS OF FORMAL INCONSISTENCY

TOWARDS A PHILOSOPHICAL UNDERSTANDING OF THE LOGICS OF FORMAL INCONSISTENCY CDD: 160 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0100-6045.2015.v38n2.wcear TOWARDS A PHILOSOPHICAL UNDERSTANDING OF THE LOGICS OF FORMAL INCONSISTENCY WALTER CARNIELLI 1, ABÍLIO RODRIGUES 2 1 CLE and Department of

More information

1.2. What is said: propositions

1.2. What is said: propositions 1.2. What is said: propositions 1.2.0. Overview In 1.1.5, we saw the close relation between two properties of a deductive inference: (i) it is a transition from premises to conclusion that is free of any

More information

Hourya BENIS SINACEUR. Sciences et des Techniques (IHPST) CNRS-ENS-Université Paris 1. Juin 2010

Hourya BENIS SINACEUR. Sciences et des Techniques (IHPST) CNRS-ENS-Université Paris 1. Juin 2010 Hourya BENIS SINACEUR Institut d Histoire et Philosophie des Sciences et des Techniques (IHPST) CNRS-ENS-Université Paris 1 Juin 2010 Etchemendy s objections to Tarski s account of the notion of logical

More information

Courses providing assessment data PHL 202. Semester/Year

Courses providing assessment data PHL 202. Semester/Year 1 Department/Program 2012-2016 Assessment Plan Department: Philosophy Directions: For each department/program student learning outcome, the department will provide an assessment plan, giving detailed information

More information

Can logical consequence be deflated?

Can logical consequence be deflated? Can logical consequence be deflated? Michael De University of Utrecht Department of Philosophy Utrecht, Netherlands mikejde@gmail.com in Insolubles and Consequences : essays in honour of Stephen Read,

More information

DEPARTMENT OF PHILOSOPHY FALL 2014 COURSE DESCRIPTIONS

DEPARTMENT OF PHILOSOPHY FALL 2014 COURSE DESCRIPTIONS DEPARTMENT OF PHILOSOPHY FALL 2014 COURSE DESCRIPTIONS PHIL 2300-001 Beginning Philosophy 11:00-11:50 MWF ENG/PHIL 264 PHIL 2300-002 Beginning Philosophy 9:00-9:50 MWF ENG/PHIL 264 This is a general introduction

More information

Review of Philosophical Logic: An Introduction to Advanced Topics *

Review of Philosophical Logic: An Introduction to Advanced Topics * Teaching Philosophy 36 (4):420-423 (2013). Review of Philosophical Logic: An Introduction to Advanced Topics * CHAD CARMICHAEL Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis This book serves as a concise

More information

Can Gödel s Incompleteness Theorem be a Ground for Dialetheism? *

Can Gödel s Incompleteness Theorem be a Ground for Dialetheism? * 논리연구 20-2(2017) pp. 241-271 Can Gödel s Incompleteness Theorem be a Ground for Dialetheism? * 1) Seungrak Choi Abstract Dialetheism is the view that there exists a true contradiction. This paper ventures

More information

2.1 Review. 2.2 Inference and justifications

2.1 Review. 2.2 Inference and justifications Applied Logic Lecture 2: Evidence Semantics for Intuitionistic Propositional Logic Formal logic and evidence CS 4860 Fall 2012 Tuesday, August 28, 2012 2.1 Review The purpose of logic is to make reasoning

More information

Can A Priori Justified Belief Be Extended Through Deduction? It is often assumed that if one deduces some proposition p from some premises

Can A Priori Justified Belief Be Extended Through Deduction? It is often assumed that if one deduces some proposition p from some premises Can A Priori Justified Belief Be Extended Through Deduction? Introduction It is often assumed that if one deduces some proposition p from some premises which one knows a priori, in a series of individually

More information

Logic & Proofs. Chapter 3 Content. Sentential Logic Semantics. Contents: Studying this chapter will enable you to:

Logic & Proofs. Chapter 3 Content. Sentential Logic Semantics. Contents: Studying this chapter will enable you to: Sentential Logic Semantics Contents: Truth-Value Assignments and Truth-Functions Truth-Value Assignments Truth-Functions Introduction to the TruthLab Truth-Definition Logical Notions Truth-Trees Studying

More information

1/9. The First Analogy

1/9. The First Analogy 1/9 The First Analogy So far we have looked at the mathematical principles but now we are going to turn to the dynamical principles, of which there are two sorts, the Analogies of Experience and the Postulates

More information

Epistemic Logic I. An introduction to the course

Epistemic Logic I. An introduction to the course Epistemic Logic I. An introduction to the course Yanjing Wang Department of Philosophy, Peking University Sept. 14th 2015 Standard epistemic logic and its dynamics Beyond knowing that: a new research program

More information

Can Negation be Defined in Terms of Incompatibility?

Can Negation be Defined in Terms of Incompatibility? Can Negation be Defined in Terms of Incompatibility? Nils Kurbis 1 Introduction Every theory needs primitives. A primitive is a term that is not defined any further, but is used to define others. Thus

More information

Potentialism about set theory

Potentialism about set theory Potentialism about set theory Øystein Linnebo University of Oslo SotFoM III, 21 23 September 2015 Øystein Linnebo (University of Oslo) Potentialism about set theory 21 23 September 2015 1 / 23 Open-endedness

More information

Selections from Aristotle s Prior Analytics 41a21 41b5

Selections from Aristotle s Prior Analytics 41a21 41b5 Lesson Seventeen The Conditional Syllogism Selections from Aristotle s Prior Analytics 41a21 41b5 It is clear then that the ostensive syllogisms are effected by means of the aforesaid figures; these considerations

More information

Informalizing Formal Logic

Informalizing Formal Logic Informalizing Formal Logic Antonis Kakas Department of Computer Science, University of Cyprus, Cyprus antonis@ucy.ac.cy Abstract. This paper discusses how the basic notions of formal logic can be expressed

More information

A. Problem set #3 it has been posted and is due Tuesday, 15 November

A. Problem set #3 it has been posted and is due Tuesday, 15 November Lecture 9: Propositional Logic I Philosophy 130 1 & 3 November 2016 O Rourke & Gibson I. Administrative A. Problem set #3 it has been posted and is due Tuesday, 15 November B. I am working on the group

More information

Philosophy 125 Day 21: Overview

Philosophy 125 Day 21: Overview Branden Fitelson Philosophy 125 Lecture 1 Philosophy 125 Day 21: Overview 1st Papers/SQ s to be returned this week (stay tuned... ) Vanessa s handout on Realism about propositions to be posted Second papers/s.q.

More information

The Context of Inference

The Context of Inference The Context of Inference CURTIS FRANKS I am eager to examine together with you, Crito, whether this argument will appear in any way different to me in my present circumstances, or whether it remains the

More information

Chapter 9- Sentential Proofs

Chapter 9- Sentential Proofs Logic: A Brief Introduction Ronald L. Hall, Stetson University Chapter 9- Sentential roofs 9.1 Introduction So far we have introduced three ways of assessing the validity of truth-functional arguments.

More information

Knowledge, Time, and the Problem of Logical Omniscience

Knowledge, Time, and the Problem of Logical Omniscience Fundamenta Informaticae XX (2010) 1 18 1 IOS Press Knowledge, Time, and the Problem of Logical Omniscience Ren-June Wang Computer Science CUNY Graduate Center 365 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10016 rwang@gc.cuny.edu

More information

What is a logical argument? What is deductive reasoning? Fundamentals of Academic Writing

What is a logical argument? What is deductive reasoning? Fundamentals of Academic Writing What is a logical argument? What is deductive reasoning? Fundamentals of Academic Writing Logical relations Deductive logic Claims to provide conclusive support for the truth of a conclusion Inductive

More information

From Necessary Truth to Necessary Existence

From Necessary Truth to Necessary Existence Prequel for Section 4.2 of Defending the Correspondence Theory Published by PJP VII, 1 From Necessary Truth to Necessary Existence Abstract I introduce new details in an argument for necessarily existing

More information

I. In the ongoing debate on the meaning of logical connectives 1, two families of

I. In the ongoing debate on the meaning of logical connectives 1, two families of What does & mean? Axel Arturo Barceló Aspeitia abarcelo@filosoficas.unam.mx Instituto de Investigaciones Filosóficas, UNAM México Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy, Vol. 5, 2007.

More information

Chapter 1. Introduction. 1.1 Deductive and Plausible Reasoning Strong Syllogism

Chapter 1. Introduction. 1.1 Deductive and Plausible Reasoning Strong Syllogism Contents 1 Introduction 3 1.1 Deductive and Plausible Reasoning................... 3 1.1.1 Strong Syllogism......................... 3 1.1.2 Weak Syllogism.......................... 4 1.1.3 Transitivity

More information

Figure 1 Figure 2 U S S. non-p P P

Figure 1 Figure 2 U S S. non-p P P 1 Depicting negation in diagrammatic logic: legacy and prospects Fabien Schang, Amirouche Moktefi schang.fabien@voila.fr amirouche.moktefi@gersulp.u-strasbg.fr Abstract Here are considered the conditions

More information

Fatalism and Truth at a Time Chad Marxen

Fatalism and Truth at a Time Chad Marxen Stance Volume 6 2013 29 Fatalism and Truth at a Time Chad Marxen Abstract: In this paper, I will examine an argument for fatalism. I will offer a formalized version of the argument and analyze one of the

More information

LOGICAL PLURALISM IS COMPATIBLE WITH MONISM ABOUT METAPHYSICAL MODALITY

LOGICAL PLURALISM IS COMPATIBLE WITH MONISM ABOUT METAPHYSICAL MODALITY LOGICAL PLURALISM IS COMPATIBLE WITH MONISM ABOUT METAPHYSICAL MODALITY Nicola Ciprotti and Luca Moretti Beall and Restall [2000], [2001] and [2006] advocate a comprehensive pluralist approach to logic,

More information

Chapter 8 - Sentential Truth Tables and Argument Forms

Chapter 8 - Sentential Truth Tables and Argument Forms Logic: A Brief Introduction Ronald L. Hall Stetson University Chapter 8 - Sentential ruth ables and Argument orms 8.1 Introduction he truth-value of a given truth-functional compound proposition depends

More information

Aspects of Western Philosophy Dr. Sreekumar Nellickappilly Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras

Aspects of Western Philosophy Dr. Sreekumar Nellickappilly Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Aspects of Western Philosophy Dr. Sreekumar Nellickappilly Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Module - 21 Lecture - 21 Kant Forms of sensibility Categories

More information

SUPPOSITIONAL REASONING AND PERCEPTUAL JUSTIFICATION

SUPPOSITIONAL REASONING AND PERCEPTUAL JUSTIFICATION SUPPOSITIONAL REASONING AND PERCEPTUAL JUSTIFICATION Stewart COHEN ABSTRACT: James Van Cleve raises some objections to my attempt to solve the bootstrapping problem for what I call basic justification

More information

THESES SIS/LIBRARY TELEPHONE:

THESES SIS/LIBRARY TELEPHONE: THESES SIS/LIBRARY TELEPHONE: +61 2 6125 4631 R.G. MENZIES LIBRARY BUILDING NO:2 FACSIMILE: +61 2 6125 4063 THE AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL UNIVERSITY EMAIL: library.theses@anu.edu.au CANBERRA ACT 0200 AUSTRALIA

More information

Announcements. CS243: Discrete Structures. First Order Logic, Rules of Inference. Review of Last Lecture. Translating English into First-Order Logic

Announcements. CS243: Discrete Structures. First Order Logic, Rules of Inference. Review of Last Lecture. Translating English into First-Order Logic Announcements CS243: Discrete Structures First Order Logic, Rules of Inference Işıl Dillig Homework 1 is due now Homework 2 is handed out today Homework 2 is due next Tuesday Işıl Dillig, CS243: Discrete

More information

The Appeal to Reason. Introductory Logic pt. 1

The Appeal to Reason. Introductory Logic pt. 1 The Appeal to Reason Introductory Logic pt. 1 Argument vs. Argumentation The difference is important as demonstrated by these famous philosophers. The Origins of Logic: (highlights) Aristotle (385-322

More information

Artificial Intelligence Prof. P. Dasgupta Department of Computer Science & Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Artificial Intelligence Prof. P. Dasgupta Department of Computer Science & Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Artificial Intelligence Prof. P. Dasgupta Department of Computer Science & Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture- 10 Inference in First Order Logic I had introduced first order

More information

Richard L. W. Clarke, Notes REASONING

Richard L. W. Clarke, Notes REASONING 1 REASONING Reasoning is, broadly speaking, the cognitive process of establishing reasons to justify beliefs, conclusions, actions or feelings. It also refers, more specifically, to the act or process

More information

Is Epistemic Probability Pascalian?

Is Epistemic Probability Pascalian? Is Epistemic Probability Pascalian? James B. Freeman Hunter College of The City University of New York ABSTRACT: What does it mean to say that if the premises of an argument are true, the conclusion is

More information

TYPES, TABLEAUS, AND GODEL' S GOD

TYPES, TABLEAUS, AND GODEL' S GOD TYPES, TABLEAUS, AND GODEL' S GOD TRENDS IN LOGIC Studia Logica Library VOLUME 13 Managing Editor Ryszard Wojcicki, Institute of Philosoph y and Sociolog y. Polish Academ y of Sciences. Warsaw, Poland

More information

Announcements. CS311H: Discrete Mathematics. First Order Logic, Rules of Inference. Satisfiability, Validity in FOL. Example.

Announcements. CS311H: Discrete Mathematics. First Order Logic, Rules of Inference. Satisfiability, Validity in FOL. Example. Announcements CS311H: Discrete Mathematics First Order Logic, Rules of Inference Instructor: Işıl Dillig Homework 1 is due now! Homework 2 is handed out today Homework 2 is due next Wednesday Instructor:

More information

Ayer s linguistic theory of the a priori

Ayer s linguistic theory of the a priori Ayer s linguistic theory of the a priori phil 43904 Jeff Speaks December 4, 2007 1 The problem of a priori knowledge....................... 1 2 Necessity and the a priori............................ 2

More information

JELIA Justification Logic. Sergei Artemov. The City University of New York

JELIA Justification Logic. Sergei Artemov. The City University of New York JELIA 2008 Justification Logic Sergei Artemov The City University of New York Dresden, September 29, 2008 This lecture outlook 1. What is Justification Logic? 2. Why do we need Justification Logic? 3.

More information

Belief, Awareness, and Two-Dimensional Logic"

Belief, Awareness, and Two-Dimensional Logic Belief, Awareness, and Two-Dimensional Logic" Hu Liu and Shier Ju l Institute of Logic and Cognition Zhongshan University Guangzhou, China Abstract Belief has been formally modelled using doxastic logics

More information