The Ontological Argument for the existence of God. Pedro M. Guimarães Ferreira S.J. PUC-Rio Boston College, July 13th. 2011

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "The Ontological Argument for the existence of God. Pedro M. Guimarães Ferreira S.J. PUC-Rio Boston College, July 13th. 2011"

Transcription

1 The Ontological Argument for the existence of God Pedro M. Guimarães Ferreira S.J. PUC-Rio Boston College, July 13th. 2011

2 The ontological argument (henceforth, O.A.) for the existence of God has a long history. It was proposed (firstly) by St. Anselm of Canterbury (c ). Some researchers say that Ibn Sina, died in 1037, was the first. Others say that the argument may have been implicit in the works of Greek philosophers such as Plato and the Neo- Platonist. As said by someone, fascination with the ontological argument stems from the effort to prove God's existence from simple but powerful premises.

3 In his Proslogion Anselm presents two O.A. s. The first one, in chapter 2, is on the existence of God, and the second one, in chapter 3, is on the necessary existence of God.

4 In the first argument he says that God is that than which nothing greater can be thought. In other words, one cannot conceive a being greater than God. But besides existing in our understanding, he has to exist in the reality, because existing in the understanding and in the reality is greater than existing only in our understanding. In other words, if that Being would exist only in our understanding, we could think of another being who would exist in the reality also, and this would be greater than that one. And that is the proof!

5 In chapter 3 he argues that if x is such that x can be conceived not to exist, then x is not that than which nothing greater can be thought. Consequently, that than which nothing greater can be thought cannot be conceived not to exist. (And that is equivalent to saying that God is necessary). See the Word document, p. 1

6 The O.A. was accepted (and formulated in different ways) as well as denied by many of the greatest philosophers in history. The argument has a platonic flavor. As said before, it may have been implicit in the works of Greek philosophers such as Plato and the Neo-Platonist

7 After Anselm, the argument was assumed, among others, by Descartes ( ), Spinoza ( ), Leibniz ( ), Hegel ( ) and more recently the argument was recovered, among others, by Charles Hartshorne ( ), Kurt Gödel ( ), Norman Malcolm ( ) and Alvin Plantinga ( ).

8 Among those who opposed the O.A. were Gaunilo de Marmoutiers (11 th. century), Saint Thomas Aquinas ( ), David Hume ( ), Kant ( ) and, more recently, Gottlob Frege ( ) and Bertrand Russell ( ).

9 Gaunilo de Marmoutiers (11 th. century) is not noticed in the history of philosophy, except for his argument against the O.A. He wrote that if it were valid, one could prove anything with the idea of most perfect. And he exemplified: one can conceive the most perfect island, then it should exist. But those who support the O.A. argue: what would be the most perfect island? Temperate or tropical? What amount of land compared to the earth s surface, etc?

10 Saint Thomas Aquinas ( ) rejected the O.A. with few words, but those were considered devastating: Anselm says that a non-existent God is not intelligible, but from this it does not follow that someone may not think that God does not exist or deny the existence of God.

11 Saint Thomas Aquinas ( ) rejected the O.A. with few words, but those were considered devastating: Anselm says that a non-existent God is not intelligible, but from this it does not follow that someone may not think that God does not exist or deny the existence of God. I would say that for Thomas, existence precedes ontologically the essence of a thing; in fact, for him, essence is the limitation of existence, so existence is not included in the essence of a thing, hence it does not make sense for him to say that a thing has to exist in order that its essence be most perfect.

12 David Hume ( ): Whatever we conceive as existent, we can also conceive as non-existent. There is no being, therefore, whose non-existence implies a contradiction. Consequently there is no being, whose existence is demonstrable. With respect to the first statement above, there is an obvious counter-example: what we conceive as necessarily existent cannot be conceived as non-existent.

13 Kant ( ). He denied that existence is a property, so rejecting the O.A. So, it seems to me that his position on this regard is essentially the same which I commented on that of Aquinas. Gottlob Frege ( ) states that existence is a predicate of second order, hence statements of first order about existence are meaningless.

14 Bertrand Russell ( ): In his Hegelian youth he exclaimed: Great God of boots! The O.A. is sound! Having become an atheist, he observed that it is much easier to be persuaded that O.A. s are no good than it is to say exactly what is wrong with them.

15 Bertrand Russell ( ): In his Hegelian youth he exclaimed: Great God of boots! The O.A. is sound! Having become an atheist, he observed that it is much easier to be persuaded that O.A. s are no good than it is to say exactly what is wrong with them. And it is commented that this helps to explain why ontological arguments have fascinated philosophers for almost a thousand years. Indeed, it would be the case to quote Kant in this context: Human reason poses problems to itself which it cannot avoid (to pose) and does not know how to answer them.

16 René Descartes ( ). Aquinas criticism of the O.A. was considered so devastating, that it took more than 350 years for no one less than Descartes to resume the O.A. Descartes wrote more than one O.A. Instead of considering the greatness of God, Descartes' argument, in contrast, is grounded in two central tenets of his philosophy the theory of innate ideas and the doctrine of clear and distinct perception. He purports not to rely on an arbitrary definition of God but rather on an innate idea whose content is given.

17 His version is also extremely simple. God's existence is inferred directly from the fact that necessary existence is contained in the clear and distinct idea of a supremely perfect being. Indeed, on some occasions he suggests that the so-called ontological argument is not a formal proof at all but a self-evident axiom grasped intuitively by a mind free of philosophical prejudice.

18 His version is also extremely simple. God's existence is inferred directly from the fact that necessary existence is contained in the clear and distinct idea of a supremely perfect being. Indeed, on some occasions he suggests that the so-called ontological argument is not a formal proof at all but a selfevident axiom grasped intuitively by a mind free of philosophical prejudice. Descartes argues that necessary existence cannot be excluded from the idea of God anymore than the fact that in a triangle the sum of its angles equal two right angles. The analogy underscores once again the argument's supreme simplicity. God's existence is purported to be as obvious and self-evident as the most basic mathematical truth.

19 Leibniz ( ) is considered one of the great philosophers, one of the three most important logicians of history together with Aristotle and Gödel and he was the hero of the last. For Leibniz, the perfect being is by definition the being that has all the positive predicates ( perfections ) and only those predicates. But existence is a positive predicate and then the perfect being exists necessarily.

20 He says in a text: Elsewhere I have already given my opinion of St. Anselm s proof of the existence of God, which was revived by Descartes. The substance of it is that that which includes all perfections in its idea, or the greatest of all possible beings, also includes existence in its essence, since existence is one of the perfections, and otherwise something could be added to that which is perfect. I occupy a middle ground between those who consider this argument to be a sophism, and the opinion [which] considers it a perfect proof. That is, I agree that it is a proof, but I disagree that it is perfect, since it presupposes a truth which still deserves to be proved. For it is tacitly supposed that God, or rather the perfect being is possible. If this point were also proved, as it should be, it could be said that the existence of God would be proved [ ].

21 And he continues: And this shows, as I have already said, that one can only reason perfectly on the basis of ideas when one knows their possibility. [That is one thing I don t understand. If p is necessary, how it can possibly be not possible?]. However, he continues, one can say that this proof is still worthy of consideration, and has, so to speak, a presumptive validity; for every being should be considered possible till its impossibility is proved. [ ]. However that may be, one could form an even simpler proof by not talking at all of perfections, so as to avoid being held up by those who think fit to deny that all perfections are compatible, and consequently that the idea in question is possible.

22 But in another text he apparently has a proof of the possibility: I call a perfection every simple quality which is positive and absolute, i.e. which expresses whatever it expresses without any limitations. But since such a quality is simple, it follows that it is unanalysable, i.e. indefinable; for if it is definable, it will either not be one simple quality, but an aggregate of many; or if it is a single quality, it will be defined by its limitations, and hence will be understood through negations of further progress; but this goes against the initial assumption, which was that it is purely positive. From this it is not difficult to show that all perfections are compatible with each other, i.e. that they can co-exist in the same subject.

23 For let there be a proposition of the following sort: A and B are incompatible (understanding by A and B two simple forms of this sort, i.e. perfections [ ]). It is obvious that this proposition cannot be proved without analyzing either or both of the terms A and B; [ ]. But (ex hypothesi) they are unanalysable. Therefore this proposition cannot be demonstrated of them. But if it were true, it certainly could be demonstrated of them, because it is not true by itself. ([ ] necessarily true propositions are either provable or known by themselves).

24 Therefore this proposition ( A and B are incompatible ) is not necessarily true in other words, it is not necessary that A and B are not in the same subject. Therefore they can be in the same subject, and since the same reasoning is valid for any other qualities of this sort you might choose, it follows that all perfections are compatible with each other.

25 Therefore this proposition ( A and B are incompatible ) is not necessarily true in other words, it is not necessary that A and B are not in the same subject. Therefore they can be in the same subject, and since the same reasoning is valid for any other qualities of this sort you might choose, it follows that all perfections are compatible with each other. Notice that according to this Leibniz s statement, Np Mp, i.e. if p is not necessary, then, it is possible (möglich). We may think that this does not make sense: a thing may be neither necessary nor possible. Moreover, the statement above is logically equivalent to Mp Np, which more clearly would not make sense: if it is not possible, how can it can imply necessity? So, it seems that the universe of this discourse does not include contradictory things (which in fact are not-beings according to the classical philosophy), and in this case, if something is not necessary, it has to be possible.

26 Therefore there is, or [better] can be understood, the subject of all perfections, or a most perfect being. From which it is obvious that he also exists, since existence is included in the number of perfections.

27 Hegel ( ). Considered in general one of the most important philosophers in history. In the last year of his life he affirmed repeatedly in his Conferences that there exists a successful O.A., but this is not shown in any of his texts. For Hegel, what is rational is real and what is real is rational ( Was vernünftig ist, das ist wirklich; und was wirklich ist, das ist vernünftig ). (Every (or almost every) western thinker would agree with the second statement, but only a platonic mind agrees with the first). So it is not surprising that some scholars say that the whole Hegel s work is an O.A.

28 Charles Hartshorne ( ). American philosopher, he is considered by many scholars one of the most important metaphysicians and philosophers of religion in the 20 th. Century. His philosophy is teo-centric, defended the rationality of theism and is one that rediscovered St. Anselm s O.A.

29 He argues that Hume's and Kant's criticisms of the ontological argument of St. Anselm are not directed at the strongest version of his argument found in Proslogion, chapter 3. Here, he thinks, there is a modal distinction implied between existing necessarily and existing contingently. Hartshorne's view is that existence alone might not be a real predicate, but existing necessarily certainly is. (And this sounds a reply to Frege).

30 That is, contra Kant and others, Hartshorne believes that there are necessary truths concerning existence. He assumes here that there are three alternatives for us to consider: (1) God is impossible; (2) God is possible, but may or may not exist; (3) God exists necessarily. The ontological argument shows that the second alternative makes no sense. Hence, he thinks that the prime task for the philosophical theist is to show that God is not impossible.

31 Kurt Gödel ( ) is considered one of three most important logicians in history, together with Aristotle and Leibniz. According to Feferman, he is by far the most important logician of our times. In 1931 he proved an absolutely unexpected result by the leading mathematicians and logicians of the time, a result that is difficult to accept by everyone who would hope that mathematics is the ultimate fortress of our certitudes: the famous incompleteness theorem, that states that it is impossible, with any given axioms, establish all the theorems of mathematics. (And he proved it for the simplest mathematical structure, that of the integers). Well, this man who showed in a dramatical way the limits of the human mind, proposed an O.A. for the existence of God! Good for those who believe!

32 His O.A. was never published and its reconstitution is difficult and disputed among experts who have tried to recover it. The argument is found dispersed in many sketchy and sometimes cryptical notes that he wrote for himself. There is a small, but steadily growing, literature on the ontological arguments which Gödel developed in his notebooks, but which did not appear in print until well after his death. These arguments have been discussed, annotated and amended by various leading logicians: the upshot is a family of arguments with impeccable logical credentials.

33 There follows Gödel s O.A., as presented by Anderson: Definition 1: x is God-like if and only if x has as essential properties those and only those properties which are positive Definition 2: A is an essence of x if and only if for every property B, x has B necessarily if and only if A entails B Definition 3: x necessarily exists if and only if every essence of x is necessarily exemplified Axiom 1: If a property is positive, then its negation is not positive. Axiom 2: Any property entailed by i.e., strictly implied by a positive property is positive Axiom 3: The property of being God-like is positive Axiom 4: If a property is positive, then it is necessarily positive Axiom 5: Necessary existence is positive Axiom 6: For any property P, if P is positive, then being necessarily P is positive. Theorem 1: If a property is positive, then it is consistent, i.e., possibly exemplified. Corollary 1: The property of being God-like is consistent. Theorem 2: If something is God-like, then the property of being God-like is an essence of that thing. Theorem 3: Necessarily, the property of being God-like is exemplified.

34 An expert says about the argument that given a sufficiently generous conception of properties, and granted the acceptability of the underlying modal logic, the listed theorems do follow from the axioms. [ ]. Some philosophers have denied the acceptability of the underlying modal logic. And some philosophers have rejected generous conceptions of properties in favor of sparse conceptions according to which only some predicates express properties. [ ]. One important point to note is that no definition of the notion of positive property is supplied with the proof. At most, the various axioms which involve this concept can be taken to provide a partial implicit definition.

35 If we suppose that the positive properties form a set, then the axioms provide us with the following information about this set: If a property belongs to the set, then its negation does not belong to the set. The set is closed under entailment. The property of having as essential properties just those properties which are in the set is itself a member of the set. The set has exactly the same members in all possible worlds. The property of necessary existence is in the set. If a property is in the set, then the property of having that property necessarily is also in the set.

36 Corollary 1 follows from Thm. 1 and Axiom 3. Gödel uses the axioms of modal logic for the argument. Might those positive properties be Leibniz s perfections? Recall that for Leibniz, a perfection is every simple quality which is positive and absolute, i.e. which expresses whatever it expresses without any limitations. Or might the positive properties be the ontological transcendentals of classical philosophy, that is, unity, intelligibility, desirability and beauty?

37 Alvin Carl Plantinga ( ) is currently Professor Emeritus at the University of Notre Dame. His O.A. is inspired in that of Hartshorne: 1. A being has maximal excellence in a possible world W if and only if it is omnipotent, omniscient and completely good. 2. A being has maximal greatness if it has maximal excellence in all possible worlds. 3. (Premise): It is possible that there exists a being with maximal greatness. 4. Hence it is possibly necessarily true that there exists a being that is omnipotent, omniscient and completely good. 5. Hence it is necessarily true that there exists a being that is omnipotent, omniscient and completely good. 6. Then there exists a being that is omnipotent, omniscient and completely good. (See Word document, p. 2).

38 Plantinga has another O.A., which is a formalization of Anselm s: 1. (Hypothesis): God exists in our knowledge, but not in reality. 2. (Premise): Existing in reality and in our knowledge is greater than existing only in our knowledge. 3. (Premise): We can think of a being which has all God s properties and existence. 4. Hence a being having all God s properties plus is greater than God in view of 1. and As a consequence, a being greater than God can be conceived. 6. But from God s definition, it is false that a being greater than God can be conceived. 7. Hence it is false that God can be conceived in our understanding, but not in reality. 8. But God does exist in our knowledge. 9. Hence God does exist in reality.

A level Religious Studies at Titus Salt

A level Religious Studies at Titus Salt Component 2 Philosophy of Religion Theme 1: Arguments for the existence of God deductive This theme considers how the philosophy of religion has, over time, influenced and been influenced by developments

More information

Table of x III. Modern Modal Ontological Arguments Norman Malcolm s argument Charles Hartshorne s argument A fly in the ointment? 86

Table of x III. Modern Modal Ontological Arguments Norman Malcolm s argument Charles Hartshorne s argument A fly in the ointment? 86 Table of Preface page xvii divinity I. God, god, and God 3 1. Existence and essence questions 3 2. Names in questions of existence and belief 4 3. Etymology and semantics 6 4. The core attitudinal conception

More information

Alvin Plantinga addresses the classic ontological argument in two

Alvin Plantinga addresses the classic ontological argument in two Aporia vol. 16 no. 1 2006 Sympathy for the Fool TYREL MEARS Alvin Plantinga addresses the classic ontological argument in two books published in 1974: The Nature of Necessity and God, Freedom, and Evil.

More information

THE ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENT

THE ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENT 36 THE ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENT E. J. Lowe The ontological argument is an a priori argument for God s existence which was first formulated in the eleventh century by St Anselm, was famously defended by René

More information

How Gödelian Ontological Arguments Fail

How Gödelian Ontological Arguments Fail How Gödelian Ontological Arguments Fail Matthew W. Parker Abstract. Ontological arguments like those of Gödel (1995) and Pruss (2009; 2012) rely on premises that initially seem plausible, but on closer

More information

Charles Hartshorne argues that Kant s criticisms of Anselm s ontological

Charles Hartshorne argues that Kant s criticisms of Anselm s ontological Aporia vol. 18 no. 2 2008 The Ontological Parody: A Reply to Joshua Ernst s Charles Hartshorne and the Ontological Argument Charles Hartshorne argues that Kant s criticisms of Anselm s ontological argument

More information

Have you ever sought God? Do you have any idea of God? Do you believe that God exist?

Have you ever sought God? Do you have any idea of God? Do you believe that God exist? St. Anselm s Ontological Argument for the Existence of God Rex Jasper V. Jumawan Fr. Dexter Veloso Introduction Have you ever sought God? Do you have any idea of God? Do you believe that God exist? Throughout

More information

St. Anselm s versions of the ontological argument

St. Anselm s versions of the ontological argument St. Anselm s versions of the ontological argument Descartes is not the first philosopher to state this argument. The honor of being the first to present this argument fully and clearly belongs to Saint

More information

What does it say about humanity s search for answers? What are the cause and effects mentioned in the Psalm?

What does it say about humanity s search for answers? What are the cause and effects mentioned in the Psalm? Welcome to 5pm Church Together. If you have come before, then you will know that one of the things we do together is to think apologetically that is, we try and think about how we make a defence for our

More information

The Ontological Argument

The Ontological Argument The Ontological Argument Arguments for God s Existence One of the classic questions of philosophy and philosophical argument is: s there a God? Of course there are and have been many different definitions

More information

In Search of the Ontological Argument. Richard Oxenberg

In Search of the Ontological Argument. Richard Oxenberg 1 In Search of the Ontological Argument Richard Oxenberg Abstract We can attend to the logic of Anselm's ontological argument, and amuse ourselves for a few hours unraveling its convoluted word-play, or

More information

Computational Metaphysics

Computational Metaphysics Computational Metaphysics John Rushby Computer Science Laboratory SRI International Menlo Park CA USA John Rushby, SR I Computational Metaphysics 1 Metaphysics The word comes from Andronicus of Rhodes,

More information

The Modal Ontological Argument

The Modal Ontological Argument Mind (1984) Vol. XCIII, 336-350 The Modal Ontological Argument R. KANE We know more today about the second, or so-called 'modal', version of St. Anselm's ontological argument than we did when Charles Hartshorne

More information

Predicate logic. Miguel Palomino Dpto. Sistemas Informáticos y Computación (UCM) Madrid Spain

Predicate logic. Miguel Palomino Dpto. Sistemas Informáticos y Computación (UCM) Madrid Spain Predicate logic Miguel Palomino Dpto. Sistemas Informáticos y Computación (UCM) 28040 Madrid Spain Synonyms. First-order logic. Question 1. Describe this discipline/sub-discipline, and some of its more

More information

Beyond Symbolic Logic

Beyond Symbolic Logic Beyond Symbolic Logic 1. The Problem of Incompleteness: Many believe that mathematics can explain *everything*. Gottlob Frege proposed that ALL truths can be captured in terms of mathematical entities;

More information

GOD AND THE PRINCIPLE OF SUFFICIENT REASON

GOD AND THE PRINCIPLE OF SUFFICIENT REASON THE MONADOLOGY GOD AND THE PRINCIPLE OF SUFFICIENT REASON I. The Two Great Laws (#31-37): true and possibly false. A. The Law of Non-Contradiction: ~(p & ~p) No statement is both true and false. 1. The

More information

Fr. Copleston vs. Bertrand Russell: The Famous 1948 BBC Radio Debate on the Existence of God

Fr. Copleston vs. Bertrand Russell: The Famous 1948 BBC Radio Debate on the Existence of God Fr. Copleston vs. Bertrand Russell: The Famous 1948 BBC Radio Debate on the Existence of God Father Frederick C. Copleston (Jesuit Catholic priest) versus Bertrand Russell (agnostic philosopher) Copleston:

More information

Class #14: October 13 Gödel s Platonism

Class #14: October 13 Gödel s Platonism Philosophy 405: Knowledge, Truth and Mathematics Fall 2010 Hamilton College Russell Marcus Class #14: October 13 Gödel s Platonism I. The Continuum Hypothesis and Its Independence The continuum problem

More information

The Ontological Argument

The Ontological Argument The Ontological Argument Saint Anselm offers a very unique and interesting argument for the existence of God. It is an a priori argument. That is, it is an argument or proof that one might give independent

More information

DESCARTES ONTOLOGICAL PROOF: AN INTERPRETATION AND DEFENSE

DESCARTES ONTOLOGICAL PROOF: AN INTERPRETATION AND DEFENSE DESCARTES ONTOLOGICAL PROOF: AN INTERPRETATION AND DEFENSE STANISŁAW JUDYCKI University of Gdańsk Abstract. It is widely assumed among contemporary philosophers that Descartes version of ontological proof,

More information

Logic and Existence. Steve Kuhn Department of Philosophy Georgetown University

Logic and Existence. Steve Kuhn Department of Philosophy Georgetown University Logic and Existence Steve Kuhn Department of Philosophy Georgetown University Can existence be proved by analysis and logic? Are there merely possible objects? Is existence a predicate? Could there be

More information

PLANTINGA ON THE FREE WILL DEFENSE. Hugh LAFoLLETTE East Tennessee State University

PLANTINGA ON THE FREE WILL DEFENSE. Hugh LAFoLLETTE East Tennessee State University PLANTINGA ON THE FREE WILL DEFENSE Hugh LAFoLLETTE East Tennessee State University I In his recent book God, Freedom, and Evil, Alvin Plantinga formulates an updated version of the Free Will Defense which,

More information

MODIFIED GAUNILO-TYPE OBJECTIONS AGAINST MODAL ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENTS

MODIFIED GAUNILO-TYPE OBJECTIONS AGAINST MODAL ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENTS MODIFIED GAUNILO-TYPE OBJECTIONS AGAINST MODAL ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENTS DANIEL CHLASTAWA University of Warsaw Abstract. Modal ontological arguments are often claimed to be immune to the «perfect island» objection

More information

Aspects of Western Philosophy Dr. Sreekumar Nellickappilly Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras

Aspects of Western Philosophy Dr. Sreekumar Nellickappilly Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Aspects of Western Philosophy Dr. Sreekumar Nellickappilly Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Module - 28 Lecture - 28 Linguistic turn in British philosophy

More information

A DEFENSE OF HARTSHORNE'S NEOCLASSICAL THEISM

A DEFENSE OF HARTSHORNE'S NEOCLASSICAL THEISM A DEFENSE OF HARTSHORNE'S NEOCLASSICAL THEISM Dr. Warayuth Sriwarakuel Graduate School of Philosophy and Religion, Assumption University of Thailand It seems to the writer that before we try to defend

More information

Truth At a World for Modal Propositions

Truth At a World for Modal Propositions Truth At a World for Modal Propositions 1 Introduction Existentialism is a thesis that concerns the ontological status of individual essences and singular propositions. Let us define an individual essence

More information

Class 2 - The Ontological Argument

Class 2 - The Ontological Argument Philosophy 208: The Language Revolution Fall 2011 Hamilton College Russell Marcus Class 2 - The Ontological Argument I. Why the Ontological Argument Soon we will start on the language revolution proper.

More information

5 A Modal Version of the

5 A Modal Version of the 5 A Modal Version of the Ontological Argument E. J. L O W E Moreland, J. P.; Sweis, Khaldoun A.; Meister, Chad V., Jul 01, 2013, Debating Christian Theism The original version of the ontological argument

More information

Free will & divine foreknowledge

Free will & divine foreknowledge Free will & divine foreknowledge Jeff Speaks March 7, 2006 1 The argument from the necessity of the past.................... 1 1.1 Reply 1: Aquinas on the eternity of God.................. 3 1.2 Reply

More information

Selections from Aristotle s Prior Analytics 41a21 41b5

Selections from Aristotle s Prior Analytics 41a21 41b5 Lesson Seventeen The Conditional Syllogism Selections from Aristotle s Prior Analytics 41a21 41b5 It is clear then that the ostensive syllogisms are effected by means of the aforesaid figures; these considerations

More information

HUME, CAUSATION AND TWO ARGUMENTS CONCERNING GOD

HUME, CAUSATION AND TWO ARGUMENTS CONCERNING GOD HUME, CAUSATION AND TWO ARGUMENTS CONCERNING GOD JASON MEGILL Carroll College Abstract. In Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, Hume (1779/1993) appeals to his account of causation (among other things)

More information

The Ontological Argument Revisited. George Cronk. TBA a brief review of the history and the literature and a statement of where this paper fits

The Ontological Argument Revisited. George Cronk. TBA a brief review of the history and the literature and a statement of where this paper fits Working Draft The Ontological Argument Revisited George Cronk Introduction TBA a brief review of the history and the literature and a statement of where this paper fits Conceptual framework Why is the

More information

WHAT IS HUME S FORK? Certainty does not exist in science.

WHAT IS HUME S FORK?  Certainty does not exist in science. WHAT IS HUME S FORK? www.prshockley.org Certainty does not exist in science. I. Introduction: A. Hume divides all objects of human reason into two different kinds: Relation of Ideas & Matters of Fact.

More information

Broad on Theological Arguments. I. The Ontological Argument

Broad on Theological Arguments. I. The Ontological Argument Broad on God Broad on Theological Arguments I. The Ontological Argument Sample Ontological Argument: Suppose that God is the most perfect or most excellent being. Consider two things: (1)An entity that

More information

NECESSARY BEING The Ontological Argument

NECESSARY BEING The Ontological Argument NECESSARY BEING The Ontological Argument Selection from Metaphysics 4 th edition, Chapter 6, by Peter van Inwagen, Late in the eleventh century a theologian named Anselm (later the Archbishop of Canterbury)

More information

Descartes' Ontological Argument

Descartes' Ontological Argument Descartes' Ontological Argument The essential problem with Anselm's argument is that at the end of it all, the atheist can understand the definition and even have the concept in his or her mind, but still

More information

9. Plantinga. Joshua Rasmussen. Forthcoming in Ontological Arguments, ed. Graham Oppy (OUP)

9. Plantinga. Joshua Rasmussen. Forthcoming in Ontological Arguments, ed. Graham Oppy (OUP) 9. Plantinga Joshua Rasmussen Forthcoming in Ontological Arguments, ed. Graham Oppy (OUP) Plantinga constructs an ontological argument using twentieth century developments in modality. He begins with a

More information

The cosmological argument (continued)

The cosmological argument (continued) The cosmological argument (continued) Remember that last time we arrived at the following interpretation of Aquinas second way: Aquinas 2nd way 1. At least one thing has been caused to come into existence.

More information

Rationalism. A. He, like others at the time, was obsessed with questions of truth and doubt

Rationalism. A. He, like others at the time, was obsessed with questions of truth and doubt Rationalism I. Descartes (1596-1650) A. He, like others at the time, was obsessed with questions of truth and doubt 1. How could one be certain in the absence of religious guidance and trustworthy senses

More information

Creation & necessity

Creation & necessity Creation & necessity Today we turn to one of the central claims made about God in the Nicene Creed: that God created all things visible and invisible. In the Catechism, creation is described like this:

More information

1/5. The Critique of Theology

1/5. The Critique of Theology 1/5 The Critique of Theology The argument of the Transcendental Dialectic has demonstrated that there is no science of rational psychology and that the province of any rational cosmology is strictly limited.

More information

What God Could Have Made

What God Could Have Made 1 What God Could Have Made By Heimir Geirsson and Michael Losonsky I. Introduction Atheists have argued that if there is a God who is omnipotent, omniscient and omnibenevolent, then God would have made

More information

Aquinas' Third Way Modalized

Aquinas' Third Way Modalized Philosophy of Religion Aquinas' Third Way Modalized Robert E. Maydole Davidson College bomaydole@davidson.edu ABSTRACT: The Third Way is the most interesting and insightful of Aquinas' five arguments for

More information

Anselm of Canterbury, Proslogion, chapters 2-5 & replies

Anselm of Canterbury, Proslogion, chapters 2-5 & replies Anselm of Canterbury, Proslogion, chapters 2-5 & replies (or, the Ontological Argument for God s Existence) Existing in Understanding vs. Reality: Imagine a magical horse with a horn on its head. Do you

More information

[1968. In Encyclopedia of Christianity. Edwin A. Palmer, ed. Wilmington, Delaware: National Foundation for Christian Education.]

[1968. In Encyclopedia of Christianity. Edwin A. Palmer, ed. Wilmington, Delaware: National Foundation for Christian Education.] [1968. In Encyclopedia of Christianity. Edwin A. Palmer, ed. Wilmington, Delaware: National Foundation for Christian Education.] GOD, THE EXISTENCE OF That God exists is the basic doctrine of the Bible,

More information

MEDITATIONS ON THE FIRST PHILOSOPHY: THE ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENT

MEDITATIONS ON THE FIRST PHILOSOPHY: THE ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENT MEDITATIONS ON THE FIRST PHILOSOPHY: THE ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENT René Descartes Introduction, Donald M. Borchert DESCARTES WAS BORN IN FRANCE in 1596 and died in Sweden in 1650. His formal education from

More information

Philosophy 203 History of Modern Western Philosophy. Russell Marcus Hamilton College Spring 2016

Philosophy 203 History of Modern Western Philosophy. Russell Marcus Hamilton College Spring 2016 Philosophy 203 History of Modern Western Philosophy Russell Marcus Hamilton College Spring 2016 Class #7 Finishing the Meditations Marcus, Modern Philosophy, Slide 1 Business # Today An exercise with your

More information

Comments on Truth at A World for Modal Propositions

Comments on Truth at A World for Modal Propositions Comments on Truth at A World for Modal Propositions Christopher Menzel Texas A&M University March 16, 2008 Since Arthur Prior first made us aware of the issue, a lot of philosophical thought has gone into

More information

Logic and the Absolute: Platonic and Christian Views

Logic and the Absolute: Platonic and Christian Views Logic and the Absolute: Platonic and Christian Views by Philip Sherrard Studies in Comparative Religion, Vol. 7, No. 2. (Spring 1973) World Wisdom, Inc. www.studiesincomparativereligion.com ONE of the

More information

Theme 1: Arguments for the existence of God inductive, AS

Theme 1: Arguments for the existence of God inductive, AS A. Inductive arguments cosmological Inductive proofs Theme 1: Arguments for the existence of God inductive, AS the concept of a posteriori. Cosmological argument: St Thomas Aquinas first Three Ways 1.

More information

The Development of Laws of Formal Logic of Aristotle

The Development of Laws of Formal Logic of Aristotle This paper is dedicated to my unforgettable friend Boris Isaevich Lamdon. The Development of Laws of Formal Logic of Aristotle The essence of formal logic The aim of every science is to discover the laws

More information

15 Does God have a Nature?

15 Does God have a Nature? 15 Does God have a Nature? 15.1 Plantinga s Question So far I have argued for a theory of creation and the use of mathematical ways of thinking that help us to locate God. The question becomes how can

More information

Spinoza, Ethics 1 of 85 THE ETHICS. by Benedict de Spinoza (Ethica Ordine Geometrico Demonstrata) Translated from the Latin by R. H. M.

Spinoza, Ethics 1 of 85 THE ETHICS. by Benedict de Spinoza (Ethica Ordine Geometrico Demonstrata) Translated from the Latin by R. H. M. Spinoza, Ethics 1 of 85 THE ETHICS by Benedict de Spinoza (Ethica Ordine Geometrico Demonstrata) Translated from the Latin by R. H. M. Elwes PART I: CONCERNING GOD DEFINITIONS (1) By that which is self-caused

More information

Aquinas s Third Way Keith Burgess-Jackson 24 September 2017

Aquinas s Third Way Keith Burgess-Jackson 24 September 2017 Aquinas s Third Way Keith Burgess-Jackson 24 September 2017 Cosmology, a branch of astronomy (or astrophysics), is The study of the origin and structure of the universe. 1 Thus, a thing is cosmological

More information

Puzzles for Divine Omnipotence & Divine Freedom

Puzzles for Divine Omnipotence & Divine Freedom Puzzles for Divine Omnipotence & Divine Freedom 1. Defining Omnipotence: A First Pass: God is said to be omnipotent. In other words, God is all-powerful. But, what does this mean? Is the following definition

More information

On A New Cosmological Argument

On A New Cosmological Argument On A New Cosmological Argument Richard Gale and Alexander Pruss A New Cosmological Argument, Religious Studies 35, 1999, pp.461 76 present a cosmological argument which they claim is an improvement over

More information

Does God Exist? By: Washington Massaquoi. January 2, Introduction

Does God Exist? By: Washington Massaquoi. January 2, Introduction Does God Exist? By: Washington Massaquoi. January 2, 2017 Introduction In almost all societies there are people who deny the existence of God. Disbelievers (atheists) argue that there is no proof or evidence

More information

An Answer to Anselm by Gaunilo

An Answer to Anselm by Gaunilo An Answer to Anselm by Gaunilo Abbey at Marmoutier, www.thais.it About the author.... Gaunilo, a Benedictine monk of Marmoutier, expressed his objections to Anselm s argument by means of devising a logical

More information

12. A Theistic Argument against Platonism (and in Support of Truthmakers and Divine Simplicity)

12. A Theistic Argument against Platonism (and in Support of Truthmakers and Divine Simplicity) Dean W. Zimmerman / Oxford Studies in Metaphysics - Volume 2 12-Zimmerman-chap12 Page Proof page 357 19.10.2005 2:50pm 12. A Theistic Argument against Platonism (and in Support of Truthmakers and Divine

More information

P. Weingartner, God s existence. Can it be proven? A logical commentary on the five ways of Thomas Aquinas, Ontos, Frankfurt Pp. 116.

P. Weingartner, God s existence. Can it be proven? A logical commentary on the five ways of Thomas Aquinas, Ontos, Frankfurt Pp. 116. P. Weingartner, God s existence. Can it be proven? A logical commentary on the five ways of Thomas Aquinas, Ontos, Frankfurt 2010. Pp. 116. Thinking of the problem of God s existence, most formal logicians

More information

THEISM AND BELIEF. Etymological note: deus = God in Latin; theos = God in Greek.

THEISM AND BELIEF. Etymological note: deus = God in Latin; theos = God in Greek. THEISM AND BELIEF Etymological note: deus = God in Latin; theos = God in Greek. A taxonomy of doxastic attitudes Belief: a mental state the content of which is taken as true or an assertion put forward

More information

KANT S EXPLANATION OF THE NECESSITY OF GEOMETRICAL TRUTHS. John Watling

KANT S EXPLANATION OF THE NECESSITY OF GEOMETRICAL TRUTHS. John Watling KANT S EXPLANATION OF THE NECESSITY OF GEOMETRICAL TRUTHS John Watling Kant was an idealist. His idealism was in some ways, it is true, less extreme than that of Berkeley. He distinguished his own by calling

More information

Introduction to Philosophy. Instructor: Jason Sheley

Introduction to Philosophy. Instructor: Jason Sheley Introduction to Philosophy Instructor: Jason Sheley Quiz: True or False? (if false, explain why) 1. Descartes investigates whether there is a God because he needs to rule out a source for his doubts concerning

More information

Philosophy of Mathematics Kant

Philosophy of Mathematics Kant Philosophy of Mathematics Kant Owen Griffiths oeg21@cam.ac.uk St John s College, Cambridge 20/10/15 Immanuel Kant Born in 1724 in Königsberg, Prussia. Enrolled at the University of Königsberg in 1740 and

More information

Foreknowledge, evil, and compatibility arguments

Foreknowledge, evil, and compatibility arguments Foreknowledge, evil, and compatibility arguments Jeff Speaks January 25, 2011 1 Warfield s argument for compatibilism................................ 1 2 Why the argument fails to show that free will and

More information

BENEDIKT PAUL GÖCKE. Ruhr-Universität Bochum

BENEDIKT PAUL GÖCKE. Ruhr-Universität Bochum 264 BOOK REVIEWS AND NOTICES BENEDIKT PAUL GÖCKE Ruhr-Universität Bochum István Aranyosi. God, Mind, and Logical Space: A Revisionary Approach to Divinity. Palgrave Frontiers in Philosophy of Religion.

More information

Thought is Being or Thought and Being? Feuerbach and his Criticism of Hegel's Absolute Idealism by Martin Jenkins

Thought is Being or Thought and Being? Feuerbach and his Criticism of Hegel's Absolute Idealism by Martin Jenkins Thought is Being or Thought and Being? Feuerbach and his Criticism of Hegel's Absolute Idealism by Martin Jenkins Although he was once an ardent follower of the Philosophy of GWF Hegel, Ludwig Feuerbach

More information

Descartes, Substance Dualism

Descartes, Substance Dualism 2015.10.21 Descartes, Substance Dualism Table of contents 1 The Argument, first pass 2 Conceivabilitiy and Possibility 3 Leibniz s Law Substance Dualism Substance Dualism There are two fundamentally different

More information

THREE LOGICIANS: ARISTOTLE, SACCHERI, FREGE

THREE LOGICIANS: ARISTOTLE, SACCHERI, FREGE 1 THREE LOGICIANS: ARISTOTLE, SACCHERI, FREGE Acta philosophica, (Roma) 7, 1998, 115-120 Ignacio Angelelli Philosophy Department The University of Texas at Austin Austin, TX, 78712 plac565@utxvms.cc.utexas.edu

More information

WHY THERE REALLY ARE NO IRREDUCIBLY NORMATIVE PROPERTIES

WHY THERE REALLY ARE NO IRREDUCIBLY NORMATIVE PROPERTIES WHY THERE REALLY ARE NO IRREDUCIBLY NORMATIVE PROPERTIES Bart Streumer b.streumer@rug.nl In David Bakhurst, Brad Hooker and Margaret Little (eds.), Thinking About Reasons: Essays in Honour of Jonathan

More information

Kant s Transcendental Idealism

Kant s Transcendental Idealism Kant s Transcendental Idealism Critique of Pure Reason Immanuel Kant Copernicus Kant s Copernican Revolution Rationalists: universality and necessity require synthetic a priori knowledge knowledge of the

More information

Man and the Presence of Evil in Christian and Platonic Doctrine by Philip Sherrard

Man and the Presence of Evil in Christian and Platonic Doctrine by Philip Sherrard Man and the Presence of Evil in Christian and Platonic Doctrine by Philip Sherrard Source: Studies in Comparative Religion, Vol. 2, No.1. World Wisdom, Inc. www.studiesincomparativereligion.com OF the

More information

MALCOLM S VERSION OF THE ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENT: SEVERAL QUESTIONABLE ASPECTS

MALCOLM S VERSION OF THE ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENT: SEVERAL QUESTIONABLE ASPECTS Yulia V. Gorbatova MALCOLM S VERSION OF THE ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENT: SEVERAL QUESTIONABLE ASPECTS BASIC RESEARCH PROGRAM WORKING PAPERS SERIES: HUMANITIES WP BRP 68/HUM/2014 This Working Paper is an output

More information

Boghossian & Harman on the analytic theory of the a priori

Boghossian & Harman on the analytic theory of the a priori Boghossian & Harman on the analytic theory of the a priori PHIL 83104 November 2, 2011 Both Boghossian and Harman address themselves to the question of whether our a priori knowledge can be explained in

More information

CHRISTIAN THEOLOGIANS /PHILOSOPHERS VIEW OF OMNISCIENCE AND HUMAN FREEDOM

CHRISTIAN THEOLOGIANS /PHILOSOPHERS VIEW OF OMNISCIENCE AND HUMAN FREEDOM Christian Theologians /Philosophers view of Omniscience and human freedom 1 Dr. Abdul Hafeez Fāzli Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54590 PAKISTAN Word count:

More information

The British Empiricism

The British Empiricism The British Empiricism Locke, Berkeley and Hume copyleft: nicolazuin.2018 nowxhere.wordpress.com The terrible heritage of Descartes: Skepticism, Empiricism, Rationalism The problem originates from the

More information

Spinoza s Modal-Ontological Argument for Monism

Spinoza s Modal-Ontological Argument for Monism Spinoza s Modal-Ontological Argument for Monism One of Spinoza s clearest expressions of his monism is Ethics I P14, and its corollary 1. 1 The proposition reads: Except God, no substance can be or be

More information

A-LEVEL Religious Studies

A-LEVEL Religious Studies A-LEVEL Religious Studies RST3B Paper 3B Philosophy of Religion Mark Scheme 2060 June 2017 Version: 1.0 Final Mark schemes are prepared by the Lead Assessment Writer and considered, together with the relevant

More information

1/12. The A Paralogisms

1/12. The A Paralogisms 1/12 The A Paralogisms The character of the Paralogisms is described early in the chapter. Kant describes them as being syllogisms which contain no empirical premises and states that in them we conclude

More information

Anselm s Equivocation. By David Johnson. In an interview for The Atheism Tapes, from the BBC, philosopher Colin McGinn briefly

Anselm s Equivocation. By David Johnson. In an interview for The Atheism Tapes, from the BBC, philosopher Colin McGinn briefly Anselm s Equivocation By David Johnson In an interview for The Atheism Tapes, from the BBC, philosopher Colin McGinn briefly discussed the ontological argument. He said, It is a brilliant argument, right,

More information

CHAPTER THREE ON SEEING GOD THROUGH HIS IMAGE IMPRINTED IN OUR NATURAL POWERS

CHAPTER THREE ON SEEING GOD THROUGH HIS IMAGE IMPRINTED IN OUR NATURAL POWERS BONAVENTURE, ITINERARIUM, TRANSL. O. BYCHKOV 21 CHAPTER THREE ON SEEING GOD THROUGH HIS IMAGE IMPRINTED IN OUR NATURAL POWERS 1. The two preceding steps, which have led us to God by means of his vestiges,

More information

Ibn Sina on Substances and Accidents

Ibn Sina on Substances and Accidents Ibn Sina on Substances and Accidents ERWIN TEGTMEIER, MANNHEIM There was a vivid and influential dialogue of Western philosophy with Ibn Sina in the Middle Ages; but there can be also a fruitful dialogue

More information

What would count as Ibn Sīnā (11th century Persia) having first order logic?

What would count as Ibn Sīnā (11th century Persia) having first order logic? 1 2 What would count as Ibn Sīnā (11th century Persia) having first order logic? Wilfrid Hodges Herons Brook, Sticklepath, Okehampton March 2012 http://wilfridhodges.co.uk Ibn Sina, 980 1037 3 4 Ibn Sīnā

More information

The Sea-Fight Tomorrow by Aristotle

The Sea-Fight Tomorrow by Aristotle The Sea-Fight Tomorrow by Aristotle Aristotle, Antiquities Project About the author.... Aristotle (384-322) studied for twenty years at Plato s Academy in Athens. Following Plato s death, Aristotle left

More information

A Logical Approach to Metametaphysics

A Logical Approach to Metametaphysics A Logical Approach to Metametaphysics Daniel Durante Departamento de Filosofia UFRN durante10@gmail.com 3º Filomena - 2017 What we take as true commits us. Quine took advantage of this fact to introduce

More information

THE JOuRNAL OF PHILOSOPHY

THE JOuRNAL OF PHILOSOPHY VOLUME LXTII, No. 19 OCTOBER 13, 1966 THE JOuRNAL OF PHILOSOPHY KANT'S OBJECTION TO THE ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENT* HE Ontological Argument for the existence of God has 1fascinated and puzzled philosophers ever

More information

Rethinking Knowledge: The Heuristic View

Rethinking Knowledge: The Heuristic View http://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783319532363 Carlo Cellucci Rethinking Knowledge: The Heuristic View 1 Preface From its very beginning, philosophy has been viewed as aimed at knowledge and methods to

More information

TWO DIMENSIONAL MODAL ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENT FOR THE EXISTENCE OF GOD

TWO DIMENSIONAL MODAL ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENT FOR THE EXISTENCE OF GOD European Journal of Science and Theology, February 2017, Vol.13, No.1, 161-171 TWO DIMENSIONAL MODAL ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENT FOR THE EXISTENCE OF GOD Zsolt Ziegler * Budapest University of Technology and

More information

From Necessary Truth to Necessary Existence

From Necessary Truth to Necessary Existence Prequel for Section 4.2 of Defending the Correspondence Theory Published by PJP VII, 1 From Necessary Truth to Necessary Existence Abstract I introduce new details in an argument for necessarily existing

More information

Artificial Intelligence: Valid Arguments and Proof Systems. Prof. Deepak Khemani. Department of Computer Science and Engineering

Artificial Intelligence: Valid Arguments and Proof Systems. Prof. Deepak Khemani. Department of Computer Science and Engineering Artificial Intelligence: Valid Arguments and Proof Systems Prof. Deepak Khemani Department of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Module 02 Lecture - 03 So in the last

More information

Ontological Argument page 2

Ontological Argument page 2 ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENT (A harbour-side café somewhere in the Peloponnese; Anna Kalypsas is sitting at a table outside a café with Theo Sevvis, and they re joined by Anna s students, Mel Etitis and Kathy

More information

The Logical Problem of Evil and the Limited God Defense

The Logical Problem of Evil and the Limited God Defense Quadrivium: A Journal of Multidisciplinary Scholarship Volume 6 Issue 1 Issue 6, Winter 2014 Article 7 2-1-2015 The Logical Problem of Evil and the Limited God Defense Darren Hibbs Nova Southeastern University,

More information

Notes on Bertrand Russell s The Problems of Philosophy (Hackett 1990 reprint of the 1912 Oxford edition, Chapters XII, XIII, XIV, )

Notes on Bertrand Russell s The Problems of Philosophy (Hackett 1990 reprint of the 1912 Oxford edition, Chapters XII, XIII, XIV, ) Notes on Bertrand Russell s The Problems of Philosophy (Hackett 1990 reprint of the 1912 Oxford edition, Chapters XII, XIII, XIV, 119-152) Chapter XII Truth and Falsehood [pp. 119-130] Russell begins here

More information

How Do We Know Anything about Mathematics? - A Defence of Platonism

How Do We Know Anything about Mathematics? - A Defence of Platonism How Do We Know Anything about Mathematics? - A Defence of Platonism Majda Trobok University of Rijeka original scientific paper UDK: 141.131 1:51 510.21 ABSTRACT In this paper I will try to say something

More information

DR. LEONARD PEIKOFF. Lecture 3 THE METAPHYSICS OF TWO WORLDS: ITS RESULTS IN THIS WORLD

DR. LEONARD PEIKOFF. Lecture 3 THE METAPHYSICS OF TWO WORLDS: ITS RESULTS IN THIS WORLD Founders of Western Philosophy: Thales to Hume a 12-lecture course by DR. LEONARD PEIKOFF Edited by LINDA REARDAN, A.M. Lecture 3 THE METAPHYSICS OF TWO WORLDS: ITS RESULTS IN THIS WORLD A Publication

More information

Avicenna, Proof of the Necessary of Existence

Avicenna, Proof of the Necessary of Existence Why is there something rather than nothing? Leibniz Avicenna, Proof of the Necessary of Existence Avicenna offers a proof for the existence of God based on the nature of possibility and necessity. First,

More information

Fort Bend Christian Academy. Great God in Boots!- Malcolm s Argument is Valid! A Thesis Submitted to

Fort Bend Christian Academy. Great God in Boots!- Malcolm s Argument is Valid! A Thesis Submitted to Fort Bend Christian Academy Great God in Boots!- Malcolm s Argument is Valid! A Thesis Submitted to the Teacher and Students of the Advanced Apologetics Class Department of Worldviews and Apologetics by

More information

Semantic Entailment and Natural Deduction

Semantic Entailment and Natural Deduction Semantic Entailment and Natural Deduction Alice Gao Lecture 6, September 26, 2017 Entailment 1/55 Learning goals Semantic entailment Define semantic entailment. Explain subtleties of semantic entailment.

More information

ONTOLOGICAL PROOF OF THE EXISTENCE OF GOD BASED ON NECESSARY EXISTENCE: THE ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENT

ONTOLOGICAL PROOF OF THE EXISTENCE OF GOD BASED ON NECESSARY EXISTENCE: THE ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENT ONTOLOGICAL PROOF OF THE EXISTENCE OF GOD BASED ON NECESSARY EXISTENCE: THE ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENT Norman Malcolm Introduction, Donald M. Borchert NORMAN MALCOLM (1911 1990), A DISTINGUISHED PHILOSOPHER

More information