Unit 3 Notes J Ewan, St Ninian s High School, Douglas Isle of Man.

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2 Edexcel for Unit 3 Edexcel Unit 3 Option B A2 Notes Guidance Option B The focus of this topic is on France during a tumultuous period of change with French men and women evolving from subjects to citizens in a maelstrom of revolutions, war and constitutional experiment. The key areas of study required for Section A are summarised in the four bullet points and the two associated controversies to be examined in Section B are clearly delimited underneath in the unit content section of the specification. Collectively, they offer a framework for understanding the period as a whole. Although the content bullet points have been clarified separately here, students should appreciate the possible links between them and may be called upon to draw on material from more than one bullet point in answering a question. For example, students answering a question on the restored Bourbons might be expected to understand something of the tensions over religion during the Terror, covered in bullet point 2 or the religious settlement under the Concordat (bullet point 3). The onset of revolution and the collapse of absolute monarchy, The first bullet point relates to the last years of absolute monarchy in France and its collapse in Students should have knowledge and understanding of the political and social structure of France and the criticisms of both, current in the 1780s. They should have a knowledge of Louis XVI and his court and the financial problems of the crown and the various attempts at reform, culminating in the summoning of the Estates General in May They should understand the loss of royal control over both Paris and the Estates General in June and July and the evolution of the latter into the National Assembly. They should be aware of the significance of the decrees of August abolishing feudalism and the promulgation of the Rights of Man, and the return of the King and royal family to Paris in October. Terror and reaction, : war and terror; the Thermidorean reaction and the Directory. The second bullet point relates to the six years of the Republic from the execution of the King until the coup of Brumaire 1799 and students should have an understanding of the bitter divisions within the new Republic between its supporters and opponents in Questions will not be set exclusively on foreign policy but the domestic impact of the changing fortunes of war should be studied. Students should understand how the Jacobin terror evolved and the work of the Committees of General Security and Public Safety in securing the revolution against its internal foes and invading foreign enemies in They should understand the reasons for the downfall of Robespierre and St Just and the establishment and instability of the Directory, culminating in the coup of Sieyes and Bonaparte in France under Napoleon, : from Consulate to Empire; Napoleon s domestic reforms. The third bullet point relates to the birth of Napoleonic France and its development to Students should understand the process by which Napoleon consolidated his power between 1799 and 1804, the reasons for the Concordat in 1801 and the significance of the spate of reforms affecting administration, the economy, education and the law. Students will not be expected to study the wars against the Second and Third Coalitions, but should be aware of their domestic impact, for example the value to Napoleon of his victory at Marengo in strengthening his grip on power. The Bourbons restored: Louis XVIII and the Charter; Charles X and the Revolution of The fourth bullet point relates to the years of the restored Bourbon monarchy under Louis XVIII and Charles X. Students should understand the reasons for Louis restorations in 1814 and 1815 and the problems faced by him then and during his reign. They should be aware of the nature of

3 the Charter and the conduct of government under it by Richelieu, Decazes and Villele. They should understand the situation Charles X inherited, his personality, the policies pursued by his governments, the impact of the economic downturn and the reasons for the revolution in July Associated controversies In part B, students will use their knowledge of the period as a whole to provide broad contextual knowledge of the forces which sustained or challenged governments and regimes, but in addition they will need detailed knowledge of the two issues selected as subjects of historical controversy. a) Why did constitutional monarchy fail in the years ? The first controversy requires a study of the breakdown of the constitutional monarchy of Louis XVI between October 1789 and January Students should be aware of the historical debate which surrounds this issue with some arguing that Louis personality and the flight to Varennes were central to the breakdown, as opposed to the impact of war or the accelerating economic crisis. b) Why did the Napoleonic Empire collapse in 1814? The second controversy requires a study of the reasons for the defeat and collapse of the Napoleonic Empire between 1807 and 1814 and an appreciation that there has been debate about the relative significance of these. This will involve understanding the impact of the struggle with Britain on the seas and in the Iberian peninsula, the decision to invade Russia, the improving qualities of opponents armies and their enhanced cooperation, and the quality of Napoleon s decision making and leadership.

4 The onset of revolution and the collapse of absolute monarchy, Louis and Antoinette The William and Kate of their day? 1774 Louis XVI was crowned age 19. Kind, generous, formal, introspective, unprepossessing, very physical (loved hunting) very religious brought up- to beware Austria and the evils of women. Hated being king asked a minister Why can t I resign? Hobbies included Locksmith, wood carver, and reading the Encyclopaedie Louis s Typical day 6AM Valets de chambre awake him, shave and dress in clothes presented. Have star of Holy Spirit (highest order in France) pinned to him. Hair is curled, powdered and decorated. Goes for walk. 8AM Breakfast with ministers and officials to discuss business Private apartments, reading or in workshop 12PM Mass 1.30PM Dinner with Queen and females of the Royal Household in public Afternoon - watching plays or hunting Evening - playing cards, billiards, backgammon, He married Marie Antoinette when he was 15, she was 14 - and it was a marriage of dynasties designed to lead to alliance. They had not met, and did not meet until after the formal marriage had taken place. Marie Antoinette was the 15th of the Empress of Austria-Hungary Marie Theresa s children - she was vivacious, very beautiful and Mozart had played and written music for her when she was younger. Antoinette s coach parked with rear wheels in Austria, Front in France so doors opened on neutral territory. She was symbolically handed over naked on barge in the middle of the river Rhine and burst into tears - stripped of Austrian sensibilities, reclothed in French - her servants, and even her beloved dog had to be left behind. They did not consummate the marriage for years - popular rumours for this believed there were no children due to Louis s deformity and Antoinette s rumoured adultery and lesbianism with the Duchesse de Polignac and Princess de Lamballe (who was so sensitive she fainted at the sight of a lobster in a painting). There was no evidence for any of these rumours. In 1773 after 3 years of marriage and an operation allowed consummation of marriage, the royal couple fell in love over summers at Petit Trianon By 1778 Antoinette and Louis had four children in total two girls, two boys and she had adopted a peasant orphan, Jacques.

5 Antoinette hated boredom loved plays, horse races, clavichord, gambling, opera, fashion, Petit Trianon, shut out of politics, minimum influence. She was very very popular initially - political machinations turned on her and she became known as That Austrian Woman thought of as extravagant, lusty and criticised heavily. The Diamond necklace affair showed Antoinette s fall from grace. A necklace made for Antoinette by a jeweler who she had previously commissioned things,offering a looped diamond necklace (647 diamonds)- she did not like it, he offered it to other queens costing 2 million francs - all said no. A con artist swindled a noble who wished to become friendly with Antoinette and got a girl to pretend to be Antoinette and encourage him (signs of encouragement included Antoinette turning her head to him in the crowd). Jewelers gave necklace to con artists who disappeared and broke it up for the jewels. Public opinion of Antoinette dwindled - she was seen as extravagant and spendthrift - the necklace affair reinforced this with no fault of her own. France France was one of the five Great Powers of Europe - Austria, France, Prussia, Russia, Britain. It had a population of 26 million - 21 million farmers, majority of these peasants - the nobility was only 400,000. Mass poverty and grievances were endemic - poor harvests, aggravated by taxes and feudal dues that noble classes were immune to. Society split into three estates, or groups. 1st Estate - CLERGY Catholic Church 100,000 - owned one tenth land in France They paid no tax instead decided amount for a 5 yearly grant to the State and received the TITHE 1/10 earnings went to Church but creamed off by rich clergy, not poor parish priests (Cures) that needed it. They controlled information (as the only literate body) and often censored information. Anti-clericalism existed and had been boosted by the Philosophes who said clergy were corrupt, unfeeling and intolerant. Main complaints were Church run like a business i.e. for profit, absentee abbots (collect large salaries for big dioceses but hold more than one and cures do all actual work in that parish. All Bishops were nobles, decline in belief spreading as was middle class sceptism. 2nd Estate - Nobility 3 orders - Noblesse de Court - those of the Royal court, the ancient Nobles Noblesse d epee - those of the sword, awarded nobility for talent, valour, service to the King and whose families carry on the nobility Noblesse de robe - the newest nobles who could buy the right 400,000 together, owned one fifth of all land in France. Only Nobles could - reach highest offices in Church

6 - be ambassadors - get droits feudal rights as landlords - command army regiments (From 1781 you could not receive an army commission without proving all 4 generations of aristocratic birth) Nobles were exempt from certain taxes including the hated Royal Corvee and taille Peasants hated feudal droits and the exemption from taxes particularly, the bourgeoises hated their exclusion from the top ranks and the bar on merit. 3rd Estate - The Masses 25.5 million Two groups - the emergent middle classes the bourgeoisie who had social grievances and the Peasantry with economic grievances - both divided. The Economic Problems - the bankruptcy of the monarchy Background Seven Years War was major defeat and very expensive- left crown humiliated, eager to reverse humiliation and in debt. Had to spend on army & navy to avoid further war. When Louis XVI succeeded new King, new era, beautiful wife... restored Paris Parlement that his father had exiled due to them ignoring him. Turgot Finance minister until 1776 when dismissed for tactless, interfering behaviour. Forced to resign as Louis would not back him in passing his tax reforms in the face of opposition Jacques Necker appointed Director - General of Finance, a special post created for him as he was Swiss and a foreigner could not hold a ministerial post. he was considered a financial genius, self made millionaire. Very popular He managed to cut court expenditure but the tax system was real problem so unfair was main cause of unrest but expense of Wars (inherited 7 years War, and new American War of Independence) prevented this (American War cost 200 million livres which he raised through borrowing) meant he had to keep taxes but he raised most of the money by borrowing as he saw france was Past taxable capacity only flexibility was in public debt. Published the complete account of the onational Finances compte Rendu the State account books, but were ridiculously cooked to look better he turned a deficit of 46 million livres into a surplus of 10 million. Forced to resign. Calonne 1783 recognised need to urgently reform or monarchy would collapse under financial breakdown. Realised that could not go on borrowing against other loans (pay one off with other). Blamed Necker s compte rendu - Suggested LAND TAX - tax by the amount of land owned therefore very fair, and raise money needed. As permanent new tax would bypass Parlements - the 13 appeal courts that registered laws and aspired to veto. Paris Parlement very influential (10 million pop). Few commoners sat on them. If they vetoed Crown could use a Lit de justice ceremony to force the law through. Had been exiled and suppressed by Louis XV. Louis XVI recalled them in 1774 at the start of his reign.

7 But Nobles scared this Land Tax would begin erosion of privilege so had to call an Assembly of Notables to submit the tax to in Feb Idea was to call yes-men but they refused to pass it - Nobles would not access Heavy resistance from the King s brothers the Comte de Provence and the Comte d Artois and Marie Antoinette. Archbishop of Narbone Calonne wishes to bleed France to death and he asks us where to make the incision. Dismissed - they believed he must be lying as Compte Rendu, & new royal property purchases. Brienne 1788 Revolt of the Nobles louis thought a change of minister would make them more amenable to the tax.tried a moderate version of the Land tax and dismissed the Assembly but Parlement determined not to let new legislation through and declared any new taxes require the ESTATES - GENERAL (A body of representatives from all 3 estates that last met in 1614 under Louis XIII) and they demanded the right not to be imprisoned without trial Louis even tried lit de justice ( royal forcing through of law) and protests from the Duc d Orleans led to his exile. - King appeared to be a despot. Agitation grew until Louis enforced his right and dispersed Parlements in 1788 after parlements - courts of appeal - Paris very popular & powerful, last called 1614 under Louis XIV. They could pass laws - Louis called them at the start of his reign to signify new intentions. They wanted to have the veto and refused to pass his laws saying only an estates - general could pass tax laws... Riots through the summer - Brittany, Burgundy, Bearn, Provence and violent fighting in Paris and Grenoble. (Day of the Tiles) Widespread public support for revolt and August 1788 King forced to call E-G Money situation now desperate, Brienne asked Clergy to grant it and Clergy refused! Brienne s situation was untenable - forced to call the E-G to Versailles for summer 1789 and had to resign Necker reappointed as he was the only one who could sustain credit for long enough until the E-G gathered. Revolt of the Nobles over? Assembly of Notables fails to sanction royal tax reforms June - July 1788 revolt of the Nobles August - hailstones destroy harvest...

8 The Estates - General 1788 onwards arguments grew over the composition of the E-G. Equal numbers of Estates members mean 1+2/3 or should the 3rd be as big as 1+2 (MA was seen as the person who allowed the 3rd to equal the other two.) Rise of orators and political clubs and pamphlets meant politicised society. In the cities the lower classes lived on lower floors and the middle classes above them so ideas spread very quickly. Who were the leaders of the Third Estate? Abbe De Talleyrand- Perigord Bishop of Autun, later known as Prince Talleyrand Marquis de Lafayette Great leader in American war, wanted to be George Washington under Louis XVI Abbe Sieyes wrote What is the third Estate? answer Everything, What has it been up to now - nothing, what should it be - something Comte de Mirabeau great orator and politician, questionable morals. Slept with his sister, scandal imprisoned for adultery, debt ran away to Switzerland with Sophie from Pontalier (where he was beheaded in effigy for his rapt et vol wrote political works when in prison including attack on lettres de cachet and an erotica biblion. Out of prison dumped Sophie, she committed suicide. 3 scandalous lawsuits fled to Holland, then England but very noble politically I am the mad dog from whose bites despotism and privilege will die

9 Another Assembly of Notables refused to allow 3rd Estate double representation but fearing provincial violence Necker persuaded Royals and Ministers to agree - BUT they did not clarify if voting was to be done by head or by order so problem still there. voting took place - everyone who was in taxation rolls could vote 291 Nobles ( including 90 liberals - Lafayette) 300 clergy, mostly parish priests (Encyclopedie)200 in favour of change rd mainly professional middle classes, lots of lawyers After voting electors drew up Cahiers de Doleances, lists of grievances and suggestions - mainly wanted constitution, regular E-G, elected provincial estates, freedom of press etc. 1st great outbreak of revolution, last outbreak under the Ancien Regime. Reveillion Riots, Reveillon, a wallpaper manufacturer remarked about high-cost of wages, riots lasted days, several killed. April Parlement now favoured vote by house, therefore becomes enemy of 3rd.

10 The Tennis Court Oath 20th June 1789 Meetings of the E-G began 4th May (1st Meeting hat farce p.51 Hibbert) Orders met in separate halls to examine credentials of each other 3rd believed all should meet in same to examine all credentials.

11 dean in charge of 3rd Jean-Sylvain Bailly decided to get parish priests to join them - invited clergy who deliberated. Necker intervened and reminded each order separate BUT 4th June Dauphin, King s eldest son and heir died age 8, King withdrew from Versailles at same time as Parisian deputies (delayed elections) arrived including Sieyes - more radical - all join commons or forfeit right as representative. Cures broke and joined 3rd. renamed The National Assembly more clergy joined. Next day meeting hall found locked, King to hold a seance royal - meeting of all three to announce Third Estate s actions as illegal. Dr Joseph Ignace Guillotin suggested going to a nearby indoor tennis court. An oath of never separating until the establishment of a constitution was brought about - only 1 deputy opposed. 22nd June rest of clergy joined and a new meeting place in a Church was found after the Comte d Artois booked the tennis court for a game. Some nobles began to join. 23rd June Seance Royal chamber locked to 3rd initially, admitted after wait. All cheered for the King except a silent 3rd. King agreed certain concessions Fiscal reforms. abolition of lettres de cachet, no taxes without consent of representatives. Worded threateningly, King still grieving - ORDERED TO SEPARATE. Mirabeau reminded Nat Ass of oath we will not stir from our seats unless forced to do so by bayonets Louis response either Damn it let them stay or use force 27 June 47 Nobles led by Duc D Orleans joined National Assembly. Louis gave in and asked remainder of 1st and 2nd to join them. 1st stage of revolution over - bloodless but King ordered 10 regiments to Paris and versailles Price of bread rose - doubled in 2 months and Necker was dismissed in favour of the conservative Baron de Breteuill, when Necker went Stock Exchange closed in fear. National Guard Electors of Paris met - unofficial municipal authority organised a militia. All bourgeoisie - respectable citizens that could serve one day in 4 (w/c could not afford that). Duc D Orleans opened the gardens of the Palais Royal as a meeting place - orators and crowds gathered. Customs barriers surrounding Paris destroyed Camille Desmoulins, lawyer, demagogue present The Bastille Tuesday 14th July 1789, overcast, rain threatened and rumours of thousands of troops marching towards Paris. At the Hotel de Ville Electors issued orders for National Guard - on the side of citizens, erect barricades, protect banks etc. 60,000 gathered at Invalides demanding guns. Governor refused, had already been told to do nothing without word from Versailles. He ordered pensioners to unscrew the hammers

12 from guns making them useless. Pensioners sympathised with people and went on a go slow in 6 hours they unscrewed 20 of the 32,000 guns. Mob forced their way in guards stood by and watched as rioters picked up 28,000 guns and 10 cannon but no gunpowder... Headed to the Bastille - a State prison where gunpowder was kept - also symbolic of Ancien Regime. 8 Round towers, 80ft high wall which was 15ft thick and held 250 barrels of gunpowder. Rarely held more than 10 prisoners - 7 on 14th July 4 forgers, 1 who had attempted to assassinate Louis XVI, Comte de Solarges for incest and Julius Caesar. Governor was Marquis de Launay 32 swiss soldiers and garrison of 82 invalides. Guns were pointing at streets - taken as a threat. Electors of Paris arranged to have guns withdrawn but crowd turned up and assumed guns were being moved to be loaded! They also assumed the Electors must be prisoners. Drawbridge raised - 2 of crowd cut drawbridge down - the impact killed one. Someone fired - unknown who fired first. City sent delegates to stop fighting but Governor thought it was a plot by crowd to trick him. Governor Launay surrended after threatening to blow entire stock up.

13 Three Invalides killed three of Governor s staff and eighty three of crowd (fifteen died later from wounds) 954 awarded Vainquers de la Bastille. Louis was awakened and told - is this a rebellion? No sire it is a revolution Effects of Bastille Thomas Jefferson, ambassador to France advised surrender at discretion Louis withdrew troops from Paris but refused to recall necker. King & Queen were applauded. July 17th Bailly was elected mayor of Paris and Lafayette given control of National Guard. For the first time cockades of red and blue (colours of Paris) were joined with the white of the bourbons. Tension remained high and barricades reappeared when Necker was not recalled - King forced to give way, his brother Artois fled and Louis made his will. He fastened a revolutionary cockade to his hat and gave the National Assembly the power to form a constitution... The Great Fear 20th July - 6th August Because news takes so long to arrive - took over 2 weeks for news of Bastille to reach provinces! Rumours of a foreign invasion appeared - royalist troops and armies of brigands were said to be massing - Provincial riots appeared Taxes were withheld, the Kings Intendant s fled The price of bread rocketed - lieutenant of St Denis, Paris refused to reduce Bread price and so was chased to the top of his own steeple, stabbed and decapitated!

14 Castles, manor houses, abbeys, tax offices were invaded and burnt, unpopular mayors were removed. Burnt to remove the legal documents recognising the feudal rights. - National Assembly had to act - Liberal nobles removed feudalist dues Spontaneously 4th August Abolition of feudalism Catch - to free yourself had to pay 20 times annual fee in a lump sum. Only one deputy voted to abolish death penalty - Robespierre. All church & nobles privileges removed and later in August came the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen All men are born free and equal All government power is derived from the people freedom of speech & press Careers & office open to talent taxation should be fair King was given power of suspensive veto - could stop laws for up to 4 years, basic constitution formed - single chamber with all law-making rights, king could not initiate law and ministers were accountable. BUT louis refused to ratify these and the King was too far away to force the issue... 29th September Flanders regiment arrive in Versailles, as traditional a banquet held in their honour

15 Soldiers tore off the revolutionary cockade, handed out bourbon cockade - reported as an orgy Huge bread shortages - average citizen ate 3 lb. of bread a day - 50% of wages were going on bread - acute shortage, people accused of hoarding, violence broke out and women seized grain. Angry about Flanders regiment & bread The march of the fishwives Journee 5th Oct - fishwives, prostitutes, working women and market stall holders gathered demanding bread. Stormed the Hotel de Ville and then set off to Versailles. Some women may have been forced to participate. 6,000 including several men some dressed as women acting as agent provocateurs paid by Duc d Orleans. Pillaged shops on way to Versailles, went into national Assembly and demanded Our little mother Mirabeau Quote We don t give a fuck for order, we want bread King saw some women and agreed BUT lafayette had been forced to lead 20,000 National Guard to Versailles and arrived as things had been calming down. King told to flee but dithered, he was then forced to ratify the August decrees and declaration of rights, hesitant on going to Paris. 6th oct The King went to bed -Marie Antoinette was woken by cries of Death to the Austrian.. where is the whore.. 2 guards were decapitated as crowd rushed into palace. An Officer guarding Antoinette was hit so hard with a musket the trigger penetrated his skull. Threats to MA and Lafayette - King and Queen went out onto the balcony with children - crowd demanded children went back inside and MA stood for 2 minutes with all guns pointed at her until the crowd grew respectful of her. The Royal family accompanied by Lafayette, the National Guard, Flanders Regiment, wagon loads of wheat and flour and with the women at the rear now marched to Paris. The baker, the baker s wife and the baker s boy were now to live in the Tuileries, an ancient royal palace in the centre of Paris. Now subject to public pressure, scrutiny and intimidation but bread prices fell so effects not felt of this for a year.

16 Test yourself - you have now completed the first bullet point - this content will be needed in Section A (essays). Can you explain these points to others? Do you fully understand them? Have you read at least one other text on these? Students should have knowledge and understanding of the political and social structure of France and the criticisms of both, current in the 1780s. They should have a knowledge of Louis XVI and his court and the financial problems of the crown and the various attempts at reform, culminating in the summoning of the Estates General in May They should understand the loss of royal control over both Paris and the Estates General in June and July and the evolution of the latter into the National Assembly. They should be aware of the significance of the decrees of August abolishing feudalism and the promulgation of the Rights of Man, and the return of the King and royal family to Paris in October.

17 Why did constitutional monarchy fail in the years ? Section B In part B, students will use their knowledge of the period as a whole to provide broad contextual knowledge of the forces which sustained or challenged governments and regimes, but in addition they will need detailed knowledge of the two issues selected as subjects of historical controversy. a) Why did constitutional monarchy fail in the years ? The first controversy requires a study of the breakdown of the constitutional monarchy of Louis XVI between October 1789 and January Students should be aware of the historical debate which surrounds this issue with some arguing that Louis personality and the flight to Varennes were central to the breakdown, as opposed to the impact of war or the accelerating economic crisis. Reforms of the Constituent Assembly Excellent harvest in no cries for bread so Assembly could concentrate on reform King s title changed from King of France to King of the French National Assembly becomes Constituent Assembly - how to replace the Ancien Regime - system laid foundations for future French govt. CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY Based on King - he has supreme power only a four year veto on law and elected National Assembly. Right to vote restricted active / passive citizens Active receive vote in 1st stage of local and national elections - males over the age of 25, lived in one place for at least a year and who pay 3 days labour in taxes. To stand for office or vote in 2nd stage pay 10 days labour in taxes To become deputy in national Assembly pay 50 days labour in taxes. ONLY 51 % of Frenchmen and NO women have right to vote. Only 1/100 eligible to stand as deputy BUT great leap forward, although became a problem for the san culottes WIDEST FRANCHISE OF VOTING IN EUROPE French government reorganised and decentralised under three tier system of departments, districts and communes (83 departments districts- 43,360 communes) Officials elected at each level by active citizens. Councils responsible for law and order in their area - also assessed and collected tax, constructed public amenities (roads etc) maintained churches and supervised local National Guard. LOCAL GOVT IN BGZ HANDS - some problems, in rural areas not enough wealthy / educated/ even literate to fill posts. LAW

18 Single unified, national law system (previously had been regional and confused) Torture, branding and hanging forbidden, fewer crimes punishable by death (by decapitation only) Parlements and feudal courts replaced by departmental tribunals, central court of appeal and high court for treason. Judges and magistrates were to be elected from a panel of candidates Criminal cases trial by jury ONE OF THE MOST ENLIGHTENED SYSTEMS OF JUSTICE IN EUROPE Financial reform NEED TO REBUILD ECONOMY assembly failed - too many thought taxes had gone for good, forced to rely on short term measures after resistance. Until 1791 attempted to collect old taxes to keep solvent - failed, gabelle (salt tax) withdrawn in March 1790 Unpopular indirect taxes removed , direct taxes of taille replaced by land tax similar to Calonne s August 1789 Free trade in grain introduced, other products a year later. Unified weights and measures, internal customs tariffs disappeared Guilds disappeared, trade unions declared illegal. - Need to find short-term finance Nov The State would pay church salaries, take over the Church s role in education and relief for the poor in return for selling off all Church property. Nobles who had fled (emigrees) would have property confiscated and sold. Land known as bien nationaux assignats - a paper government bond that could be bought and then exchanged for church land as it became available. Came to be used as a paper currency TOO MANY WERE PRINTED -- INFLATION AND LATER UNREST. Those who bought assignats had interest in maintaining revolution everyone who holds them will be a defender of the revolution Civil Consitution of the Clergy - A revolutionary reformed Church 1790 Tithes and right of clergy to decide its own tax abolished Pluralism banned (can only hold one office) Monastic orders doing no education or charity abolished CIVIL RIGHTS & TOLERANCE granted to Protestants (Dec 1789) and Jews 1792) Sale of lands and direct salaries meant poor cures wages increased. July 1790 Church reorganised in same pattern as local govt. - Every department had a bishop

19 Bishops elected, Pope could not confirm ( and therefore accept/reject) them Changes in authority of church led to struggle - Who had authority - Church did not have it over NA, NA did not have it over Church Louis forced to accept it in August Assembly demanded clergy take an oath to agree to this - only 7/83 bishops (and 3 were agnostic) and 55% did so. Country split - non-jurors (non-swearers) Enemies of the revolution good support in west & north - peasants fear of hell greater than desire for revolution D.G. Wright a gaping breach over the Church Why did France become a republic in 1792? Civil Constitution of the Clergy... Political clubs - no parties, clubs important in keeping public informed, and influencing assembly. Jacobins were radical left wing & anti-war (Robespierre), Cordeliers radical left wing (Desmoulins, Marat, Danton), Girondins (Brissot, Madame Roland) less radical left wing and pro-war. Feuillants were right wing, led by Lafayette Jacobin club formed 1789, supported by wealthy liberal constitutional monarchists. ROBESPIERRE led radical Jacobins. By 1791 over 90 political clubs. Jacobins sat on the extreme left of the Constituent Assembly... hence the saying left wing. Cordeliers, founded 1790 more radical, did not restrict admission, led by bourgeoisie - Danton, Desmoulins - big w/c following Marat, chief spokesman edited The People s friend newspaper. Hebert also had a paper Pere Duchesne. FLIGHT TO VARENNES Why? Constituent assembly undermined in two ways 1) increasing pressure from political clubs 2) unreliability of King - accepted change but gave impression he was doing so reluctantly and waiting until he could undo the work. King shown to be untrustworthy as Made up his mind when tried to go to communion at St Cloud crowd refused to let royal family leave and blocked gates. What happened? 21st June 1791 tried to flee - secret plans, seemed likely he was trying to get to Montmedy (Lorraine) Luxembourg border - gain protection from emigree armies and in new strong position renegotiate constitution. Artois claimed Louis was to flee France and return with Austrian army (brother in law Leopold II) and could worship as he wanted - very religiousantoinette favoured second plan.

20 Went in disguise, crowd found out morning of 21st - put house to let signs on Tuileries and send postman away with left no forwarding address Lafayette stated royals taken by enemies of the rev - bring em back to Paris Reached Varennes (30 miles short of border) Brought back to Paris in disgrace - recognised by Postmaster Drouet from King s picture on bank note! Hostile silent crowds on return- destroyed remains of his support and led to first talk of republic! Crowd extremely hostile National Guard reversed arms (funeral position) Official notices - anyone who applauds the King will be flogged, anyone who insults him will be hanged Constituent Assembly divided - thought republic meant mob rule, scared of civil war & of other European monarchies. BUT king proved unreliable & against revolution - constitutional monarchy unworkable. Confirmed Louis against Rev as he left a letter rubbishing the reforms & encouraging intervention from other nations by requesting help from Austria. 16 July 1791 Assembly voted to suspend King - split political clubs, some wanted trial for the King (radical Jacobins) moderate Jacobin majority formed Feuillant club. Champ Du Mars 17 July 1791 Organised petition meeting on Champ Du Mars meeting ground in Paris - sign petition of Cordeliers Club to depose King. 50,000 there - 2 suspected government spies discovered Paris Commune scared - declared martial law - law by army. Sent lafayette and NG to disperse crowd. He opened fire -killed 50. victory for the moderates - as split moderate / radical. Radical set back - Marat fled. Constituent Assembly disbanded time for elections of new constitution. Legislative Assembly met 1 Oct 1791 Declared all priests that had not taken the CCC oath suspect - treated as conspirators against the nation. 2nd major law was emigree s to lose property. King vetoed - more unpopular. Origins of War! April 1791 Mirabeau died - last link between assembly and King Mirabeau when dying said "I carry away with me the last shreds of the monarchy" Marseillaise - new national revolutionary anthem - written 5 days after war broke out! Originally a marching song for the Strasbourg garrison, received its name In centre was the Plain.

21 Why had Europe not acted? British sympathetic, Prussia glad to see France weakened - BUT plight of King grew - challenge to monarchy could not go - particularly for Austria (Emperor Leopold II, brother of Antoinette). Leopold II & Frederick William II of Prussia issued joint Declaration of Pillnitz - August ready to join other powers to restore Louis XVI! Antoinette desperate for war. War April everyone saw war as a solution - Lafayette etc disillusioned by rev & wants to strengthen monarchy. - Brissotins, (Girondins) believed war would strengthen revolution - expose counter revolutionaries and spread liberty to Europe. King had chosen Girondin ministers (Dumoriez as foreign minister). Only radical Jacobins against War! Francis II refused to withdraw leopold s Declaration of Pillnitz so France declared war when Leopold died and Francis - young untested came to power 20 April 1792! War approaching since previous year! Belgian campaign did not go well - Army weakened by lack noble generals, no organisation, defeated in AprilFrance in danger... By May Lafayette begging assembly to make peace.unpopular War divides nation further - nobles, non-jurors etc accused of being against France. May laws passed to deport refactory priests, disband King s Guard and set up camp for 20,000 National Guard Federes from provinces. - LOUIS VETOED! Louis seen as undermining rev Louis kept using veto to protect refactory priests & prevent camp for radical militant federes outside Paris. Sacked Girondin ministers for bad handling of war... 20th June Tuileries invaded by 8,000 - headed to Assembly first, entered carrying a calf s heart impaled on a pike with the label the heart of an aristocrat., entered Tuileries smashed down door to get to the King - who had been so depressed he had not spoken for a week.king seemed embarrassed. King stood his ground but very vulnerable - forced to wear the (Phoenician slave) red cap of liberty and to drink to its health, trapped for 2.5 hours - but would not back down on his vetoes. 28th July Brunswick Manifesto - Louis made more unpopular. Robespierre and other militants began asking for end to the monarchy - calls for a republic strengthened. 10th August 1792 MOST IMPORTANT JOURNEE OF THE REVOLUTION 20,000 attacked Tuileries- King & family had fled to the Assembly to take shelter Attackers were san culottes, National Guard and federes from other towns Only 900 swiss guards were there to resist. 600 swiss were hacked to death. 300 san culottes and 90 federes killed in most bloody journee. Most of san culottes were craftsmen etc. Consequences huge - Robespierre the most gorgeous revolution Reinhard the bloody dawn of a second revolution

22 King s authority gone and in the evening he was suspended from office. By November France was a republic. Forced Assembly to give in to Jacobins. Why? Flight to Varennes - after King kept as virtual prisoners in Tuileries, Champ du Mars, Pressure for war came from France - events were relatively welcomed! Happy france was no longer a Great Power. War revolutionised the revolution! War to defend against Reasons for the Fall of the Monarchy - try to give 9-10 King s inflexibility king s willingness to listen to wife and sister, his flight, his use of the veto, his apparent willingness to go against the revolution. Split between revolutionaries - former supporters of the King fled, radicals won support as war went badly. Economic problems, fear and hardship from war. The Birth of the Republic Marseillaise patriotic song appeared. 10th August - Journee - King imprisoned in the Temple (medieval castle previously owned by Comte d Artois) - san culotte were in control

23 Results of 10th August - New elections with universal male suffrage for a new assembly (National Convention) until they could be elected Paris Commune took control - more moderates fled Decisions taken - Refactory priests deported Emigree lands sold remaining feudal dues abolished 11th August assembly granted special power to arrest counter-revolutionaries such as refactory priests and noblemen

24 Terror and reaction, : war and terror; the Thermidorean reaction and the Directory. Section A The second bullet point relates to the six years of the Republic from the execution of the King until the coup of Brumaire 1799 and students should have an understanding of the bitter divisions within the new Republic between its supporters and opponents in Questions will not be set exclusively on foreign policy but the domestic impact of the changing fortunes of war should be studied. Students should understand how the Jacobin terror evolved and the work of the Committees of General Security and Public Safety in securing the revolution against its internal foes and invading foreign enemies in They should understand the reasons for the downfall of Robespierre and St Just and the establishment and instability of the Directory, culminating in the coup of Sieyes and Bonaparte in Danton Middle Class lawyer like many of the revolutionaries. from the provinces, scarred lip said to be due to being gored by a bull when he was sucking the teat of a cow! great orator. Dominating influence in the Cordeliers Club, after 10th August became Minister for Justice - the voice of the san culotte? He was a major controlling factor of the san culotte, and a great radical. He controlled the commune - itself more powerful than the assembly or convention would be. The voice of the revolution the Mirabeau of the mob September Massacres August onwards war went badly and grew increasingly worse Lafayette deserted to the Austrians Prussians crossed frontier after the battle at Longwy and early september had reached Verdun (last place before Paris) Danton begged for volunteers boldness, boldness again and more boldness - thousands left Paris to help the war effort - left san culotte in fear. Posters appeared To arms, citizens! The Enemy is at our gates Rumours spread that counter revolutionaries were trying to escape and hand Paris to the Prussians. Pamphlets spread The Great Treason of Louis Capet (King) - setting out the discovery of a plot to assassinate all good citizens on the 2nd-3rd sept. Jean Paul Marat (leader of the commune) called for the conspirators to be killed in his paper the people s friend Let the blood of the traitors flow March against the prisons was expected as early as 17 august - easy to get in and out, very corrupt, bribes accepted. 2nd sept pm Convoy of refactory priests attacked by a mob and killed Held kangaroo courts trying them fairly before executions (p.172 Hibbert) 2-6 September in the atmosphere of fear, rhetoric and suspicion San culottes took matters into their own hands (having been pointed in the right direction) and visited prisons, also a hospital for the poor and insane The san culotte were known septembriseurs, their women brought them food and wine to sustain them! A prisoner tried to escape up the chimney and his chaser was told if he didn t get him he would be killed in his place. They lit the fire and when he fell down (gunshots had failed to dislodge him) he was stabbed to death in the fire place. Aristocrats forced to swear an oath of loyalty while standing on a pile of corpses

25 Marie Gredeler in prison for mutilating her lover was mutilated, her breasts were cut off, feet nailed to the ground and a fire lit between her legs. dead, naked bodies used as tables and chairs. Ate bread dipped in the blood of aristocrats Princess de Lamballe had worse treatment - see Hibbert! Between of the 2600 inmates of prisons in Paris were massacred, despite the fact that the majority were common criminals and the lack of evidence for a counter revolution. This was all done by san culottes assassins. They were not ordered to stop. Girondins were disgusted and turned against jacobins and their san culotte supporters calling the san culotte buveurs de sang drinkers of blood. Massacres stopped with French victory at Valmy - saved Paris. elections had taken place during this time. 20th Sept 1792 Valmy & opening of new Convention liberty, equality & fraternity seemed to be working National Convention Majority of royalist sympathisers had vote removed - all 24 Parisian seats were given to Jacobins and republicans, Robespierre led them, supported by Jacobins from provinces (Montagnards) - the mountaineers, called so because sat in seats on high left of assembly, on high right were the Girondins, centre was moderate group - the Plain. 782 deputies mainly bgz - wanted a republic, wanted to win war and wanted enlightened reform but very suspicious of each other Jacobins supported by san culotte, and popular clubs in paris Wanted central control in Paris, Girondins supported by provinces wanted federalisation First decree 21st September 1792 Abolition of the Monarchy France was now a republic New calendar Year 1!

26 But Jacobin / Girondin differences increased and Girondins alienated Paris and san culotte and did not attempt to cultivate the Plain. Civil War in the Vendee Winter counter revolution had disappeared. BUT mass conscription and expansion of war revived it. 4 departments south of Loire - the Vendee. Why was there a revolt against the Revolution in the Vendee? Aulard - The Republic was stabbed in the back - paying more land tax under the Revolution than under the Ancien Regime - Very religious - and hated the Civil Constitution of the Clergy (1791), many non- juroring priests in the area. - Sale of Church Lands very unpopular - because they were usually bought by bourgeoisie of towns who raised rents. - Nobles, who were looked to as leaders, monarchist - Conscription proved the final straw. The Blood tax What happened? 11th March 1793 Civil War The republic in deadly peril D.G. Wright It opens the Atlantic coast to the enemy!

27 Constitutional Priests, officials and National Guard massacred. Between 60, ,000 fought against the revolution. By May the Government had to send 30,000 troops from the front - never a serious threat, ill-disciplined guerilla warfare. 1 August 1793 Convention declared TOTAL WAR on the Vendee. Mid-sept onwards Vendean troops in retreat. Huge repression - General Westermann said the Vendee no longer existed It has died beneath our sabres, together with its women and children...i have crushed the children under my horses hooves, massacred the women - they, at least will no longer give birth to any more brigands January to May 1794 troops carried out reprisals 15% of population died, 20% of buildings destroyed.

28 The war forces the machinery of terror in place. All rebels captured would be executed within 24 hours. Economic problems also hindered the govt. Assignats were over produced to raise money for the war - the value plummeted. Prices rose. Convention forced to pass some new measures for emergency war govt. The Jacobins were moving closer to the san culotte, the Plain was moving closer to the Jacobins IN ORDER TO FIGHT A WAR YOU NEED THE SUPPORT OF THE PEOPLE - if they separate from the san culottes they lost the power. 10 March -20 May 1793 Measures with the objective of 1) Watch and punish suspects 2) Make government more effective 3) Meet some of the san culottes economic demands. (The Enrages, led by Jacques Roux, only group of 5! extreme sans culotte militants demanding economic justice and food for all. Very vocal group. Roux denounced in the Convention, later killed himself.) 10th March Revolutionary Tribunal set up in Paris to try those suspected of counter revolution - an attempt to prevent a new September Massacre. Let us embody Terror so as to prevent the people from doing so Danton. Representatives -on- mission sent to each province (after Dumoriez suspicion of general) to enforce conscription. Mainly Jacobins, job was to speed up conscription Surveillance Committees set up in each commune and area to watch suspected traitors and foreigners. These passed the names to the Revolutionary Tribunal. 6th April Committee of Public Safety set up - this was to be the main instrument of Terror. Set up to supervise and oversee all ministries. Its powers were renewed monthly by the Convention. Mainly moderate - Barere, only two Jacobins (including Danton) and no Girondins. Marat Liberty must be established by violence All these measures were to address the problems with the Vendee 4th May Maximum price fixed fixed for grain, later in the month a compulsory loan was forced on the wealthy. The Trial of the King Issue of the King - the only place to strike Kings is on the head Danton. Girondins and Danton wanted to spare him BUT san culotte and Jacobins force issue On the 11th December the trial of the King for having committed various crimes to re-reestablish tyranny on the ruins of liberty Louis was kept prison in the Temple - treated badly, locked in and had all food searched. Unanimously voted guilty - had great trouble getting a defence lawyer, one declined on the grounds he was too fat. Saint Just demanded his execution, all attempts by Girondins to save him were condemned as them being royalists. Appel Nominal - all votes would be

29 called out so that traitors could be known. All voted guilty. Vote on sentence death, 319 imprisonment. 21st January 1793 his family cried so loudly they could be heard outside the Temple. Saint Just - he was executed not for what he had done but for what he was - a menace to the republic. FIRST JACOBIN VICTORY in convention. Half of the girondin leadership was now branded royalist. Expansion of War November 1792 Edict of Fraternity - extends war - declared assistance would be given to any people wishing to gain liberty, fraternity and equality by acting against the King. January 1793 claimed Natural frontiers for France - Rhine, Alps Pyrenees. - Unfortunate for Nice and Savoy in South, and Belgium and Netherlands in North. Pitt, PM in Britain very anxious - secure trading routes, and seen as key to UK security for Channel and route to India (Dutch held Cape of Good Hope & Ceylon) now Sri Lanka. French re-opening of the River Scheldt (had been closed since led to Antwerp declining, growth of London) French misunderstood British - thought the reform movement was revolutionary - was not! Also thought Britain would back down as Austrians and Prussians had done after Valmy British misunderstood - thought France was bankrupt and on verge of civil war. EACH SIDE THOUGHT WAR WOULD BE SHORT

30 Convention declared war on Britain and Holland Feb 1793, Spain in March. WAR WENT BADLY Dumoriez defeated at Neerwinden in March - he decided to march on paris, dissolve Convention, restore constitution of 1791 and the monarchy. Army refused to follow him and along with Duc de Chartres - future King deserted to Austrians. Dumoriez had been greatly supported by Girondins - further weakened their position. French lost Belgium and left bank of the Rhine - fighting in French soil again! The Terror The san culottes demanded that the revolutionary government immediately increase wages, fix prices, end food shortages, punish hoarders and most important, deal with the existence of counter-revolutionaries. In other words, and this is important to grasp, the social and economic ideas of the san culottes were politicized by the Revolution itself. CPS Only strong leadership could save the Revolution. The Committee of Public Safety assumed leadership,as a war dictatorship in April As a branch of the National

31 Convention itself, the Committee of Public Safety had broad powers which included the organization of the nation s defenses, all foreign policy, and the supervision of ministers. The Committee also ordered arrests and trials of counter-revolutionaries and imposed government authority across the nation. What is amazing is that only twelve men controlled the CPS, although the CPS was ultimately led by MAXIMILIEN ROBESPIERRE ( ). Robespierre We must smother the internal and external enemies of the Republic or perish with it; now in this situation, the first maxim of your policy ought to be to lead the people by reason and the people's enemies by terror. Expulsion of the Girondins In June 1793, factional disputes with the Convention resulted in the replacement of the Girondins with the Jacobins, a far more radical group. The Jacobins and Girondins were both liberal and bourgeois, but the Jacobins desired a centralized government (in which they would hold key positions), Paris as the national capital, and temporary government control of the economy. The Jacobin platform managed to win the support of the san culottes. The Jacobins were tightly organized, well-disciplined and convinced that they alone were responsible for saving and "managing" the Revolution from this point forward. On June 22, 1793, 80,000 armed san culottes surrounded the meeting halls of the National Convention and demanded the immediate arrest of the Girondin faction. The Convention yielded to the mob and 29 Girondin members of the Convention were arrested. A republic of Virtue The committee was among the most creative executive bodies ever seen - and rapidly put into effect policies which stabilized the French economy and began the formation of the very successful French army. It also directed it energies against counter-revolutionary uprisings, especially in the south and west of France. In doing so it unleashed the reign of terror. Here Robespierre, in his speech of February 5,1794, from which excerpts are given here, discussed this issue. The figures behind this speech indicate that in the five months

32 from September, 1793, to February 5, 1794, the revolutionary tribunal in Paris convicted and executed 238 men and 31 women and acquitted 190 persons, and that on February 5 there were 5,434 individuals in the prisons in Paris awaiting trial. Robespierre knew that a republic of virtue could not become a reality unless the threats of foreign and civil war were removed. To preserve the Republic, Robespierre and the CPS instituted the Reign of Terror - the ends would justify the means, the republic would be saved no matter the cost. Danton and Robespierre dominated the government, and personality factions emerged. The Committee of Public Safety ordered the arrests of any suspected counter revolutionaries, but required little proof. Thousands were sent to the guillotine to purify the republic. The economy was stabilised through the law of the maximum - maximum prices were set, and san culotte requisition armies were sent to annex grain for the city of Paris, to prevent speculators causing starvation through financial greed. The Terror stepped up and the Great Terror began. Suspected counter revolutionaries, priests and eventually, the Girondins were all sent to the guillotine. Thousands were killed and the Law of suspects - which lessened the burden of proof, and allowed tribunals only two verdicts - liberty or death - radicalised the Terror even further. The Cult of the Supreme Being and Reason Hebert was the most extreme san culotte leader and he was the first Jacobin victim of the Terror. Robespierre ordered his death, and that of his followers, sanctioned by the Committee of Public Safety in March Danton and Desmoulins became the most vocal critics of the prolonged Terror, stating that as the military situation had turned in France s favour and the civil war in the Vendee crushed, there was no longer any need for

33 the Terror. Robespierre. Fearing Danton was attempting to seize power he ordered them arrested and in April they went to the guillotine. In June Robespierre proclaimed the cult of the Supreme Being and a policy of dechristianising france continued with churches becoming temples of reason. France's military successes lessened the need for strong domestic measures, but Robespierre called for new purges. Fearing that the Terror would be turned against them, members of the Convention arrested Robespierre on July 27, 1794 (see Thermidor), and had him guillotined; a majority of Commune members were also executed. About 17,000 people died as a result of the Terror. The choice instrument, was the guillotine -- it was quick and humane. In 1794, there were mass executions at Lyons. Boats were fired upon and sunk at Nantes were killed in one execution. About 15,000 people perished officially and over 100,000 people were detained as suspects. Causes of the Terror - Federalist revolts - anti -jacobin revolts in provinces, Marseillaise, Lyons... Toulon invited the British in! 28th August 1793 Napoleon Bonaparte led artillery counter attack and British forced out in December. - War effort - France invaded by Austrians in North, Spanish in South - mass panic, army overhauled. Carnot organiser of victory given control Levee en masse introduced mass conscription Carnot s August 1793 Blood tax. State factories set up for arms, women and children scrape out cement for saltpeter (for gunpowder)

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