1 SPIRITUALITY & RELIGION What do these terms mean?
2 SPIRITUALITY - RELIGION Some people might characterize the difference between religion and spirituality in a way that resembles the video you just watched. They might say that religion is external behavior that is rulebased, and that spirituality is more of an internalized behavior.
3 SPIRITUALITY - RELIGION Those definitions are too simplistic and do not reflect the great deal of variability in both personal and academic definition of both terms. People have different definitions based on their own experiences.
4 SPIRITUALITY - RELIGION Some define spirituality as a smaller part of the larger construct of religion. Spirituality Religion In other words, they see spirituality as just one aspect of religion.
5 SPIRITUALITY - RELIGION Others see it right the opposite. They see religion as just on aspect of spirituality. Religion Spirituality
6 The broader reality is that when you combine all of the varioius definitions, you get the following picture of spirituality and religion. Spirituality Religion
7 There are certain human behaviors and experiences that could be classified as both spirituality and religion. Spirituality Religion
8 There are other human behaviors and experiences that are most commonly classified as spirituality. Spirituality Religion
9 There are other human behaviors and experiences that are most commonly classified as religion. Spirituality Religion
10 Again, people will define both terms differently based on their own experiences.???? Spirituality? Religion????
11 DEFINITIONS From Hodge & Derezotes (2008): Religion is commonly defined in terms of an organized set of beliefs and practices - directed toward spiritual concerns - that are shared by a community.
12 DEFINITIONS From Hodge & Derezotes (2008): Spirituality is typically conceptualized in more subjective, individualistic terms. There are two common themes...
13 DEFINITIONS From Hodge & Derezotes (2008): 1. The existence of a transcendent reality that is transpersonal in nature. 2. That this reality is personal, existential, and subjective and involves a union with the nontemporal.
14 DEFINITIONS Like any definition, that doesn t really tell you anything. So let s take those words one at a time, so we can gain a better understanding of how spirituality is most commonly defined by academics.
15 from the New Oxford American Dictionary
16 from the New Oxford American Dictionary
17 from the New Oxford American Dictionary
18 from the New Oxford American Dictionary
19 nontemporal would be not related to worldly affairs or time from the New Oxford American Dictionary
20 SPIRITUALITY So if we put that all together we can understand spirituality to be behavior or experiences that are very personal but yet take us out of ourselves and connect us to a higher consciousness that is not bound by our world or our time. That is just my (Dr. Stanfield) paraphrase. You may have one that makes more sense to you. Let s turn now to how Social Work has defined spirituality and religion.
21 SPIRITUALITY & RELIGION What do these terms mean to social workers?
22 SPIRITUALITY The Social Work Dictionary, which is published by the National Association of Social Workers (NASW) Press and written by Robert Baker, defines spirituality as... Devotion to the immaterial part of humanity and nature rather than worldly things such as possessions; an orientation to people s religious, moral, or emotional nature. The book does not contain a definition for religion, yet NASW uses the term religion instead of spirituality in the NASW Code of Ethics, which we will examine more closely in a moment.
23 SOCIAL WORK ORGANIZATIONS The Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) sets accreditation standards for Social Work programs in the U.S. CSWE requires all programs include content on human diversity. CSWE says human diversity includes spirituality and religion.
24 SOCIAL WORK ORGANIZATIONS The National Association of Social Workers (NASW) includes religion in the elements of culture when defining cultural competence. The NASW Code of Ethics says that social workers should not discriminate against people based on religion.
25 STATEMENTS FROM THE CODE OF ETHICS from the Purpose of the NASW Code of Ethics section: Social workers also should be aware of the impact on ethical decision making of their clients and their own personal values and cultural and religious beliefs and practices. They should be aware of any conflicts between personal and professional values and deal with them responsibly.
26 STATEMENTS FROM THE CODE OF ETHICS from the 1.05 Cultural Competence and Social Diversity section: (c) Social workers should obtain education about and seek to understand the nature of social diversity and oppression with respect to race, ethnicity, national origin, color, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, age, marital status, political belief, religion, immigration status, and mental or physical disability.
27 STATEMENTS FROM THE CODE OF ETHICS from the 1.06 Conflicts of Interest section: (b) Social workers should not take unfair advantage of any professional relationship or exploit others to further their personal, religious, political, or business interests.
28 STATEMENTS FROM THE CODE OF ETHICS from the 2.01 Respect section: (b) Social workers should avoid unwarranted negative criticism of colleagues in communications with clients or with other professionals. Unwarranted negative criticism may include demeaning comments that refer to colleagues level of competence or to individuals attributes such as race, ethnicity, national origin, color, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, age, marital status, political belief, religion, immigration status, and mental or physical disability.
29 STATEMENTS FROM THE CODE OF ETHICS from the 4.02 Discrimination section: Social workers should not practice, condone, facilitate, or collaborate with any form of discrimination on the basis of race, ethnicity, national origin, color, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, age, marital status, political belief, religion, immigration status, or mental or physical disability.
30 STATEMENTS FROM THE CODE OF ETHICS from the 6.04 Social and Political Action section: (d) Social workers should act to prevent and eliminate domination of, exploitation of, and discrimination against any person, group, or class on the basis of race, ethnicity, national origin, color, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, age, marital status, political belief, religion, immigration status, or mental or physical disability.
31 CULTURAL COMPETENCE The second excerpt from the Code of Ethics is from the section entitled Cultural Competence and Social Diversity. Well what does Cultural Competence mean? It basically means that, as a social worker, you can work effectively with clients from a variety of cultural backgrounds, particularly cultures that are dramatically different than your own. Let s turn again to The Social Work Dictionary for a much more in depth definition...
32 cultural competence Possession of the knowledge, attitudes, understanding, self-awareness, and practice skills that enable a professional person to serve clients from diverse socioethnic backgrounds. The definition then points to the 3 components listed by the Code of Ethics in section 1.05: 1.Social workers should understand culture and its functions and the strengths that exist in all cultures. 2.Social workers should have knowledge about their clients cultures and differences among cultural groups. 3.Social workers should seek education and understanding about the nature of social diversity and oppression for all cultural groups.
33 CULTURAL COMPETENCE So basically religion and spirituality are major components of culture. I like to think about culture more in terms of each person s unique culture as it is influenced by various influences, rather than a group of homogeneous people. We know from research that there is a great deal of variability in beliefs and experiences even within individual churches. So when thinking about the spirituality and religion of our clients, we must think about their own unique individual experiences and not stereotype them based on their group affiliations.
34 CULTURAL COMPETENCE So that is the primary objective of this course; to make you a more culturally competent social worker. In this first course, we will look at how you can include spiritual and religious aspects of your client s life into the assessment, planning, intervention, evaluation, and termination stages of the social work helping process. In the second course, we will examine these same aspects as it relates to social work practice with families, groups, and communities. Then finally, in the third course, we will examine the spirituality and religion of social workers to determine how you can leverage your own spiritual and religious strengths in an effort to become a more effective social worker.
35 WHAT ABOUT YOU? How do you define religion? How do you define spirituality? Do you see yourself as more spiritual or religious? Do you think these terms are useful to social workers? Now return to the learning module outline and take the Belief-O- Matic and What s Your Spiritual Type quizzes at Beliefnet.com.
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