1 Plato s Republic Book 3&4 Instructor: Jason Sheley
2 What do we want out of a theory of Justice, anyway?
3 The Trolley Problem
4 The trolley problem: A trolley is running out of control down a track. In its path are 5 people who have been tied to the track by a mad philosopher. Fortunately, you can flip a switch which will lead the trolley down a different track to safety. Unfortunately, there is a single person tied to that track. Should you flip the switch?
5 Consequentialism As a moral theory, Consequentialism says that the right action is the one that produces the best consequences. "Best consequences" could be understood as the least amount of suffering or as the most happiness.
6 Variations on the trolley problem: As before, a trolley is hurtling down a track towards five people. You are on a bridge under which it will pass, and you can stop it by dropping a heavy weight in front of it. As it happens, there is a very fat man next to you - your only way to stop the trolley is to push him over the bridge and onto the track, killing him to save five. Should you proceed?
7 More variations on the trolley problem: As before, a trolley is hurtling down a track towards five people. You can divert its path by colliding another trolley into it, but if you do, both will be derailed and go down a hill, across a road, and into a man's yard. The owner, sleeping in his hammock, will be killed. Should you proceed?
8 As before, a trolley is hurtling down a track towards five helpless people. This time, however, you are on board the trolley yourself. There is a large explosive device on the trolley with you. Detonating it would utterly obliterate the trolley, saving the five people, but killing you. Or you could escape from the trolley, killing the five people, but saving your own life. Should you detonate the device?
9 What happens if, on the tracks of one trolley, five men guilty of murder are tied, and on the other, one man is innocent. Should you choose to save the one man, simply because he has committed no crime?"
10 "What happens if, on one of the trolley tracks, the President of the United States has been tied by terrorists, and on the other trolley tracks, five average citizens are also tied up. As in the original trolley problem, who should you save?"
11 "What if the trolley is headed towards five average people you've never met but on the other tracks is your mother? Do you flip the switch and save five or save your mother?"
12 Another variation: You have the money to spend on a new Disneyland Annual Pass. As it happens, if you donated the money to an emergency relief organization, you will prevent 20 people from dying. Should you purchase the pass, or donate the money?
13 A brilliant transplant surgeon has five patients, each in need of a different organ, each of whom will die without that organ. Unfortunately, there are no organs available to perform any of these five transplant operations. A healthy young traveler, just passing through the city the doctor works in, comes in for a routine checkup. In the course of doing the checkup, the doctor discovers that his organs are compatible with all five of his dying patients. Suppose further that if the young man were to disappear, no one would suspect the doctor.
14 Immanuel Kant
15 The Categorical Imperative Imperatives = actions that must be performed. Hypothetical Imperatives are defined as actions that are performed in order to bring about an end. These are imperatives only if you desire the end in question. (example: if you want to get fit, then you must exercise) Categorical Imperatives apply to everyone. That is why they are called Categorical. (Okay, so they don t apply to anyone who can t listen to reason.) These are imperatives which all rational creatures have a duty to follow.
16 Kant on Duty and Inclination A good will acts only for the sake of duty. Kant makes a distinction between actions that are done from duty, and actions that are done for the sake of duty. (what is the difference here?) Only an action for the sake of duty has moral worth, whereas other actions may be merely praiseworthy. (what is the difference between the two?) Kant defines duty as an action that is done solely from reverence for the law. Compare here actions which are performed from inclination. (example: a generous person)
17 First Version Kant says: Act only on that maxim whereby thou canst at the same time will that it should become a universal law. (p. 151) What does this mean?
18 Step 1: Consider what the action is. Step 2: Can the action be willed such that everyone perform the action at all times? Step 3: If the action remains consistent, then it is permitted. If it brings about a contradiction, then it is prohibited.
19 Example: Why would this view make it wrong to commit murder? Tell a lie?
20 Another formulation of the categorical imperative says that people must treat other human beings as ends in themselves, not as means. Kant says: So act as to treat humanity, whether in thine own person or in that of any other, in every case as an end withal, never as means only. (153) Second Version
21 The Lying Friend Consider again our example of my borrowing money with the intention of fleeing and not repaying. Does the second version of the Categorical Imperative give us any guidance about what to do? Can we give an account of why it would be wrong to take the money and lie to my friend? Hint: What would it mean to treat my friend as an end in himself in this case?
22 The Lying Friend Consider again our example of my borrowing money with the intention of fleeing and not repaying. Does the second version of the Categorical Imperative give us any guidance about what to do? Can we give an account of why it would be wrong to take the money and lie to my friend? Hint: What would it mean to treat my friend as an end in himself in this case? Rationality Autonomy
23 John Rawls and the Veil of Ignorance
24 Fairness? How do we distribute benefits and burdens among people with competing interests? How can we arrange the distribution in a fair way?
25 Rawls intended his arguments to apply to the agreements that serve as the foundation for a just society.
26 Rawls wants a way of framing rights and laws that are completely fair, and that remain fair for rational participants in the society.
27 The Veil of Ignorance Imagine that setting up the society or organization is like a game. First, suppose that we make rules in a meeting prior to starting the game. These rules will determine how we distribute benefits and burdens to participants in the game.
28 Imagine that you knew what your hand in the card game would be. What rules would you agree to then?
29 Suppose further that you know nothing about your starting point once the game begins. This means that, in terms of your place in society, you know nothing about your income, your gender, your race, your talents, and so on.
30 Under these conditions, not knowing anything about your starting point, what rules would you agree to as being fair?
31 Negative Thesis... "Rawls's negative thesis is that citizens do not deserve to be born into a rich or a poor family, to be born naturally more or less gifted than others, to be born female or male, to be born a member of a particular racial group, and so on. Since these features of persons are in this sense morally arbitrary, citizens are not at the deepest level entitled to more or less of the benefits of social cooperation because of them. For example the fact that a citizen was born rich, white, and male provides no reason in itself for this citizen to be either favored or disfavored by social institutions." rawls/
32 Rawls gives two principles...
33 First Principle "Each person has the same indefeasible claim to a fully adequate scheme of equal basic liberties, which scheme is compatible with the same scheme of liberties for all."
34 Second Principle Social and economic inequalities are to satisfy two conditions: They are to be attached to offices and positions open to all under conditions of fair equality of opportunity; They are to be to the greatest benefit of the least-advantaged members of society (the difference principle).
35 Identifying Justice in the City...and in the Soul
36 In Book 2, Socrates has identified the needs of the city. And in turn, these needs give rise to functions that the citizens perform.
37 Needs of the City Function Who performs the function? Goods and Services Providing Goods and Services Craftspeople Defense, Security, and Acquisition Defending the City Guardians
38 Socrates identifies a further class: The Rulers. These come from the class of Guardians. 412b-414b Why does Socrates think this class is necessary?
39 The City Artisans Warriors (Provide goods) (Defense) Rulers
40 Book 4
41 At 427d, the city is pronounced as having been established. Recall that the virtue of a thing allows it to perform its function well. There are four virtues that have been identified [427e]: wisdom, courage, moderation and justice. Which class possesses each? What about moderation? 431b-e
42 The remaining task is to see if they can find Justice in the city. Then they will turn their attention to finding Justice in the soul.
43 At 434d, they arrive at the proper conception of Justice. Let s see how they arrive at this: 433a-434c
44 Next, they will try to find Justice in the soul. A natural question to ask is whether the soul also has 3 parts (like the city). (Recall the method from earlier) 441c: Well, then, we have now made our difficult way through a sea of argument. We are pretty much agreed that the same number and the same kinds of classes as are in the city are also in the soul of each individual.
45 The Soul Appetites Spirit (Provides nourishment) (Emotional Responses) Reason
46 441e: Then we must remember that each one of us in whom each part is doing its own work will himself be just and do his own. And thus we have found Justice in the Soul
47 Rationality Spirit Appetite At 442a-443e, we get a description of how the Just individual behaves.
48 Spirit? Rationality Appetite 444b: how the unjust individual behaves...
49 Example: Gollum from The Lord of the Rings Consider: On Plato s account, what is the matter with Gollum s soul?
50 What do you make of the account at 588b? Do you agree with Plato's account of Justice? Do you agree that it is better to be just than unjust?
51 The many-headed beast
52 The many-headed beast
53 What about Walter White?
54 We shall not cease from exploration And the end of all our exploring Will be to arrive where we started And know the place for the first time. - T.S. Eliot (from Quartet IV: Little Gidding)
55 And in order to answer the question about what the work of the Rulers is like, we need to answer two much more fundamental questions: What is knowledge (and how do I come by it?) What is (ultimately) real?
Making Decisions on Behalf of Others: Who or What Do I Select as a Guide? - My boss - The shareholders - Other stakeholders - Basic principles about conduct and its impacts - What is good for me - What
Duty and Categorical Rules Immanuel Kant Introduction to Ethics, PHIL 118 Professor Douglas Olena Preview This selection from Kant includes: The description of the Good Will The concept of Duty An introduction
Plato s Republic - Books 1&2 Instructor: Jason Sheley We want to understand the motivations for Plato's metaphysical, ethical, and epistemological views. The Phaedo begins with everyone waiting for Socrates
Introduction to Logic Instructor: Jason Sheley Deduction vs. Induction In deductive arguments, the following is not uncommon... https://www.uky.edu/~look/ AnselmAquinasPascal.pdf Induction We now proceed
Deontology: Duty-Based Ethics IMMANUEL KANT KANT S OBJECTIONS TO UTILITARIANISM: 1. Utilitarianism takes no account of integrity - the accidental act or one done with evil intent if promoting good ends
Philosophical Ethics The nature of ethical analysis Discussion based on Johnson, Computer Ethics, Chapter 2. How to resolve ethical issues? censorship abortion affirmative action How do we defend our moral
Suppose.... Kant You are a good swimmer and one day at the beach you notice someone who is drowning offshore. Consider the following three scenarios. Which one would Kant says exhibits a good will? Even
Deontology Marianne Talbot University of Oxford Department for Continuing Education 1 Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) schriftman.files.wordpress.com/2008/11/immanu... 2 Kant believed that morality is a system
Deontology: Duty-Based Ethics IMMANUEL KANT A NOTE ON READING KANT Lord Macaulay once recorded in his diary a memorable attempt his first and apparently his last to read Kant s Critique: I received today
UTILITARIAN ETHICS Evaluating actions The principle of utility Strengths Criticisms Act vs. rule A dilemma You are a lawyer. You have a client who is an old lady who owns a big house. She tells you that
Socratic and Platonic Ethics G. J. Mattey Winter, 2017 / Philosophy 1 Ethics and Political Philosophy The first part of the course is a brief survey of important texts in the history of ethics and political
Modern Deontological Theory: Rawlsian Deontology John Rawls A Theory of Justice Nathan Kellen University of Connecticut February 26th, 2015 Table of Contents Preliminary Notes Preliminaries Two Principles
Deontological Ethics From Jane Eyre, the end of Chapter XXVII: (Mr. Rochester is the first speaker) And what a distortion in your judgment, what a perversity in your ideas, is proved by your conduct! Is
Plato's Republic: Books I-IV and VIII-IX a VERY brief and selective summary Book I: This introduces the question: What is justice? And pursues several proposals offered by Cephalus and Polemarchus. None
Benjamin Visscher Hole IV Phil 100, Intro to Philosophy Kantian Ethics I. Context II. The Good Will III. The Categorical Imperative: Formulation of Universal Law IV. The Categorical Imperative: Formulation
JUDITH JARVIS THOMSON Turning the Trolley i The trolley problem is by now thoroughly familiar, but it pays to begin with a description of its origins. In The Problem of Abortion and the Doctrine of the
Deontological Ethics Kant An action's moral value is determined by the nature of the action itself and the agent's motive DE contrasts with Utilitarianism which says that the goal or consequences of an
The Trolley Problem During the Second World War as V1 rockets rained down on London, Churchill made a fateful decision. He would protect the city center and its vital government and historical buildings
Backward Looking Theories, Kant and Deontology Study Guide Forward v. Backward Looking Theories Kant Goodwill Duty Categorical Imperative For Next Time: Rawls, Selections from A Theory of Justice Study
The Trolley Problem 1. The Trolley Problem: Consider the following pair of cases: Trolley: There is a runaway trolley barreling down the railway tracks. Ahead, on the tracks, there are five people. The
Kant s Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals G. J. Mattey Spring, 2017/ Philosophy 1 The Division of Philosophical Labor Kant generally endorses the ancient Greek division of philosophy into
The Ring of Gyges Plato Plato [ 428 348 (or 347)], considered by many to be the greatest philosopher who ever lived, is the author of The Republic and other great dialogues. Plato s influence on Western
Why Plato's Cave? Ancient Greek Philosophy Instructor: Jason Sheley Why is Socrates not afraid to die? What is Philosophy? At this point, we can check in with one of our original questions. I like this
Ancient Greek Philosophy Instructor: Dr. Jason Sheley Aristotle on the Psyche Aristotle s theory of the soul is notoriously difficult to classify. Scholars have attempted to frame Aristotle s theory as
Kant, Deontology, & Respect for Persons Some Possibly Helpful Terminology Normative moral theories can be categorized according to whether the theory is primarily focused on judgments of value or judgments
Consequentialism and Nonconsequentialism Ethical Theory Utilitarianism (Consequentialism) in Practice Criticisms of Consequentialism Kant Consequentialism The only thing that determines the morality of
Mill s Utilitarianism I. Introduction Recall that there are four questions one might ask an ethical theory to answer: a) Which acts are right and which are wrong? Which acts ought we to perform (understanding
Previous Final Examinations Philosophy 1 For each question, please write a short answer of about one paragraph in length. The answer should be written out in full sentences, not simple phrases. No books,
QUIZ 1 ETHICAL ISSUES IN MEDIA, BUSINESS AND SOCIETY WHAT IS ETHICS? Business ethics deals with values, facts, and arguments. Q2) The test of an ethical argument lies in the fact that others need to be
Kamaara 25 Being a Christian in an Immoral Society Eunice Kamaara M orality refers to that code of conduct which governs the way people should behave in relation to one another. In this sense, morality
Divine command theory Today we will be discussing divine command theory. But first I will give a (very) brief overview of the discipline of philosophy. Why do this? One of the functions of an introductory
Philosophy 110W: Introduction to Philosophy Spring 2011 Hamilton College Russell Marcus I. Nihilism, Relativism, and Absolutism Class 23 - April 20 Plato, What is Right Conduct? One question which arises
1 NOTE ON THE DOCTRINE OF DOUBLE EFFECT AND THE DOCTRINE OF ACTS AND OMISSIONS For Philosophy 13 Fall, 2008 1. THE DOCTRINE OF DOUBLE EFFECT The Doctrine of Double Effect (DDE) holds that in some contexts
Justice and the Public Sphere: A Critique of John Rawls Political Liberalism Wanpat Youngmevittaya University of York, UK Abstract This article criticizes John Rawls conception of political liberalism,
Anselm, On Truth They say that God is Truth. (Recall Augustine s argument for this.) But, what IS truth? In Anselm s dialogue, a teacher and a student explore this question. 1. Truth cannot have a beginning
Jacques-Louis David, The Death of Socrates (1787) Ancient Philosophy 13. Plato on the Soul: Phaedo, &c. 3 4 Dramatic Connections Pythagorean Connections Phlius & Thebes as the cities to which the Pythagoreans
CAN WE HAVE MORALITY WITHOUT GOD AND RELIGION? Stephen Law It s widely held that morality requires both God and religion. Without God to lay down moral rules, talk of right and wrong can reflect nothing
Sophie s World Chapter 4 The Natural Philosophers Arche Is there a basic substance that everything else is made of? Greek word with primary senses beginning, origin, or source of action Early philosophers
Phil 108, August 10, 2010 Punishment Retributivism and Utilitarianism The retributive theory: (1) It is good in itself that those who have acted wrongly should suffer. When this happens, people get what
Consequentialism Deontology (Virtue Ethics) Consequentialism Deontology (Virtue Ethics) Consequentialism the value of an action (the action's moral worth, its rightness or wrongness) derives entirely from
Rawlsian Values Jimmy Rising A number of questions can be asked about the validity of John Rawls s arguments in Theory of Justice. In general, they fall into two classes which should not be confused. One
Extracting Morality from the Moral Sense Scott Soames Character and the Moral Sense: James Q. Wilson and the Future of Public Policy February 28, 2014 Wilburn Auditorium Pepperdine University Malibu, California
ESSAY PLAN: BANQUO Moral decline mirrors Macbeth's, but is neither as rapid nor as serious THESIS Interesting character who, like Macbeth, remains enigmatic to the end. This is what makes him so interesting:
1 File: Pentecost 23C Luke 18:9-14 Dear Friends in Christ, Grace to you and peace from God our Father and our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, Amen! It begins when we re young. It doesn t take long to become
Study Paper Approved by the Ministerial Board of Directors November 2014 2015 Church of God, a Worldwide Association, Inc. All scripture quotations, unless otherwise indicated, are taken from the New King
1 NOTE ON THE DOCTRINE OF DOUBLE EFFECT AND THE DOCTRINE OF ACTS AND OMISSIONS For Philosophy 13 Fall, 2004 1. THE DOCTRINE OF DOUBLE EFFECT The Doctrine of Double Effect (DDE) holds that in some contexts
Utilitarianism 1. What is Utilitarianism?: This is the theory of morality which says that the right action is always the one that best promotes the total amount of happiness in the world. Utilitarianism
PHI 1700: Global Ethics Session 9 March 3 rd, 2016 Hobbes, The Leviathan Rousseau, Discourse of the Origin of Inequality Last class, we considered Aristotle s virtue ethics. Today our focus is contractarianism,
PROFESSIONAL ETHICS IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING CD5590 LECTURE 1 Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic Department of Computer Science and Engineering Mälardalen University 2005 1 Course Preliminaries Identifying Moral
Scanlon on Double Effect RALPH WEDGWOOD Merton College, University of Oxford In this new book Moral Dimensions, T. M. Scanlon (2008) explores the ethical significance of the intentions and motives with
Phil 114, Wednesday, April 11, 2012 Hegel, The Philosophy of Right 1 7, 10 12, 14 16, 22 23, 27 33, 135, 141 Dialectic: For Hegel, dialectic is a process governed by a principle of development, i.e., Reason
CS305 Topic Introduction to Ethics Sources: Baase: A Gift of Fire and Quinn: Ethics for the Information Age CS305-Spring 2010 Ethics 1 What is Ethics? A branch of philosophy that studies priciples relating
 SECOND SUNDAY IN ORDINARY TIME B FIRST READING Speak, O Lord, your servant is listening. A reading from the first book of Samuel 3:4-10, 19 Samuel was sleeping in the temple when the Lord called out
1. What is the evil which is described in these verses? Why can this man not enjoy his wealth and honor? What would it take for him to find enjoyment? What is the significance of the statement about the
Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals by Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant was born in 1724 in Königsberg, Prussia, (now Germany) where he spent his entire life, never traveling more than about
How to Make Good Decisions a 62 Point Summary How to Make Good Decisions and Be Right All the Time a 62 Point Summary 1 Uncertainty about Right and Wrong is Common and Bad Most people face difficult decisions
Which Philosopher Has the Strongest Argument on Private Property? Charles Titus, MPA Political Science 501 Political Philosophy Professor: Dr. Adrienne Stafford 9/25/2015 American Public University System
The Right to Lie: Kant on Dealing with Evil The Harvard community has made this article openly available. Please share how this access benefits you. Your story matters. Citation Published Version Accessed
UNION CHURCH STATEMENT OF FAITH What We Believe In essential beliefs we have unity. There is one Body and one Spirit...there is one Lord, one faith, one baptism, and one God and Father of us all... Eph.
CLIMBING THE MOUNTAIN SUMMARY CHAPTER 1 REASONS 1 Practical Reasons We are the animals that can understand and respond to reasons. Facts give us reasons when they count in favour of our having some belief
WITHOUT ME YOU CAN DO NOTHING Desmond J. FitzGerald When I was a beginning teacher many years ago one of my colleagues remarked to me that the problem of divine concurrence was the most difficult problem
EUTHYPHRO (lecture) Background: Socrates, in his famous ironic conversations portrays himself to be ignorant of all ideas and thoughts of philosophic inquiry. He often implores the experts in their particular
RAWLS In a hypothetical choice situation modeling fairness, we d agree to principles of justice ensuring basic liberties and allowing inequalities only where they benefit the worst off. Aims of Rawls s
Plato 1 Plato Allegory of the Cave from The Republic (Book VII) Biography of Plato [Socrates] And now, I said, let me show in a figure how far our nature is enlightened or unenlightened: --Behold! human
What Do You Believe? Matthew 28:1-10 ~ April 16, 2017 (Easter Sunday) ~ Heritage Lutheran Church What do you believe? Did OJ do it? On October 3, 1995 a jury in Los Angeles Superior Court ruled that OJ
What we want students to learn: That Jesus wants His followers to be countercultural in their humility, living in the world as servants of others. What we want students to do with what they ve learned:
Elizabeth Harman 01/19/10 forthcoming in Norton Introduction to Philosophy Is it Reasonable to Rely on Intuitions in Ethics? Some philosophers argue for ethical conclusions by relying on specific ethical
The Human Deficit according to Immanuel Kant: The Gap between the Moral Law and Human Inability to Live by It Pieter Vos 1 Note from Sophie editor: This Month of Philosophy deals with the human deficit
TEACHER S NOTES INTRO Each student has to choose one of the following topics. The other students have to ask questions on that topic. During the discussion, the student has to lie once. The other students
PHI 1700: Global Ethics Prof. Lauren R. Alpert Name: Date: Take Home Exam #2 Instructions (Read Before Proceeding!) Material for this exam is from class sessions 8-15. Matching and fill-in-the-blank questions
What is Freedom? Should Socrates be Set Free? Plato s Crito Quick Review of the Apology SGD of DQs Side 1: Questions 1 through 3 / Side 2: Questions 4 through 6 What is the major / provocative takeaway?
A Man with Many Faces By: Ken Howe Text 1st and 2nd Samuel Key Quest Verse "You know when I sit and when I rise; you perceive my thoughts from afar. Psalm 139:2 (NIV) Bible Background At any given moment
When does human life begin? by Dr Brigid Vout The question of when human life begins has occupied the minds of people throughout human history, and perhaps today more so than ever. Fortunately, developments
According to 2 Timothy 3:16-17: All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness, that the man of God may be complete,
Famous Last Words #1 Father, Forgive them Today, and for the next 4 weeks we are going to be looking at the words of Jesus on the cross and I pray that the Spirit of God, through His Word, will speak into
Western University Scholarship@Western 2015 Undergraduate Awards The Undergraduate Awards 2015 Two Kinds of Ends in Themselves in Kant s Moral Theory David Hakim Western University, email@example.com
Main Idea The Republic An extreme government changed French society and tried through harsh means to eliminate its critics within France. Content Statement 8/Learning Goal: Describe how Enlightenment ideas