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1 Haydee Faimberg (Paris) Presentation on the Panel on Memory Chaired by Ted Jacobs (Please see the foot notes which are also reproduced at the end of this text.) Disposing of 20 minutes and being very curious about our discussion, I have chosen to directly share with you a fragment of a session, which, paradoxically, was used in an essay not to illustrate the problem of memory as such. Having said that, I think it is impossible to work in psychoanalysis without having the implicit concept of unconscious memory as a basis for our psychoanalytical listening. So I am attempting to discover, retroactively, in which way I actually worked at a particular session with reference to our topic, memory. The patient, a man of around 30, looked like an adolescent and remained psychically inaccessible for a long time. After several years of analysis, the patient and I had been able to discover, with surprise, in what way the unconscious relation to his father had deprived him of a psychic space of his own. Up to that time I had to contain in my counter-transference the anxiety of apparently not existing for him and of being unable to interpret in the sense of creating an opening into his inaccessible psychic space. The alienated narcissistic unconscious identification we discovered at that time (as I have called this kind of identification, Faimberg 1981/85), had allowed us to understand, retroactively, his almost total psychic inaccessibility in the sessions. But here I shall speak of a session that took place about one year after that discovery. 1 The patient begins by saying: I asked my mother about Auntie Rita. She was quite surprised at my knowing of her existence, and asked me how I knew about her. I remembered her. I don t know if I had always remembered her, but recently I realized I knew she existed. My mother told me that Rita was confined to a psychiatric hospital. I asked her how long ago had she been sent there, and she told me it had happened when she (my mother) was expecting my brother. I was five at the time. My mother never went to see my aunt and never talked about her. But my other aunt often went to see her. [ ]. My patient adds that in these three months he has asked his mother many questions. 1 Pages 13/15 ; Chapter 1 (1981/1985) in The Telescoping of Generation: Listening to the Narcissistic Links Between Generations, London and New York : Routledge

2 He says that the mother told him that when my brother was born I stopped playing and talking, and I was never the same again. Looking now at the patient s discourse I am struck by the idea that what he is bringing to the session ( I was never the same again ) is related to the main difficulty in his analysis: his psychic withdrawal ( I stopped playing and talking ). So after several years of analysis, the patient had began to change his psychic functioning in particular, as I said, having discovered an alienated identification with the way his father had disavowed his own (the father s) history. The conditions were created in analysis for him to remember that aunt Rita did exist. Springing from this memory he was then able to ask his mother the necessary questions and then, and only then could the mother talk and tell this silenced story, which concerns: both the disavowed existence of the mother s sister and my patient in the process of having a brother at five. 2 After this parenthesis let us go on with the session. The patient says [ ] All this happened three months ago, but for some reason I ve been unable to tell you until now. During these three months I found out where she was and I asked my brother, who is a doctor, to see if she was well taken care of. I have been visiting her, telling her all that has happened in the twenty-five years she has been isolated from the world. [ ]. The patient added that he felt guilty at having hidden all this from me, but he just could not do otherwise. From my side, as his analyst, I felt quite amazed at his narrative. First, when I heard that he remembered he had an aunt and had asked his mother the appropriate questions and received the appropriate answers, I felt emotionally close to him, as he was emotionally close to me too. I thought that we were both succeeding in overcoming his emotional withdrawal, his silence, his psychic suffering, his hopelessness. But then, when he told me he had been hiding all this discovery from me I found myself surprisingly excluded as analyst. 2 I believe that there is no deep analysis without the analyst being aware of the kind of relationship in which the analytical couple stands at every moment. I wish to add that the analyst participates in the relation with his own psychic functioning, including its unconscious dimension. With this in mind, let us go on listening to the analysand s discourse. 2

3 I was able to overcome the first experience of having been killed as an analyst when I realised that at the same time there was something new in our relation: he conveyed that he felt deeply guilty at having kept secret up to now this important situation and that he was aware that he had not been able to do otherwise for unknown reasons. So the transference condensed various contradictory kinds of relationship. The fact that he was able to convey feelings of guilt led me to assume that I existed as an excluded person for him, and that my existence had not been painlessly suppressed in his psyche (as was the case in the first years of his analysis). Let us note that he is also able to ask his mother when aunt Rita had been confined to a hospital. This opening into temporality coincides with his making me hear the links between this situation and his own psychic change: he says (quoting his mother s words) I stopped playing and talking and I was never the same again. In relation to remembering, in the publication I made of this case I wrote: It may be assumed that the memory of the aunt s existence, together with all that the patient did in order to reintegrate her [ ] represented his acceptance of his mother s pregnancy and his brother s birth (he told me, for the first time, that his brother is now a doctor). 3 As we all know, in Freud s article of 1914 he distinguishes between two forms of memory: reproduction in the psychical field (remembering in the narrower sense) and reproduction in action (repeating). I shall follow Hans Loewald in Perspectives on Memory (1972/1976) and replace reproduction in the psychical field by representational memory, preconscious memory. Reproduction in action, repeating, is called by Loewald enactive memory, which is an unconscious memory; being unconscious, it shares the timelessness and lack of differentiation of the unconscious and of the primary process. (Loewald [1972/76]). Reproduction in action, repeating, enactive memory, according to Freud, is sometimes The way the patient has of remembering. Repeating includes not only acting out and transference repetition but also identificatory reproductions. (Loewald 1972/76); alienated narcissistic unconscious identifications (Faimberg 1981/1985). As we shall be seeing in the clinical case all these aspects are relevant. In relation to the session, we may say that at the same time as the analysand shows that he remembers the existence of aunt Rita ( representational, preconscious memory ) and dispels the secret maintained by the mother, he also says that he had been keeping secret from me this entirely new situation. Therefore, and this is recognised by us (the patient and myself) retroactively, there was a secret between us (posed by the patient), which constitutes an enactive memory, an 3 Page 14. 3

4 identificatory reproduction, a repetition in the transference. As we know this constitutes another way of remembering. My conclusion would be that we simultaneously discover in this session both kinds of memory: the representational and the enactive. This conclusion, elaborated in the perspective of this panel, happens to be coherent with the following interpretation I proposed at that session 4 : Analyst: You had to do everything secretly, because only in that way were you able to transmit the secret aspect of the question. You didn t know how to talk about a secret; all you could do was to subject me to the secret and exclude me. In this way I would become the isolated person, who knows nothing, feels nothing, does not exist. That is how you felt, just like your aunt. So we see that both kinds of memory are giving each other reciprocal meaning in a nonlinear, dialectical causality. 5 Analysing the structure of the interpretation we may say: that I established a link between 1) the patient s activity of secrecy towards the analyst as a form of repetition in the transference (the patient s way of remembering) and 2) the patient s remembering (representational remembering) the up to now secret existence of the aunt. In this case repetition is no longer his only way of remembering. In other words one kind of memory gives meaning to the other: each one shedding light on the other in a dialectic causality: i.e. both forms of secrecy give reciprocal meaning to each other. Generally speaking we may say that both kinds of memory might be at stake in analysis in a complementary and dialectical causality. 4 At this point I realised that Ted Jacobs had anticipated the reasons why I had a place in this panel on memory. I am grateful to him for knowing this before myself. 5 This clinical sequence may be taken as an example of this dialectic tension between both kinds of memory. At the same time the discovery of how these two forms of memory are articulated adds indeed a different theoretical understanding to the basic implicit assumptions of my interpretation. It must be said that I have studied this session from another theoretical perspective, which I shall not be able to mention in this short presentation, but can be consulted in my book, in particular in chapters 1,3,10. 4

5 Listening to the way my patient was listening to my interpretations I heard that he was able to follow these links. This listening [to the patient s] listening function of the analyst, gave me the hint that he would be able to listen to a construction of a more integrated experience of time. By my listening I imply an emotional listening as well as a decentred listening. So after a brief silence I found the words to complete my previous interpretation. Let us recall that I had come to interpret: by excluding me with the secret I became the isolated person, who knows nothing, feels nothing, does not exist. That is how you felt, just like your aunt. Then I added the following construction: But now you can say to yourself, say to your aunt, and say to me that time has passed, that you have a brother who is now a doctor. 6 Here I am putting words to the enactive memory, which have included, as we saw, identificatory reproductions 7 8 as well as repetition in the transference and acting out. Freud in the same article of 1914 we are considering in this congress writes something is remembered which could never have been forgotten because was never at any time noticed was never conscious. As regards the course taken by psychical events it seems to make no difference whatever whether such a thought connection was conscious and then forgotten or whether never managed to become conscious at all. The conviction which the patient obtains in the course of his analysis is quite independent [ ]. This quotation anticipates Freud s formulation in Constructions in analysis (1937) in relation to conviction of the truth. (italiques added) As we wrote with Antoine Corel, based in a paper written by him (1975) sometimes there is nothing to remember: we do not expect the construction to be confirmed by a memory as a sign of the lifting of repression. It is not a matter of filling gaps in the 6 The mother had repudiated the existence of the aunt, and this had happened when the patient should have gone through the experience of jealousy and exclusion evoked by his mother s pregnancy. But aunt Rita did not exist, nor did the patient in feeling the exclusion, even feel jealous at his brother s birth. It was the very sibling identity that was denied in its existence. The exclusion was brought about in the being and not in the having. The patient was thus identified with the non-existence of a sibling. By not talking, not playing, not being himself anymore, he did not exist as a brother, and repudiated the birth of his own brother. The identification was produced in collusion with the mother s history. 7 Which constitute the alienated narcissistic unconscious identifications with the mother s disavowal of the existence of a sibling 8 or from my perspective alienated narcissistic unconscious identifications.. 5

6 memory. Rather we construct an unprecedented link, something that can be put into words for the first time. The conviction of the truth referred to by Freud manifests itself 1) in the surprise shared by patient and analyst 2) in the retroactive understanding of the repetition 3) in the access to new versions of psychic truths. In general we may say that the construction is validated by the discontinuation of repetition and by the appearance of new material. (Faimberg and Corel 1989) 9. I cannot explain now why I think that the listening to listening function helps to overcome the dilemma of interpreting in the present or interpreting in the past. 10 I shall only say that the past, which is not yet past but only a present continuous, becomes the patient s past in the analytical working through, often by constructing something that for the first time finds the words to express it. When reading Hans Loewald s essays on memory for this panel, I was extremely surprised and happy to see that even if this and other cases, which I could have presented, are not directly related to the concept of memory as such, my standpoint was compatible and even converged with Loewald s ideas. Both the following quotations are in amazing consonance with our own conclusions. Loewald (1955, page 41) writes: It is often clear that in a so-called recovery of a childhood memory we are confronted not with the recall of something forgotten, but with a creative event in which something for the first time can be put into words. And now let us conclude with this beautiful passage by Loewald: We would say that the patient instead of having a past is his past. He does not distinguish himself as rememberer from the content of his memory. (Loewald 1972/76, page 165) Haydee Faimberg Paris, June Chapter 3 in The Telescoping of Generations : Listening to the Narcissistic Links Between Generations. 10 Chapters 2 and 7 in The Telescoping of Generations : Listening to the Narcisssistic Links Between Generations. 6

7 Footnotes : 1 Pages 13/15 ; Chapter 1 (1981/1985) in The Telescoping of Generation: Listening to the Narcissistic Links Between Generations, London and New York : Routledge I believe that there is no deep analysis without the analyst being aware of the kind of relationship in which the analytical couple stands at every moment. I wish to add that the analyst participates in the relation with his own psychic functioning, including its unconscious dimension. With this in mind, let us go on listening to the analysand s discourse. 3 Page At this point I realised that Ted Jacobs had anticipated the reasons why I had a place in this panel on memory. I am grateful to him for knowing this before myself. 5 This clinical sequence may be taken as an example of this dialectic tension between both kinds of memory. At the same time the discovery of how these two forms of memory are articulated adds indeed a different theoretical understanding to the basic implicit assumptions of my interpretation. It must be said that I have studied this session from another theoretical perspective, which I shall not be able to mention in this short presentation, but can be consulted in my book, in particular in chapters 1,3,10. 6 The mother had repudiated the existence of the aunt, and this had happened when the patient should have gone through the experience of jealousy and exclusion evoked by his mother s pregnancy. But aunt Rita did not exist, nor did the patient in feeling the exclusion, even feel jealous at his brother s birth. It was the very sibling identity that was denied in its existence. The exclusion was brought about in the being and not in the having. The patient was thus identified with the non-existence of a sibling. By not talking, not playing, not being himself anymore, he did not exist as a brother, and repudiated the birth of his own brother. The identification was produced in collusion with the mother s history. 7 Which constitute the alienated narcissistic unconscious identifications with the mother s disavowal of the existence of a sibling 8 Or from my perspective alienated narcissistic unconscious identifications. 9 Chapter 3, in The Telescoping of Generations: Listening to the Narcissistic Links Between Generations. 10 Chapters 2 and 7, in The Telescoping of Generations: Listening to the Narcisssistic Links Between Generations. 7

8 References Faimberg, Haydée (1981/1985) The Telescoping of Generations: A Genealogy of Alienated Identifications in Faimberg, Haydée The Telescoping of Generations: Listening to the Narcissistic Links Between Generations, London and New York: Routledge (1981) Listening to Listening : an approach to the study of narcissistic resistances in Faimberg, Haydée The Telescoping of Generations: Listening to the Narcissistic Links Between Generations, London and New York: Routledge Faimberg, Haydée and Corel, Antoine (1989) Repetition and Surprise: Construction and its Validation in Faimberg, Haydée The Telescoping of Generations: Listening to the Narcissistic Links Between Generations, London and New York: Routledge Freud, Sigmund (1914) Remembering, repeating and working-through, The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud ( ), Vol. 12, London: Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psychoanalysis. --(1937) Constructions in analysis, The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud ( ), Vol. 23, London: Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psychoanalysis. Loewald, Hans (1955) Hipnoid State, Repression, Abreaction and Recollection in Papers on Psychoanalysis New Haven and London: Yale University Press (1972/76) Perspectives on Memory in Papers on Psychoanalysis New Haven and London: Yale University Press

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