# Descartes Method of Doubt

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Descartes Method of Doubt Philosophy 100 Lecture 9 PUTTING IT TOGETHER. Descartes Idea 1. The New Science. What science is about is describing the nature and interaction of the ultimate constituents of reality. 2. The Thesis of Rationalism. We come into the world with, in some sense, knowledge of the most basic principles of physics of the notion of a cause, of the understanding that matter must take up space, that one things cannot be in two different places at one, etc. 3. The New Algebra. We have a way of describing the geometric properties of these ultimate constituents of reality. 4. Mathematical Proof. By using the rules of logic, and axioms of physics (given to us innately by God), we can construct mathematical proofs about the nature of physical reality. 1

2 I. The Requirements of Certainty. What are the requirements for a system which is certain, which yields results or conclusions that are certain to be true? Two Conditions. 1. Each of the initial premises must be indubitable (no one could doubt it) and incorrigible (not subject to correction). In other words, each premise must be such that were any person any minimally rational and sane person to consider that proposition, he or she would agree that the premise is true. 2. Each step of the argument must follow indubitably from the previous premise(s). In Descartes terms, we can simply see by The Light of Reason, that each step must be true given the previous step(s). These two requirements are separate and distinct. (1) concerns the truth of the premises; (2) concerns the form of the argument. Descartes project requires that both of conditions be fulfilled. 2

3 Note that, in requiring these two conditions, Descartes is defining knowledge in the following way. You know a sentence A if and only if: a) You believe A b) A is true c) You have indefeasible evidence for A. Sidebar: Defeasible versus Indefeasible Evidence B provides defeasible evidence for A = df. While B provides some reason to believe that A is true, it is possible that B is true yet A is still false. E.g. Suppose that someone presents you with photographic evidence of Stephen Harper surreptitiously pinching the Easter Seals child. B provides Indefeasible evidence for A = df. If B is true then A must be true. The evidence is so strong that it is not possible that B is true and A is false. E.g. If = 4, then 4-2 = 2 3

4 Back to Descartes Project Descartes begins the First Meditation by looking for the first premises (or axioms) for his theory of knowledge. He is going to examine his present beliefs, not one by one, but type by type. His method is to select only those types of beliefs that he can declare to be true without any doubt. I. Doubt about Unclear Perceptual Beliefs There are many perceptions we have that we know are untrustworthy. E.g. If you ve forgotten your glasses, or are trying to identify something in the far distance, or know yourself to be drunk, etc.such perceptions are clearly untrustworthy. 4

5 II. Doubt about each perceptual belief. Descartes asks: Is there any general reason to doubt each and every one of my standard perceptual beliefs (barring the one answer that I am insane)? That is, is it certain that, for example, that you are sitting in a large lecture theatre, in the Images Theatre, listening to a philosophy lecture on Descartes? Is there any room for doubt here at all any reason to think that, maybe, it might not be true? Descartes Answer: It is possible that at this very instant, you are dreaming e.g. you are actually at home in bed, tossing and turning, in the midst of a truly horrible nightmare, namely the nightmare that you are in an introductory class at Simon Fraser University, listening to a lecture on Rene Descartes Method of Doubt and you have not done the assigned readings!! THIS IS POSSIBLE. And if this is possible that right now you are dreaming, then it is possible that for each and every perceptual belief that you consider, the ones you are having right now, that each one is false as well. 5

6 Two Standard Objections Standard Objection A: Aren t there internal signs in dreaming that one is dreaming? Dreams portray events that are inconsistent, fantastical, physically impossible, and so on. Reply: Yes, but when you have the dream, strangely, you do not notice these inconsistencies we all have dreams in which people change identities, look nothing like they should, or appear in places they could not possibly be. 6

7 Reply: Yes, but when you have the dream, strangely, you do not notice these inconsistencies we all have dreams in which people change identities, look nothing like they should, or appear in places they could not possibly be. The Standard Counter-Objection. Alright, perhaps I can t verify that my perceptions, right now, are not the product of a dream. But if I wait awhile, either I will wake up or I will not. Thus, after I have the sensation of waking up, I will know that what I was perceiving was a dream but what I am now perceiving is veridical (true). The Counter-Reply. Suppose we admit that you are sometimes awake and sometimes asleep, that we set aside the possibility that you are always dreaming. The question is this: how could you verify that you are awake NOW? How do you know that your present perceptions are veridical? You may seem to wake up, but this too may be a dream. If you are asleep, you will not notice any inconsistencies that are now present; so you can t count on the fact that, now, there do not seem to be any inconsistencies. 7

8 Thus there is no way to tell whether you are asleep now. Thus there is no way to tell whether you are asleep now. BUT, BUT, BUT Is Descartes saying that we could be dreaming all the time? Does this really make any sense to think that we could be dreaming all the time? Because if we were dreaming all the time, what would be the difference between waking and dreaming. 8

9 It is important to realize that Descartes does not have hold the permanent dreaming (without waking) is a coherent possibility. He does not need to prove that all of my beliefs taken together, as a group, might be false the claim that I might be dreaming all of the time. It is important to realize that Descartes does not have hold the permanent dreaming (without waking) is a coherent possibility. He does not need to prove that all of my beliefs taken together, as a group, might be false the claim that I might be dreaming all of the time. There is a difference between the following two claims: i. It is possible that all of my beliefs are false. ii. For each perceptual belief that I have, it is possible that each one is false. e.g. The lottery example. 9

10 All Descartes needs to prove is that for each perceptual belief, as I consider it, that belief could be false. III. Doubt about the commonalities of my perceptions. Even if we are dreaming now, and the world does not exist exactly as we now represent it, don t we still know some general truths about it? Don t I still know what my own apartment looks like, where I live? Or if I can t be certain of that, don t I still know that there are objects, like cats and dogs and buildings and bridges? And don t I still know that there are, in general, objects that exist through space and time, are extended, etc. Even if I were dreaming, wouldn t = 4? Could I possibly be deceived about these things? 10

11 Descartes Answer: The Evil Genius It is possible that, unbeknownst to you, there is an evil demon, who controls your sensory perceptions, all that you see, hear, feel, smell, etc. Not only do you not have a body, not only are you wrong about all of the events that seem to happen, but perhaps there is no external world at all or a world that has properties we can not even begin to imagine. A Modern Example: The Brain in the Vat. Suppose that, unbeknownst to you, your brain has been put into a nice vat of saline solution, its arteries are given a nice supply of artificial blood, and its sensory neurons are hooked up to electrical devices that stimulate the nerves in ways that will produce, in your brain, sensory perceptions of certain kind whatever kind your abductors want you to have. On the output side, there are sensors that read the signals of your out-going nerves, signals that are translated into the kinds of effects you would have brought about if you still had a body e.g. scratching your left ear. You are, in effect, you are the virtual pet of an alien species. Your entire world is merely virtual. If this were true, nothing you now believe about the external world need be true the world could be entirely different from what you now believe. 11

12 So what, if anything, would be left? Is there anything you can say you know? So what, if anything, would be left? Is there anything you can say you know? Yes. There is. Insofar as I am thinking or think that I am sitting in a lecture theatre, then I know that that is what I am thinking. It seems to me that I am sitting in the lecture theatre. 12

13 So what, if anything, would be left? Is there anything you can say you know? Yes. There is. Insofar as I am thinking or think that I am sitting in a lecture theatre, then I know that that is what I am thinking. It seems to me that I am sitting in the lecture theatre. I may not be in a lecture theatre, I may not be sitting, but that doesn t matter. Because no matter whether there is an evil genius or whether I am a brain in vat or whether I am dreaming at the moment, I know how things seem. This is how Descartes arrives at The Cogito: I think, therefore I am. Insofar as I am thinking, I exist. Insofar as I think that I am sitting in a lecture theatre, it is true that it seems to me as it I am sitting in a lecture theatre. 13

14 Question for Tutorial: Do you think it is possible for people to make a mistake about what they are thinking at the present about the contents of their own thoughts? If you agree with Descartes argument so far, then what Descartes has proved is that there are very very few things that we know very few facts for which we have indefeasible evidence. 14

15 If you agree with Descartes argument so far, then what Descartes has proved is that there are very very few things that we know very few facts for which we have indefeasible evidence. In fact, the only beliefs that we have that count as knowledge as certain are beliefs about how things seem to us, beliefs about the contents of the thoughts we are experiencing now. To put this another way Descartes gift to western philosophy is philosophical skepticism about the nature and existence of the external world. Unless there is some way to prove both the existence of the external world and its many properties, we are stuck with the conclusion that we cannot have knowledge about the external world. 15

### Descartes and Foundationalism

Cogito, ergo sum Who was René Descartes? 1596-1650 Life and Times Notable accomplishments modern philosophy mind body problem epistemology physics inertia optics mathematics functions analytic geometry

### Class #3 - Illusion Descartes, from Meditations on First Philosophy Descartes, The Story of the Wax Descartes, The Story of the Sun

Philosophy 110W: Introduction to Philosophy Fall 2014 Hamilton College Russell Marcus Class #3 - Illusion Descartes, from Meditations on First Philosophy Descartes, The Story of the Wax Descartes, The

### Think by Simon Blackburn. Chapter 1b Knowledge

Think by Simon Blackburn Chapter 1b Knowledge According to A.C. Grayling, if cogito ergo sum is an argument, it is missing a premise. This premise is: A. Everything that exists thinks. B. Everything that

### New Chapter: Epistemology: The Theory and Nature of Knowledge

Intro to Philosophy Phil 110 Lecture 12: 2-15 Daniel Kelly I. Mechanics A. Upcoming Readings 1. Today we ll discuss a. Descartes, Meditations on First Philosophy (full.pdf) 2. Next week a. Locke, An Essay

### Introduction to Philosophy

Introduction to Philosophy Philosophy 110W Fall 2014 Russell Marcus Class #3 - Illusion Descartes, from Meditations on First Philosophy Marcus, Introduction to Philosophy, Fall 2014 Slide 1 Business P

### 1/8. Descartes 3: Proofs of the Existence of God

1/8 Descartes 3: Proofs of the Existence of God Descartes opens the Third Meditation by reminding himself that nothing that is purely sensory is reliable. The one thing that is certain is the cogito. He

### CARTESIANISM, NEO-REIDIANISM, AND THE A PRIORI: REPLY TO PUST

CARTESIANISM, NEO-REIDIANISM, AND THE A PRIORI: REPLY TO PUST Gregory STOUTENBURG ABSTRACT: Joel Pust has recently challenged the Thomas Reid-inspired argument against the reliability of the a priori defended

### Definitions of Gods of Descartes and Locke

Assignment of Introduction to Philosophy Definitions of Gods of Descartes and Locke June 7, 2015 Kenzo Fujisue 1. Introduction Through lectures of Introduction to Philosophy, I studied that Christianity

### Philosophy 5340 Epistemology Topic 4: Skepticism. Part 1: The Scope of Skepticism and Two Main Types of Skeptical Argument

1. The Scope of Skepticism Philosophy 5340 Epistemology Topic 4: Skepticism Part 1: The Scope of Skepticism and Two Main Types of Skeptical Argument The scope of skeptical challenges can vary in a number

### Russell s Problems of Philosophy

Russell s Problems of Philosophy IT S (NOT) ALL IN YOUR HEAD J a n u a r y 1 9 Today : 1. Review Existence & Nature of Matter 2. Russell s case against Idealism 3. Next Lecture 2.0 Review Existence & Nature

### New Chapter: Epistemology: The Theory and Nature of Knowledge

Intro to Philosophy Phil 110 Lecture 14: 2-22 Daniel Kelly I. Mechanics A. Upcoming Readings 1. Today we ll discuss a. Locke, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding b. Berkeley, Three Dialogues Between

### From Descartes to Locke. Sense Perception And The External World

From Descartes to Locke Sense Perception And The External World Descartes Third Meditation Descartes aim in the third Meditation is to demonstrate the existence of God, using only what (after Med. s 1

### Meditations on First Philosophy in which are demonstrated the existence of God and the distinction between the human soul and body

Meditations on First Philosophy in which are demonstrated the existence of God and the distinction between the human soul and body René Descartes Copyright Jonathan Bennett 2017. All rights reserved [Brackets]

### Descartes, Husserl, and Derrida on Cogito

Descartes, Husserl, and Derrida on Cogito Conf. Dr. Sorin SABOU Director, Research Center for Baptist Historical and Theological Studies Baptist Theological Institute of Bucharest Instructor of Biblical

### MEDITATIONS ON FIRST PHILOSOPHY. Rene Descartes. in which are demonstrated the existence of God and the distinction between

MEDITATIONS ON FIRST PHILOSOPHY Rene Descartes in which are demonstrated the existence of God and the distinction between the human soul and the body FIRST MEDITATION What can be called into doubt [1]

### John Locke No innate ideas or innate knowledge

John Locke 1632-1704 No innate ideas or innate knowledge Locke: read and enjoyed Descartes (though he had many disagreements with him). Worked as a doctor (physician), and a government official. Wrote

### Notes on Bertrand Russell s The Problems of Philosophy (Hackett 1990 reprint of the 1912 Oxford edition, Chapters XII, XIII, XIV, )

Notes on Bertrand Russell s The Problems of Philosophy (Hackett 1990 reprint of the 1912 Oxford edition, Chapters XII, XIII, XIV, 119-152) Chapter XII Truth and Falsehood [pp. 119-130] Russell begins here

### John Locke. British Empiricism

John Locke British Empiricism Locke Biographical Notes: Locke is credited as the founder of the British "Common Sense" movement, later known as empiricism - he was also the founder of the modern political

### Lecture 5 Philosophy of Mind: Dualism Barbara Montero On the Philosophy of the Mind

Lecture 5 Philosophy of Mind: Dualism Barbara Montero On the Philosophy of the Mind 1 Agenda 1. Barbara Montero 2. The Mind-Body Problem 3. Descartes Argument for Dualism 4. Theistic Version of Descartes

### Descartes Meditations

Descartes Meditations Descartes Meditations Suppose Descartes has proven his own existence as a thinking thing: Can he prove anything else with absolute certainty? Mathematics? His body? Other physical

### The Dream Hypothesis and the Brain-injar Hypothesis

1 Morten Tolboll The Dream Hypothesis and the Brain-injar Hypothesis We almost all have an experience of, how our senses and thoughts can deceive us. Therefore the question about, whether life could be

### Do we have knowledge of the external world?

Do we have knowledge of the external world? This book discusses the skeptical arguments presented in Descartes' Meditations 1 and 2, as well as how Descartes attempts to refute skepticism by building our

### Introduction to Philosophy

Introduction to Philosophy Descartes 2: The Cogito Jeremy Dunham Descartes Meditations A Recap of Meditation 1 First Person Narrative From Empiricism to Rationalism The Withholding Principle Local Doubt

### John Locke Innate ideas and innate knowledge

John Locke 1632-1704 Innate ideas and innate knowledge Read and enjoyed Descartes (though he had many disagreements with him). Worked as a doctor (physician), and a government official. Wrote Two Treatises

### From the fact that I cannot think of God except as existing, it follows that existence is inseparable from God, and hence that he really exists.

FIFTH MEDITATION The essence of material things, and the existence of God considered a second time We have seen that Descartes carefully distinguishes questions about a thing s existence from questions

### Knowledge as Justified True Belief (Plato) March 5, 2014

Knowledge as Justified True Belief (Plato) March 5, 2014 Overview I Overview Setting Learning Puzzle Theory of recollection Example Knowledge True belief Justified true belief Epistemology: Overview Epistemology

### To be able to define human nature and psychological egoism. To explain how our views of human nature influence our relationships with other

Velasquez, Philosophy TRACK 1: CHAPTER REVIEW CHAPTER 2: Human Nature 2.1: Why Does Your View of Human Nature Matter? Learning objectives: To be able to define human nature and psychological egoism To

### Demons and Dreams. Diana Mertz Hsieh Epistemology (Phil 5340, Huemer) 12 December 2003

Demons and Dreams Diana Mertz Hsieh (diana@dianahsieh.com) Epistemology (Phil 5340, Huemer) 12 December 2003 The Problem of Doubt Abstract questions about the nature of certainty, although clearly of interest

### John Hawthorne s Knowledge and Lotteries

John Hawthorne s Knowledge and Lotteries Chapter 1: Introducing the Puzzle 1.1: A Puzzle 1. S knows that S won t have enough money to go on a safari this year. 2. If S knows that S won t have enough money

### Religious Experience. Well, it feels real

Religious Experience Well, it feels real St. Teresa of Avila/Jesus 1515-1582 Non-visual experience I was at prayer on a festival of the glorious Saint Peter when I saw Christ at my side or, to put it better,

### VARIETIES OF SKEPTICISM. Jonathan Vogel Amherst Collge and Harvard University

VARIETIES OF SKEPTICISM Jonathan Vogel Amherst Collge and Harvard University 1. Skepticism as an underdetermination problem Skepticism about the external world is a philosophical problem, but there are

### Objections to the Meditations and Descartes s Replies

Objections to the Meditations and Descartes s Replies René Descartes Copyright Jonathan Bennett 2017. All rights reserved [Brackets] enclose editorial explanations. Small dots enclose material that has

### WHAT IS HUME S FORK? Certainty does not exist in science.

WHAT IS HUME S FORK? www.prshockley.org Certainty does not exist in science. I. Introduction: A. Hume divides all objects of human reason into two different kinds: Relation of Ideas & Matters of Fact.

### Semantic Externalism, by Jesper Kallestrup. London: Routledge, 2012, x+271 pages, ISBN (pbk).

131 are those electrical stimulations, given that they are the ones causing these experiences. So when the experience presents that there is a red, round object causing this very experience, then that

### Lecture 8 Property Dualism. Frank Jackson Epiphenomenal Qualia and What Mary Didn t Know

Lecture 8 Property Dualism Frank Jackson Epiphenomenal Qualia and What Mary Didn t Know 1 Agenda 1. Physicalism, Qualia, and Epiphenomenalism 2. Property Dualism 3. Thought Experiment 1: Fred 4. Thought

### Introduction to Philosophy PHL 221, York College Revised, Spring 2017

Introduction to Philosophy PHL 221, York College Revised, Spring 2017 Beginnings of Philosophy: Overview of Course (1) The Origins of Philosophy and Relativism Knowledge Are you a self? Ethics: What is

### Inductive Reasoning.

Inductive Reasoning http://toknow-11.wikispaces.com/file/view/snowflake_logic.png/291213597/snowflake_logic.png Inductive reasoning is which we reason from particular, observed phenomena to generalizations.

### Introduction to Philosophy. Spring 2017

Introduction to Philosophy Spring 2017 Elements of The Matrix The Matrix obviously has a lot of interesting parallels, themes, philosophical points, etc. For this class, the most interesting are the religious

### G.E. Moore A Refutation of Skepticism

G.E. Moore A Refutation of Skepticism The Argument For Skepticism 1. If you do not know that you are not merely a brain in a vat, then you do not even know that you have hands. 2. You do not know that

### 1 ReplytoMcGinnLong 21 December 2010 Language and Society: Reply to McGinn. In his review of my book, Making the Social World: The Structure of Human

1 Language and Society: Reply to McGinn By John R. Searle In his review of my book, Making the Social World: The Structure of Human Civilization, (Oxford University Press, 2010) in NYRB Nov 11, 2010. Colin

### Objections to the Meditations and Descartes s Replies

Objections to the Meditations and Descartes s Replies René Descartes Copyright Jonathan Bennett 2017. All rights reserved [Brackets] enclose editorial explanations. Small dots enclose material that has

### Berkeley, Three dialogues between Hylas and Philonous focus on p. 86 (chapter 9) to the end (p. 93).

TOPIC: Lecture 7.2 Berkeley Lecture Berkeley will discuss why we only have access to our sense-data, rather than the real world. He will then explain why we can trust our senses. He gives an argument for

### Our Mind Creates Obstacles. Sebastopol, CA February 22, 2013

Our Mind Creates Obstacles Sebastopol, CA February 22, 2013 Good morning, everybody. I am very happy to be back in northern California. And while I was sitting and waiting in the little room outside, where

### Phil Notes #9: The Infinite Regress Problem

Phil. 3340 Notes #9: The Infinite Regress Problem I. The Infinite Regress Problem: Introduction Basic Ideas: Sometimes we believe things for reasons. This is one (alleged) way a belief can be justified.

### Nagel, T. The View from Nowhere. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Nagel Notes PHIL312 Prof. Oakes Winthrop University Nagel, T. The View from Nowhere. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986. Thesis: the whole of reality cannot be captured in a single objective view,

### Hume s emotivism. Michael Lacewing

Michael Lacewing Hume s emotivism Theories of what morality is fall into two broad families cognitivism and noncognitivism. The distinction is now understood by philosophers to depend on whether one thinks

### RENÉ DESCARTES

RENÉ DESCARTES 1596-1650 It is now some years since I detected how many were the false beliefs that I had from my earliest youth admitted as true, [I]f I am able to find in each one some reason to doubt,

### Empiricism. HZT4U1 - Mr. Wittmann - Unit 3 - Lecture 3

Empiricism HZT4U1 - Mr. Wittmann - Unit 3 - Lecture 3 What can give us more sure knowledge than our senses? How else can we distinguish between the true & the false? -Lucretius The Dream by Henri Rousseau

### Mistaking Category Mistakes: A Response to Gilbert Ryle. Evan E. May

Mistaking Category Mistakes: A Response to Gilbert Ryle Evan E. May Part 1: The Issue A significant question arising from the discipline of philosophy concerns the nature of the mind. What constitutes

### Knowledge is Not the Most General Factive Stative Attitude

Mark Schroeder University of Southern California August 11, 2015 Knowledge is Not the Most General Factive Stative Attitude In Knowledge and Its Limits, Timothy Williamson conjectures that knowledge is

### Constructing the World

Constructing the World Lecture 1: A Scrutable World David Chalmers Plan *1. Laplace s demon 2. Primitive concepts and the Aufbau 3. Problems for the Aufbau 4. The scrutability base 5. Applications Laplace

### JD Casten (free to share) Post Egoism Media Eugene, Oregon, USA

6 x 9 x 1¾ 772 pages Order a copy for \$17 at Amazon.com, or download the entire PDF. PDF copy freely available at: http://casten.postegoism.net 2012 JD Casten (free to share) ISBN: 978-0-9854802-0-2 Cybernetic

### William Meehan Essay on Spinoza s psychology.

William Meehan wmeehan@wi.edu Essay on Spinoza s psychology. Baruch (Benedictus) Spinoza is best known in the history of psychology for his theory of the emotions and for being the first modern thinker

### RETHINKING THE A PRIORI/A POSTERIORI DISTINCTION

RETHINKING THE A PRIORI/A POSTERIORI DISTINCTION Jennifer Wilson MULNIX ABSTRACT: This paper offers an account of the a priori/a posteriori distinction utilizing the insights of reliabilism, focusing on

### A DEFENSE OF CARTESIAN CERTAINTY

A DEFENSE OF CARTESIAN CERTAINTY by STEPHANIE LARSEN WYKSTRA A dissertation submitted to the Graduate School-New Brunswick Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey In partial fulfillment of the requirements

### Part I: The Structure of Philosophy

Revised, 8/30/08 Part I: The Structure of Philosophy Philosophy as the love of wisdom The basic questions and branches of philosophy The branches of the branches and the many philosophical questions that

### Rationalism. A. He, like others at the time, was obsessed with questions of truth and doubt

Rationalism I. Descartes (1596-1650) A. He, like others at the time, was obsessed with questions of truth and doubt 1. How could one be certain in the absence of religious guidance and trustworthy senses

### Selections from Aristotle s Prior Analytics 41a21 41b5

Lesson Seventeen The Conditional Syllogism Selections from Aristotle s Prior Analytics 41a21 41b5 It is clear then that the ostensive syllogisms are effected by means of the aforesaid figures; these considerations

### Pollock s Theory of Defeasible Reasoning

s Theory of Defeasible Reasoning Jonathan University of Toronto Northern Institute of Philosophy June 18, 2010 Outline 1 2 Inference 3 s 4 Success Stories: The of Acceptance 5 6 Topics 1 Problematic Bayesian

### A Philosophical Critique of Cognitive Psychology s Definition of the Person

A Philosophical Critique of Cognitive Psychology s Definition of the Person Rosa Turrisi Fuller The Pluralist, Volume 4, Number 1, Spring 2009, pp. 93-99 (Article) Published by University of Illinois Press

### YES, VIRGINIA, LEMONS ARE YELLOW

ALEX BYRNE YES, VIRGINIA, LEMONS ARE YELLOW ABSTRACT. This paper discusses a number of themes and arguments in The Quest for Reality: Stroud s distinction between philosophical and ordinary questions about

### In Part I of the ETHICS, Spinoza presents his central

TWO PROBLEMS WITH SPINOZA S ARGUMENT FOR SUBSTANCE MONISM LAURA ANGELINA DELGADO * In Part I of the ETHICS, Spinoza presents his central metaphysical thesis that there is only one substance in the universe.

### Meditations on First Philosophy in which are demonstrated the existence of God and the distinction between the human soul and body

Meditations on First Philosophy in which are demonstrated the existence of God and the distinction between the human soul and body René Descartes Copyright Jonathan Bennett 2017. All rights reserved [Brackets]

### Tutorial A03: Patterns of Valid Arguments By: Jonathan Chan

A03.1 Introduction Tutorial A03: Patterns of Valid Arguments By: With valid arguments, it is impossible to have a false conclusion if the premises are all true. Obviously valid arguments play a very important

### 9 Knowledge-Based Systems

9 Knowledge-Based Systems Throughout this book, we have insisted that intelligent behavior in people is often conditioned by knowledge. A person will say a certain something about the movie 2001 because

### Charles Saunders Peirce ( )

Charles Saunders Peirce (1839-1914) Few persons care to study logic, because everybody conceives himself to be proficient enough in the art of reasoning already. But I observe that this satisfaction is

### Wright on response-dependence and self-knowledge

Wright on response-dependence and self-knowledge March 23, 2004 1 Response-dependent and response-independent concepts........... 1 1.1 The intuitive distinction......................... 1 1.2 Basic equations

### 2016 Philosophy. Higher. Finalised Marking Instructions

National Qualifications 06 06 Philosophy Higher Finalised Marking Instructions Scottish Qualifications Authority 06 The information in this publication may be reproduced to support SQA qualifications only

### Ethical non-naturalism

Michael Lacewing Ethical non-naturalism Ethical non-naturalism is usually understood as a form of cognitivist moral realism. So we first need to understand what cognitivism and moral realism is before

### The Problem of Evil. Prof. Eden Lin The Ohio State University

The Problem of Evil Prof. Eden Lin The Ohio State University Where We Are You have considered some questions about the nature of God: What does it mean for God to be omnipotent? Does God s omniscience

### PHL340 Handout 8: Evaluating Dogmatism

PHL340 Handout 8: Evaluating Dogmatism 1 Dogmatism Last class we looked at Jim Pryor s paper on dogmatism about perceptual justification (for background on the notion of justification, see the handout

### STROUD, AUSTIN, AND RADICAL SKEPTICISM

SKÉPSIS, ISSN 1981-4194, ANO VII, Nº 14, 2016, p. 57-75. STROUD, AUSTIN, AND RADICAL SKEPTICISM EROS CARVALHO Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS)/CNPq Email: erosmc@gmail.com FLÁVIO WILLIGES

### Boghossian & Harman on the analytic theory of the a priori

Boghossian & Harman on the analytic theory of the a priori PHIL 83104 November 2, 2011 Both Boghossian and Harman address themselves to the question of whether our a priori knowledge can be explained in

### Meditations on Knowledge, Truth, and Ideas

1 Copyright Jonathan Bennett [Brackets] enclose editorial explanations. Small dots enclose material that has been added, but can be read as though it were part of the original text. Occasional bullets,

### Morally Adaptive or Morally Maladaptive: A Look at Compassion, Mercy, and Bravery

ESSAI Volume 10 Article 17 4-1-2012 Morally Adaptive or Morally Maladaptive: A Look at Compassion, Mercy, and Bravery Alec Dorner College of DuPage Follow this and additional works at: http://dc.cod.edu/essai

### René Descartes ( ) PSY 3360 / CGS 3325 Historical Perspectives on Psychology Minds and Machines since Descartes

PSY 3360 / CGS 3325 Historical Perspectives on Psychology Minds and Machines since 1600 René Descartes (1596-1650) Dr. Peter Assmann Spring 2018 French mathematician, philosopher, and physiologist Descartes

### UNDERSTANDING, JUSTIFICATION AND THE A PRIORI

DAVID HUNTER UNDERSTANDING, JUSTIFICATION AND THE A PRIORI (Received in revised form 28 November 1995) What I wish to consider here is how understanding something is related to the justification of beliefs

### Why There s Nothing You Can Say to Change My Mind: The Principle of Non-Contradiction in Aristotle s Metaphysics

Davis 1 Why There s Nothing You Can Say to Change My Mind: The Principle of Non-Contradiction in Aristotle s Metaphysics William Davis Red River Undergraduate Philosophy Conference North Dakota State University

### Meditations on First Philosophy René Descartes

Meditations on First Philosophy René Descartes FIRST MEDITATION On What Can Be Called Into Doubt Some years ago I was struck by how many false things I had believed, and by how doubtful was the structure

### Every simple idea has a simple impression, which resembles it; and every simple impression a correspondent idea

'Every simple idea has a simple impression, which resembles it; and every simple impression a correspondent idea' (Treatise, Book I, Part I, Section I). What defence does Hume give of this principle and

### Is Klein an infinitist about doxastic justification?

Philos Stud (2007) 134:19 24 DOI 10.1007/s11098-006-9016-5 ORIGINAL PAPER Is Klein an infinitist about doxastic justification? Michael Bergmann Published online: 7 March 2007 Ó Springer Science+Business

### PHI 1700: Global Ethics

PHI 1700: Global Ethics Session 3 February 11th, 2016 Harman, Ethics and Observation 1 (finishing up our All About Arguments discussion) A common theme linking many of the fallacies we covered is that

### 1. Introduction Formal deductive logic Overview

1. Introduction 1.1. Formal deductive logic 1.1.0. Overview In this course we will study reasoning, but we will study only certain aspects of reasoning and study them only from one perspective. The special

### Why Ethics? Lightly Edited Transcript with Slides. Introduction

Why Ethics? Part 1 of a Video Tutorial on Business Ethics Available on YouTube and itunes University Recorded 2012 by John Hooker Professor, Tepper School of Business, Carnegie Mellon University Lightly

### TWO APPROACHES TO INSTRUMENTAL RATIONALITY

TWO APPROACHES TO INSTRUMENTAL RATIONALITY AND BELIEF CONSISTENCY BY JOHN BRUNERO JOURNAL OF ETHICS & SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY VOL. 1, NO. 1 APRIL 2005 URL: WWW.JESP.ORG COPYRIGHT JOHN BRUNERO 2005 I N SPEAKING

### Philosophy Epistemology. Topic 3 - Skepticism

Michael Huemer on Skepticism Philosophy 3340 - Epistemology Topic 3 - Skepticism Chapter II. The Lure of Radical Skepticism 1. Mike Huemer defines radical skepticism as follows: Philosophical skeptics

### The Problem of Induction and Popper s Deductivism

The Problem of Induction and Popper s Deductivism Issues: I. Problem of Induction II. Popper s rejection of induction III. Salmon s critique of deductivism 2 I. The problem of induction 1. Inductive vs.

### Thomas Reid on ideas and our knowledge of the external world

Thomas Reid on ideas and our knowledge of the external world inquiry into the human mind and the principles of commonsense, chapter 5, sections 7 and 8 Prof. Mark Steen Phil 112 Spring 2013 Commonsense

### What should I believe? I should believe only what I can be certain of

What should I believe? I should believe only what I can be certain of Today we begin a new topic. For the next few weeks, we will be investigating the question, What should I believe? This is a question

### ZOMBIES AND THE CASE OF THE PHENOMENAL PICKPOCKET

M.P. LYNCH ZOMBIES AND THE CASE OF THE PHENOMENAL PICKPOCKET ABSTRACT. A prevailing view in contemporary philosophy of mind is that zombies are logically possible. I argue, via a thought experiment, that

### DEFEASIBLE A PRIORI JUSTIFICATION: A REPLY TO THUROW

The Philosophical Quarterly Vol. 58, No. 231 April 2008 ISSN 0031 8094 doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9213.2007.512.x DEFEASIBLE A PRIORI JUSTIFICATION: A REPLY TO THUROW BY ALBERT CASULLO Joshua Thurow offers a

### The Skeptic and the Dogmatist

NOÛS 34:4 ~2000! 517 549 The Skeptic and the Dogmatist James Pryor Harvard University I Consider the skeptic about the external world. Let s straightaway concede to such a skeptic that perception gives

### Philosophy of Consciousness

Philosophy of Consciousness Direct Knowledge of Consciousness Lecture Reading Material for Topic Two of the Free University of Brighton Philosophy Degree Written by John Thornton Honorary Reader (Sussex

### Chapter Summaries: Three Types of Religious Philosophy by Clark, Chapter 1

Chapter Summaries: Three Types of Religious Philosophy by Clark, Chapter 1 In chapter 1, Clark begins by stating that this book will really not provide a definition of religion as such, except that it

### Plato s Protagoras Virtue & Expertise. Plato s Protagoras The Unity of the Virtues

Plato s Protagoras Virtue & Expertise A conflict: The elenchus: virtue is knowledge Experience: virtue can t be taught Plato s Protagoras The Unity of the Virtues Posing the Problem (329c & 349b): Are

### Is Moore s Argument an Example of Transmission-Failure? James Pryor Harvard University Draft 2 8/12/01

Is Moore s Argument an Example of Transmission-Failure? James Pryor Harvard University Draft 2 8/12/01 I Consider the following well-worn example, first put forward by Fred Dretske.

### Meditations on First Philosophy in which are demonstrated the existence of God and the distinction between the human soul and body

Meditations on First Philosophy in which are demonstrated the existence of God and the distinction between the human soul and body René Descartes Copyright Jonathan Bennett 2017. All rights reserved [Brackets]