# Descartes Method of Doubt

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Descartes Method of Doubt Philosophy 100 Lecture 9 PUTTING IT TOGETHER. Descartes Idea 1. The New Science. What science is about is describing the nature and interaction of the ultimate constituents of reality. 2. The Thesis of Rationalism. We come into the world with, in some sense, knowledge of the most basic principles of physics of the notion of a cause, of the understanding that matter must take up space, that one things cannot be in two different places at one, etc. 3. The New Algebra. We have a way of describing the geometric properties of these ultimate constituents of reality. 4. Mathematical Proof. By using the rules of logic, and axioms of physics (given to us innately by God), we can construct mathematical proofs about the nature of physical reality. 1

2 I. The Requirements of Certainty. What are the requirements for a system which is certain, which yields results or conclusions that are certain to be true? Two Conditions. 1. Each of the initial premises must be indubitable (no one could doubt it) and incorrigible (not subject to correction). In other words, each premise must be such that were any person any minimally rational and sane person to consider that proposition, he or she would agree that the premise is true. 2. Each step of the argument must follow indubitably from the previous premise(s). In Descartes terms, we can simply see by The Light of Reason, that each step must be true given the previous step(s). These two requirements are separate and distinct. (1) concerns the truth of the premises; (2) concerns the form of the argument. Descartes project requires that both of conditions be fulfilled. 2

3 Note that, in requiring these two conditions, Descartes is defining knowledge in the following way. You know a sentence A if and only if: a) You believe A b) A is true c) You have indefeasible evidence for A. Sidebar: Defeasible versus Indefeasible Evidence B provides defeasible evidence for A = df. While B provides some reason to believe that A is true, it is possible that B is true yet A is still false. E.g. Suppose that someone presents you with photographic evidence of Stephen Harper surreptitiously pinching the Easter Seals child. B provides Indefeasible evidence for A = df. If B is true then A must be true. The evidence is so strong that it is not possible that B is true and A is false. E.g. If = 4, then 4-2 = 2 3

4 Back to Descartes Project Descartes begins the First Meditation by looking for the first premises (or axioms) for his theory of knowledge. He is going to examine his present beliefs, not one by one, but type by type. His method is to select only those types of beliefs that he can declare to be true without any doubt. I. Doubt about Unclear Perceptual Beliefs There are many perceptions we have that we know are untrustworthy. E.g. If you ve forgotten your glasses, or are trying to identify something in the far distance, or know yourself to be drunk, etc.such perceptions are clearly untrustworthy. 4

5 II. Doubt about each perceptual belief. Descartes asks: Is there any general reason to doubt each and every one of my standard perceptual beliefs (barring the one answer that I am insane)? That is, is it certain that, for example, that you are sitting in a large lecture theatre, in the Images Theatre, listening to a philosophy lecture on Descartes? Is there any room for doubt here at all any reason to think that, maybe, it might not be true? Descartes Answer: It is possible that at this very instant, you are dreaming e.g. you are actually at home in bed, tossing and turning, in the midst of a truly horrible nightmare, namely the nightmare that you are in an introductory class at Simon Fraser University, listening to a lecture on Rene Descartes Method of Doubt and you have not done the assigned readings!! THIS IS POSSIBLE. And if this is possible that right now you are dreaming, then it is possible that for each and every perceptual belief that you consider, the ones you are having right now, that each one is false as well. 5

6 Two Standard Objections Standard Objection A: Aren t there internal signs in dreaming that one is dreaming? Dreams portray events that are inconsistent, fantastical, physically impossible, and so on. Reply: Yes, but when you have the dream, strangely, you do not notice these inconsistencies we all have dreams in which people change identities, look nothing like they should, or appear in places they could not possibly be. 6

7 Reply: Yes, but when you have the dream, strangely, you do not notice these inconsistencies we all have dreams in which people change identities, look nothing like they should, or appear in places they could not possibly be. The Standard Counter-Objection. Alright, perhaps I can t verify that my perceptions, right now, are not the product of a dream. But if I wait awhile, either I will wake up or I will not. Thus, after I have the sensation of waking up, I will know that what I was perceiving was a dream but what I am now perceiving is veridical (true). The Counter-Reply. Suppose we admit that you are sometimes awake and sometimes asleep, that we set aside the possibility that you are always dreaming. The question is this: how could you verify that you are awake NOW? How do you know that your present perceptions are veridical? You may seem to wake up, but this too may be a dream. If you are asleep, you will not notice any inconsistencies that are now present; so you can t count on the fact that, now, there do not seem to be any inconsistencies. 7

8 Thus there is no way to tell whether you are asleep now. Thus there is no way to tell whether you are asleep now. BUT, BUT, BUT Is Descartes saying that we could be dreaming all the time? Does this really make any sense to think that we could be dreaming all the time? Because if we were dreaming all the time, what would be the difference between waking and dreaming. 8

9 It is important to realize that Descartes does not have hold the permanent dreaming (without waking) is a coherent possibility. He does not need to prove that all of my beliefs taken together, as a group, might be false the claim that I might be dreaming all of the time. It is important to realize that Descartes does not have hold the permanent dreaming (without waking) is a coherent possibility. He does not need to prove that all of my beliefs taken together, as a group, might be false the claim that I might be dreaming all of the time. There is a difference between the following two claims: i. It is possible that all of my beliefs are false. ii. For each perceptual belief that I have, it is possible that each one is false. e.g. The lottery example. 9

10 All Descartes needs to prove is that for each perceptual belief, as I consider it, that belief could be false. III. Doubt about the commonalities of my perceptions. Even if we are dreaming now, and the world does not exist exactly as we now represent it, don t we still know some general truths about it? Don t I still know what my own apartment looks like, where I live? Or if I can t be certain of that, don t I still know that there are objects, like cats and dogs and buildings and bridges? And don t I still know that there are, in general, objects that exist through space and time, are extended, etc. Even if I were dreaming, wouldn t = 4? Could I possibly be deceived about these things? 10

11 Descartes Answer: The Evil Genius It is possible that, unbeknownst to you, there is an evil demon, who controls your sensory perceptions, all that you see, hear, feel, smell, etc. Not only do you not have a body, not only are you wrong about all of the events that seem to happen, but perhaps there is no external world at all or a world that has properties we can not even begin to imagine. A Modern Example: The Brain in the Vat. Suppose that, unbeknownst to you, your brain has been put into a nice vat of saline solution, its arteries are given a nice supply of artificial blood, and its sensory neurons are hooked up to electrical devices that stimulate the nerves in ways that will produce, in your brain, sensory perceptions of certain kind whatever kind your abductors want you to have. On the output side, there are sensors that read the signals of your out-going nerves, signals that are translated into the kinds of effects you would have brought about if you still had a body e.g. scratching your left ear. You are, in effect, you are the virtual pet of an alien species. Your entire world is merely virtual. If this were true, nothing you now believe about the external world need be true the world could be entirely different from what you now believe. 11

12 So what, if anything, would be left? Is there anything you can say you know? So what, if anything, would be left? Is there anything you can say you know? Yes. There is. Insofar as I am thinking or think that I am sitting in a lecture theatre, then I know that that is what I am thinking. It seems to me that I am sitting in the lecture theatre. 12

13 So what, if anything, would be left? Is there anything you can say you know? Yes. There is. Insofar as I am thinking or think that I am sitting in a lecture theatre, then I know that that is what I am thinking. It seems to me that I am sitting in the lecture theatre. I may not be in a lecture theatre, I may not be sitting, but that doesn t matter. Because no matter whether there is an evil genius or whether I am a brain in vat or whether I am dreaming at the moment, I know how things seem. This is how Descartes arrives at The Cogito: I think, therefore I am. Insofar as I am thinking, I exist. Insofar as I think that I am sitting in a lecture theatre, it is true that it seems to me as it I am sitting in a lecture theatre. 13

14 Question for Tutorial: Do you think it is possible for people to make a mistake about what they are thinking at the present about the contents of their own thoughts? If you agree with Descartes argument so far, then what Descartes has proved is that there are very very few things that we know very few facts for which we have indefeasible evidence. 14

15 If you agree with Descartes argument so far, then what Descartes has proved is that there are very very few things that we know very few facts for which we have indefeasible evidence. In fact, the only beliefs that we have that count as knowledge as certain are beliefs about how things seem to us, beliefs about the contents of the thoughts we are experiencing now. To put this another way Descartes gift to western philosophy is philosophical skepticism about the nature and existence of the external world. Unless there is some way to prove both the existence of the external world and its many properties, we are stuck with the conclusion that we cannot have knowledge about the external world. 15

### WHERE ARE WE KNOW NOW?

WHERE ARE WE KNOW NOW? A review of what we have covered in theory of knowledge so far IT ALL STARTS WITH DESCARTES Descartes Project (in the Meditations): To build a system of knowledge. I. A Foundational

### Epistemology. Theory of Knowledge

Epistemology Theory of Knowledge Epistemological Questions What is knowledge? What is the structure of knowledge? What particular things can I know? What particular things do I know? Do I know x? What

### So, among your current vast store of indubitable beliefs are the following: It seems to me that I am in Philosophy 100.

From last time By following the method of doubt by discarding every belief that could possibly be false Descartes has eliminated every statement about the nature of the physical world. While that eliminates

### Class #3 - Illusion Descartes, from Meditations on First Philosophy Descartes, The Story of the Wax Descartes, The Story of the Sun

Philosophy 110W: Introduction to Philosophy Fall 2014 Hamilton College Russell Marcus Class #3 - Illusion Descartes, from Meditations on First Philosophy Descartes, The Story of the Wax Descartes, The

### Descartes and Foundationalism

Cogito, ergo sum Who was René Descartes? 1596-1650 Life and Times Notable accomplishments modern philosophy mind body problem epistemology physics inertia optics mathematics functions analytic geometry

### In this lecture I am going to introduce you to the methodology of philosophy logic and argument

In this lecture I am going to introduce you to the methodology of philosophy logic and argument 2 We ll do this by analysing and evaluating a very famous argument Descartes Cogito Ergo Sum 3 René Descartes

### The Problem of the External World

The Problem of the External World External World Skepticism Consider this painting by Rene Magritte: Is there a tree outside? External World Skepticism Many people have thought that humans are like this

### Think by Simon Blackburn. Chapter 1b Knowledge

Think by Simon Blackburn Chapter 1b Knowledge According to A.C. Grayling, if cogito ergo sum is an argument, it is missing a premise. This premise is: A. Everything that exists thinks. B. Everything that

### René Descartes ( )

René Descartes (1596-1650) René Descartes René Descartes Method of doubt René Descartes Method of doubt Things you believed that you now know to be false? René Descartes Method of doubt Skeptical arguments

### You keep using that word. I do not think it means what you think it means. an analysis of Descartes Evil Genius conceivability argument

You keep using that word. I do not think it means what you think it means. an analysis of Descartes Evil Genius conceivability argument by Forrest Cameranesi In his Meditations, Descartes lays out an argument

### New Chapter: Epistemology: The Theory and Nature of Knowledge

Intro to Philosophy Phil 110 Lecture 12: 2-15 Daniel Kelly I. Mechanics A. Upcoming Readings 1. Today we ll discuss a. Descartes, Meditations on First Philosophy (full.pdf) 2. Next week a. Locke, An Essay

### From Descartes to Locke. Consciousness Knowledge Science Reality

From Descartes to Locke Consciousness Knowledge Science Reality Brains in Vats What is the point? The point of the brain in a vat story is not to convince us that we might actually be brains in vats, But

### The Rejection of Skepticism

1 The Rejection of Skepticism Abstract There is a widespread belief among contemporary philosophers that skeptical hypotheses such as that we are dreaming, or victims of an evil demon, or brains in a vat

### New Chapter: Epistemology: The Theory and Nature of Knowledge

Intro to Philosophy Phil 110 Lecture 11: 2-13 Daniel Kelly I. Mechanics A. Upcoming Readings 1. Today we ll discuss a. Descartes, Meditations on First Philosophy (full.pdf) 2. Next time a. Descartes, Meditations

### Cartesian Rationalism

Cartesian Rationalism René Descartes 1596-1650 Reason tells me to trust my senses Descartes had the disturbing experience of finding out that everything he learned at school was wrong! From 1604-1612 he

### From Brains in Vats.

From Brains in Vats. To God; To a Evil Genius; And even to Myself; What can know? What can we doubt? The search for certainty René Descartes Meditations on First Philosophy In which are demonstrated the

### So how does Descartes doubt everything?

Descartes and the First Two Meditations 9/15 I. Descartes Motivations - Descartes begins the meditations by mentioning that he was taught and accepted many falsehoods in his youth, and that his beliefs

### Introduction to Philosophy

Introduction to Philosophy Philosophy 110W Fall 2014 Russell Marcus Class #3 - Illusion Descartes, from Meditations on First Philosophy Marcus, Introduction to Philosophy, Fall 2014 Slide 1 Business P

### 1/8. Descartes 3: Proofs of the Existence of God

1/8 Descartes 3: Proofs of the Existence of God Descartes opens the Third Meditation by reminding himself that nothing that is purely sensory is reliable. The one thing that is certain is the cogito. He

### Cartesian Rationalism

Cartesian Rationalism René Descartes 1596-1650 Reason tells me to trust my senses Descartes had the disturbing experience of finding out that everything he learned at school was wrong! From 1604-1612 he

### Meditation 1: On what can be doubted

Meditation 1: On what can be doubted Descartes begins the First Meditation by noting that there are many things he once believed to be true that he has later learned were not. This leads him to worry which

### Introduction to Philosophy

Introduction to Philosophy Philosophy 110W Spring 2013 Russell Marcus Class #4 - Sense Experience Descartes and Locke Marcus, Introduction to Philosophy, Slide 1 Business P Writing Center P Presentation

### Logic, Truth & Epistemology. Ross Arnold, Summer 2014 Lakeside institute of Theology

Logic, Truth & Epistemology Ross Arnold, Summer 2014 Lakeside institute of Theology Philosophical Theology 1 (TH5) Aug. 15 Intro to Philosophical Theology; Logic Aug. 22 Truth & Epistemology Aug. 29 Metaphysics

### Epistemology. Diogenes: Master Cynic. The Ancient Greek Skeptics 4/6/2011. But is it really possible to claim knowledge of anything?

Epistemology a branch of philosophy that investigates the origin, nature, methods, and limits of human knowledge (Dictionary.com v 1.1). Epistemology attempts to answer the question how do we know what

### Foundationalism Vs. Skepticism: The Greater Philosophical Ideology

1. Introduction Ryan C. Smith Philosophy 125W- Final Paper April 24, 2010 Foundationalism Vs. Skepticism: The Greater Philosophical Ideology Throughout this paper, the goal will be to accomplish three

### This handout follows the handout on The nature of the sceptic s challenge. You should read that handout first.

Michael Lacewing Three responses to scepticism This handout follows the handout on The nature of the sceptic s challenge. You should read that handout first. MITIGATED SCEPTICISM The term mitigated scepticism

### Mind and Body. Is mental really material?"

Mind and Body Is mental really material?" René Descartes (1596 1650) v 17th c. French philosopher and mathematician v Creator of the Cartesian co-ordinate system, and coinventor of algebra v Wrote Meditations

### Common sense dictates that we can know external reality exists and that it is generally correctly perceived via our five senses

Common sense dictates that we can know external reality exists and that it is generally correctly perceived via our five senses Mind Mind Body Mind Body [According to this view] the union [of body and

### From Brains in Vats.

From Brains in Vats. To God; And even to Myself, To a Malicious Demon; But, with I am, I exist (or Cogito ergo sum, i.e., I think therefore I am ), we have found the ultimate foundation. The place where

### ! Jumping ahead 2000 years:! Consider the theory of the self.! What am I? What certain knowledge do I have?! Key figure: René Descartes.

! Jumping ahead 2000 years:! Consider the theory of the self.! What am I? What certain knowledge do I have?! What is the relation between that knowledge and that given in the sciences?! Key figure: René

### Definitions of Gods of Descartes and Locke

Assignment of Introduction to Philosophy Definitions of Gods of Descartes and Locke June 7, 2015 Kenzo Fujisue 1. Introduction Through lectures of Introduction to Philosophy, I studied that Christianity

### Philosophy 203 History of Modern Western Philosophy. Russell Marcus Hamilton College Spring 2010

Philosophy 203 History of Modern Western Philosophy Russell Marcus Hamilton College Spring 2010 Class 3 - Meditations Two and Three too much material, but we ll do what we can Marcus, Modern Philosophy,

### The purpose of this paper is to introduce the problem of skepticism as the

Hinge Conditions: An Argument Against Skepticism by Blake Barbour I. Introduction The purpose of this paper is to introduce the problem of skepticism as the Transmissibility Argument represents it and

### Philosophy 203 History of Modern Western Philosophy. Russell Marcus Hamilton College Spring 2016

Philosophy 203 History of Modern Western Philosophy Russell Marcus Hamilton College Spring 2016 Class #7 Finishing the Meditations Marcus, Modern Philosophy, Slide 1 Business # Today An exercise with your

### Russell s Problems of Philosophy

Russell s Problems of Philosophy IT S (NOT) ALL IN YOUR HEAD J a n u a r y 1 9 Today : 1. Review Existence & Nature of Matter 2. Russell s case against Idealism 3. Next Lecture 2.0 Review Existence & Nature

### Intro to Philosophy. Review for Exam 2

Intro to Philosophy Review for Exam 2 Epistemology Theory of Knowledge What is knowledge? What is the structure of knowledge? What particular things can I know? What particular things do I know? Do I know

### Introductory Kant Seminar Lecture

Introductory Kant Seminar Lecture Intentionality It is not unusual to begin a discussion of Kant with a brief review of some history of philosophy. What is perhaps less usual is to start with a review

### CARTESIANISM, NEO-REIDIANISM, AND THE A PRIORI: REPLY TO PUST

CARTESIANISM, NEO-REIDIANISM, AND THE A PRIORI: REPLY TO PUST Gregory STOUTENBURG ABSTRACT: Joel Pust has recently challenged the Thomas Reid-inspired argument against the reliability of the a priori defended

### GREAT PHILOSOPHERS: Thomas Reid ( ) Peter West 25/09/18

GREAT PHILOSOPHERS: Thomas Reid (1710-1796) Peter West 25/09/18 Some context Aristotle (384-322 BCE) Lucretius (c. 99-55 BCE) Thomas Reid (1710-1796 AD) 400 BCE 0 Much of (Western) scholastic philosophy

### Philosophy 5340 Epistemology Topic 4: Skepticism. Part 1: The Scope of Skepticism and Two Main Types of Skeptical Argument

1. The Scope of Skepticism Philosophy 5340 Epistemology Topic 4: Skepticism Part 1: The Scope of Skepticism and Two Main Types of Skeptical Argument The scope of skeptical challenges can vary in a number

### What is knowledge? How do good beliefs get made?

What is knowledge? How do good beliefs get made? We are users of our cognitive systems Our cognitive (belief-producing) systems (e.g. perception, memory and inference) largely run automatically. We find

### General Philosophy. Dr Peter Millican,, Hertford College. Lecture 4: Two Cartesian Topics

General Philosophy Dr Peter Millican,, Hertford College Lecture 4: Two Cartesian Topics Scepticism, and the Mind 2 Last Time we looked at scepticism about INDUCTION. This Lecture will move on to SCEPTICISM

### Welcome back to our third and final lecture on skepticism and the appearance

PHI 110 Lecture 15 1 Welcome back to our third and final lecture on skepticism and the appearance reality gap. Because the material that we re working with now is quite difficult and involved, I will do

### Intro to Philosophy. Instructor: Jason Sheley

Intro to Philosophy Instructor: Jason Sheley Quiz: True or False? 1) According to Glaucon, if given the Ring, the unjust and just person will behave the same way. 2) Socrates assumes that a person in the

### Augustine, On Free Choice of the Will,

Augustine, On Free Choice of the Will, 2.3-2.15 (or, How the existence of Truth entails that God exists) Introduction: In this chapter, Augustine and Evodius begin with three questions: (1) How is it manifest

### SUMMARIES AND TEST QUESTIONS UNIT 1

SUMMARIES AND TEST QUESTIONS UNIT 1 Textbook: Louis P. Pojman, Editor. Philosophy: The quest for truth. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. ISBN-10: 0199697310; ISBN-13: 9780199697311 (6th Edition)

### John Locke No innate ideas or innate knowledge

John Locke 1632-1704 No innate ideas or innate knowledge Locke: read and enjoyed Descartes (though he had many disagreements with him). Worked as a doctor (physician), and a government official. Wrote

### New Chapter: Epistemology: The Theory and Nature of Knowledge

Intro to Philosophy Phil 110 Lecture 14: 2-22 Daniel Kelly I. Mechanics A. Upcoming Readings 1. Today we ll discuss a. Locke, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding b. Berkeley, Three Dialogues Between

### By submitting this essay, I attest that it is my own work, completed in accordance with University regulations. Minh Alexander Nguyen

DRST 004: Directed Studies Philosophy Professor Matthew Noah Smith By submitting this essay, I attest that it is my own work, completed in accordance with University regulations. Minh Alexander Nguyen

### The British Empiricism

The British Empiricism Locke, Berkeley and Hume copyleft: nicolazuin.2018 nowxhere.wordpress.com The terrible heritage of Descartes: Skepticism, Empiricism, Rationalism The problem originates from the

### Reid Against Skepticism

Thus we see, that Descartes and Locke take the road that leads to skepticism without knowing the end of it, but they stop short for want of light to carry them farther. Berkeley, frightened at the appearance

### John Locke. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding

John Locke An Essay Concerning Human Understanding From Rationalism to Empiricism Empiricism vs. Rationalism Empiricism: All knowledge ultimately rests upon sense experience. All justification (our reasons

### Welcome to the second of our two lectures on Descartes theory of mind and

PHI 110 Lecture 3 1 Welcome to the second of our two lectures on Descartes theory of mind and body, the theory that I ve called mind/body dualism. Recall that the view is that the body is a physical substance

### Do we have knowledge of the external world?

Do we have knowledge of the external world? This book discusses the skeptical arguments presented in Descartes' Meditations 1 and 2, as well as how Descartes attempts to refute skepticism by building our

### The knowledge argument

Michael Lacewing The knowledge argument PROPERTY DUALISM Property dualism is the view that, although there is just one kind of substance, physical substance, there are two fundamentally different kinds

### PHILOSOPHY OF KNOWLEDGE & REALITY W E E K 7 : E P I S T E M O L O G Y - K A N T

PHILOSOPHY OF KNOWLEDGE & REALITY W E E K 7 : E P I S T E M O L O G Y - K A N T AGENDA 1. Review of Epistemology 2. Kant Kant s Compromise Kant s Copernican Revolution 3. The Nature of Truth REVIEW: THREE

### Introduction to Philosophy. Instructor: Jason Sheley

Introduction to Philosophy Instructor: Jason Sheley Consider: Does it matter whether Descartes is able to give an answer to the problem of Global Skepticism? Opening puzzle: The Experience Machine Would

### What am I? An immaterial thing: the case for dualism

What am I? An immaterial thing: the case for dualism Today we turn to our third big question: What are you? We can focus this question a little bit by introducing the idea of a physical or material thing.

### Descartes, Husserl, and Derrida on Cogito

Descartes, Husserl, and Derrida on Cogito Conf. Dr. Sorin SABOU Director, Research Center for Baptist Historical and Theological Studies Baptist Theological Institute of Bucharest Instructor of Biblical

### MEDITATIONS ON FIRST PHILOSOPHY. Rene Descartes. in which are demonstrated the existence of God and the distinction between

MEDITATIONS ON FIRST PHILOSOPHY Rene Descartes in which are demonstrated the existence of God and the distinction between the human soul and the body FIRST MEDITATION What can be called into doubt [1]

### Mohammad Reza Vaez Shahrestani. University of Bonn

Philosophy Study, November 2017, Vol. 7, No. 11, 595-600 doi: 10.17265/2159-5313/2017.11.002 D DAVID PUBLISHING Defending Davidson s Anti-skepticism Argument: A Reply to Otavio Bueno Mohammad Reza Vaez

### Roots of Psychology Aristotle and Descartes

Roots of Psychology Aristotle and Descartes Aristotle s Hylomorphism Dualism of matter and form A commitment shared with Plato that entities are identified by their form But, unlike Plato, did not accept

### DREAMING AND CERTAINTY

JIM STONE DREAMING AND CERTAINTY (Received 19 August, 1983) In Meditation I, Descartes considers whether it is reasonable to doubt that he is seated by the fare attired in a dressing gown. He writes But

### Introduction to Philosophy. Instructor: Jason Sheley

Introduction to Philosophy Instructor: Jason Sheley Quiz True or False? 1. Descartes believes that the possibility of veridical dreams undermines our faith in our senses. 2. Descartes believes that the

### National Quali cations SPECIMEN ONLY. Date of birth Scottish candidate number

N5FOR OFFICIAL USE S854/75/01 National Quali cations SPECIMEN ONLY Mark Philosophy Date Not applicable Duration 2 hours 20 minutes *S8547501* Fill in these boxes and read what is printed below. Full name

### Notes on Bertrand Russell s The Problems of Philosophy (Hackett 1990 reprint of the 1912 Oxford edition, Chapters XII, XIII, XIV, )

Notes on Bertrand Russell s The Problems of Philosophy (Hackett 1990 reprint of the 1912 Oxford edition, Chapters XII, XIII, XIV, 119-152) Chapter XII Truth and Falsehood [pp. 119-130] Russell begins here

### Lecture 5 Philosophy of Mind: Dualism Barbara Montero On the Philosophy of the Mind

Lecture 5 Philosophy of Mind: Dualism Barbara Montero On the Philosophy of the Mind 1 Agenda 1. Barbara Montero 2. The Mind-Body Problem 3. Descartes Argument for Dualism 4. Theistic Version of Descartes

### John Locke. British Empiricism

John Locke British Empiricism Locke Biographical Notes: Locke is credited as the founder of the British "Common Sense" movement, later known as empiricism - he was also the founder of the modern political

### Welcome back. We are starting a new topic today, a new part of the course.

PHI 110 Lecture 10 1 Welcome back. We are starting a new topic today, a new part of the course. This part of the course we will address the subject of knowledge and specifically what in philosophy is called

### PHILOSOPHY OF KNOWLEDGE & REALITY W E E K 7 : E P I S T E M O L O G Y - K A N T

PHILOSOPHY OF KNOWLEDGE & REALITY W E E K 7 : E P I S T E M O L O G Y - K A N T AGENDA 1. Review of Epistemology 2. Kant Kant s Compromise Kant s Copernican Revolution 3. The Nature of Truth KNOWLEDGE:

### Direct Realism and the Brain-in-a-Vat Argument by Michael Huemer (2000)

Direct Realism and the Brain-in-a-Vat Argument by Michael Huemer (2000) One of the advantages traditionally claimed for direct realist theories of perception over indirect realist theories is that the

### Demons and Dreams. Diana Mertz Hsieh Epistemology (Phil 5340, Huemer) 12 December 2003

Demons and Dreams Diana Mertz Hsieh (diana@dianahsieh.com) Epistemology (Phil 5340, Huemer) 12 December 2003 The Problem of Doubt Abstract questions about the nature of certainty, although clearly of interest

### Experience and Foundationalism in Audi s The Architecture of Reason

Philosophy and Phenomenological Research Vol. LXVII, No. 1, July 2003 Experience and Foundationalism in Audi s The Architecture of Reason WALTER SINNOTT-ARMSTRONG Dartmouth College Robert Audi s The Architecture

### Reading Questions for Phil , Fall 2013 (Daniel)

1 Reading Questions for Phil 412.200, Fall 2013 (Daniel) Class Two: Descartes Meditations I & II (Aug. 28) For Descartes, why can t knowledge gained through sense experience be trusted as the basis of

### Ayer on the argument from illusion

Ayer on the argument from illusion Jeff Speaks Philosophy 370 October 5, 2004 1 The objects of experience.............................. 1 2 The argument from illusion............................. 2 2.1

### EPISTEMOLOGY for DUMMIES

EPISTEMOLOGY for DUMMIES Cary Cook 2008 Epistemology doesn t help us know much more than we would have known if we had never heard of it. But it does force us to admit that we don t know some of the things

### Words and their Meaning

LESSON 2 OF 23 James M. Grier, Th.D. Distinguished Professor of Philosophical Theology at Grand Rapids Theological Seminary in Grand Rapids, Michigan WE503 Christian Ethics: A Biblical Theology of Morality

### HOBBES S DECEIVING GOD: THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN THOMAS HOBBES AND RENE DESCARTES. Gabriela Gorescu. Thesis Prepared for the Degree of

HOBBES S DECEIVING GOD: THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN THOMAS HOBBES AND RENE DESCARTES Gabriela Gorescu Thesis Prepared for the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF NORTH TEXAS August 2015 APPROVED: Richard

### The Dream Hypothesis and the Brain-injar Hypothesis

1 Morten Tolboll The Dream Hypothesis and the Brain-injar Hypothesis We almost all have an experience of, how our senses and thoughts can deceive us. Therefore the question about, whether life could be

### George Berkeley. The Principles of Human Knowledge. Review

George Berkeley The Principles of Human Knowledge Review To be is to be perceived Obvious to the Mind all those bodies which compose the earth have no subsistence without a mind, their being is to be perceived

### The Indeterminacy of Translation: Fifty Years Later

The Indeterminacy of Translation: Fifty Years Later Tufts University BIBLID [0873-626X (2012) 32; pp. 385-393] Abstract The paper considers the Quinean heritage of the argument for the indeterminacy of

### Meditations on First Philosophy in which are demonstrated the existence of God and the distinction between the human soul and body

Meditations on First Philosophy in which are demonstrated the existence of God and the distinction between the human soul and body René Descartes Copyright Jonathan Bennett 2017. All rights reserved [Brackets]

### Theories of epistemic justification can be divided into two groups: internalist and

1 Internalism and externalism about justification Theories of epistemic justification can be divided into two groups: internalist and externalist. Internalist theories of justification say that whatever

### The Many Problems of Memory Knowledge (Short Version)

The Many Problems of Memory Knowledge (Short Version) Prepared For: The 13 th Annual Jakobsen Conference Abstract: Michael Huemer attempts to answer the question of when S remembers that P, what kind of

### Skepticism is True. Abraham Meidan

Skepticism is True Abraham Meidan Skepticism is True Copyright 2004 Abraham Meidan All rights reserved. Universal Publishers Boca Raton, Florida USA 2004 ISBN: 1-58112-504-6 www.universal-publishers.com

### Introduction to Philosophy

Introduction to Philosophy Descartes 2: The Cogito Jeremy Dunham Descartes Meditations A Recap of Meditation 1 First Person Narrative From Empiricism to Rationalism The Withholding Principle Local Doubt

### Clear and Distinct Perception in Descartes's Philosophy. Shoshana Rose Smith. B.A. University of California Los Angeles, 1995

Clear and Distinct Perception in Descartes's Philosophy by Shoshana Rose Smith B.A. University of California Los Angeles, 1995 A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the

### PHILOSOPHY OF KNOWLEDGE & REALITY W E E K 4 : I M M A T E R I A L I S M, D U A L I S M, & T H E M I N D - B O D Y P R O B L E M

PHILOSOPHY OF KNOWLEDGE & REALITY W E E K 4 : I M M A T E R I A L I S M, D U A L I S M, & T H E M I N D - B O D Y P R O B L E M AGENDA 1. Quick Review 2. Arguments Against Materialism/Physicalism (continued)

### Broad on Theological Arguments. I. The Ontological Argument

Broad on God Broad on Theological Arguments I. The Ontological Argument Sample Ontological Argument: Suppose that God is the most perfect or most excellent being. Consider two things: (1)An entity that

### Proofs of Non-existence

The Problem of Evil Proofs of Non-existence Proofs of non-existence are strange; strange enough in fact that some have claimed that they cannot be done. One problem is with even stating non-existence claims:

### From Descartes to Locke. Sense Perception And The External World

From Descartes to Locke Sense Perception And The External World Descartes Third Meditation Descartes aim in the third Meditation is to demonstrate the existence of God, using only what (after Med. s 1

### What is Justification?

What is Justification? Propositional knowledge many of the most intriguing questions about knowledge turn out to be questions about propositional knowledge. It will be the focus of this book. (p. 12) What

### John Locke Innate ideas and innate knowledge

John Locke 1632-1704 Innate ideas and innate knowledge Read and enjoyed Descartes (though he had many disagreements with him). Worked as a doctor (physician), and a government official. Wrote Two Treatises

### Hume. Hume the Empiricist. Judgments about the World. Impressions as Content of the Mind. The Problem of Induction & Knowledge of the External World

Hume Hume the Empiricist The Problem of Induction & Knowledge of the External World As an empiricist, Hume thinks that all knowledge of the world comes from sense experience If all we can know comes from

### Are Miracles Identifiable?

Are Miracles Identifiable? 1. Some naturalists argue that no matter how unusual an event is it cannot be identified as a miracle. 1. If this argument is valid, it has serious implications for those who

### First Treatise <Chapter 1. On the Eternity of Things>

First Treatise 5 10 15 {198} We should first inquire about the eternity of things, and first, in part, under this form: Can our intellect say, as a conclusion known

### The Externalist and the Structuralist Responses To Skepticism. David Chalmers

The Externalist and the Structuralist Responses To Skepticism David Chalmers Overview In Reason, Truth, and History, Hilary Putnam mounts an externalist response to skepticism. In The Matrix as Metaphysics

### Lecture 38 CARTESIAN THEORY OF MIND REVISITED Overview. Key words: Cartesian Mind, Thought, Understanding, Computationality, and Noncomputationality.

Lecture 38 CARTESIAN THEORY OF MIND REVISITED Overview Descartes is one of the classical founders of non-computational theories of mind. In this paper my main argument is to show how Cartesian mind is