Benjamin Visscher Hole IV Phil 100, Intro to Philosophy

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Benjamin Visscher Hole IV Phil 100, Intro to Philosophy"

Transcription

1 Benjamin Visscher Hole IV Phil 100, Intro to Philosophy

2 Kantian Ethics I. Context II. The Good Will III. The Categorical Imperative: Formulation of Universal Law IV. The Categorical Imperative: Formulation of Humanity

3

4 Immanuel Kant ( ) He s technical and complex. He s enormously influential. Look to Timmons for help! was one of the most important and influential philosophers of all time. Kant made major contributions in epistemology, metaphysics, ethics, the philosophy of religion, aesthetics, and many other areas (353).

5 Bentham s source of moral salience: sentience (pleasure) Kant s source of moral salience: agency (rationality)

6 Bentham s source of moral salience: sentience Kant s source of moral salience: agency Moral Claims: empirical knowable a posteriori contingent Moral Claims: non-empirical knowable a priori necessary

7 Agents can choose what they will do; they are not amoebas pushed around by stimuli. They can make rules for themselves (call these maxims). This ability is known as autonomy.

8 HETERONOMY AUTONOMY

9

10

11 Kant s Theory of Value

12 Agency is not good without qualification Unconditional: Good without qualification / in all circumstances. Vs. Conditional: Good only with qualification / in some circumstances.

13 Kant s Theory of the Good Nothing in the world indeed nothing even beyond the worldcan possible be conceived which could be called good without qualification except a good will. By a good will, Kant means one that is motivated only by the demands of moral duty (not a will that is benevolent or generous, as the phrase is more standardly used) (353).

14 The Good The Right Good Will The Categorical Imperative

15 KANT S THREE PROPOSITIONS 1. to have moral worth an action must be done from duty 2. An action performed from duty does not have its moral worth in the purpose which is to be achieved through it but in the maxim by which it is determined. 3. Duty is the necessity of an action executed from respect for the law. From page 355

16 Persons who help or benefit others because they have a spontaneous inclination toward sympathy (or benevolence or generosity) are, like the shopkeeper, doing what they want to do and not acting out of duty; thus their actions have no real moral worth (355).

17 An act done from duty. vs. An act done merely in accordance with duty. An act done merely in accordance with duty (with sympathy/inclination). vs. An act done merely in accordance with duty (with no sympathy/inclination).

18 The person worthy of moral esteem is the one who has no desire or inclination at all to help anyone but who helps others out of moral duty alone (355).

19 Bob visits his friend in the hospital and initially the friend is very grateful until she realizes that Bob does this act because he feels that it is his duty, not because he cares for the individual in the hospital bed. Is it morally important that Bob acts out of a sense of duty? Is there something missing in his motivational set? (Adapted from Michael Stocker s Moral Schizophrenia) Huckleberry Finn helps his friend, Jim, escape slavery. As a result, Huck experiences pangs of extreme guilt. This is because he believes that he violating his duty, i.e., the racist norms of the 19 th century rural American South. Is it morally important that Huck Finn acts against his sense of duty? Is there something missing in his motivational set? (Adapted from Jonathon Bennett s The Conscience of Huckleberry Finn)

20 Kant concludes that moral value must derive from a principle of action that does not depend on any purpose or goal toward which we may have an inclination (355). Maxim: principle of volition or reason for action. Hypothetical Imperative: a maxim which assumes an end and commands an action as a means to that end; if you want x, then you ought to do y.

21 Utilitarianism Theory of value: pleasure is the only intrinsic good. Kantianism Theory of value: the good will is the only unconditional good. Right action: consequences are the sole determinate. Motivation: the agent s maxim is irrelevant to the action s moral worth. Right action: consequences are irrelevant. Motivation: the agent s maxim is the sole determinant of moral worth.

22 The Formulation of Universal Law

23 There is one categorical imperative. There are three key versions of the categorical imperative. Kant thinks that they all amount to the same thing. Act only according to that maxim by which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law of nature (357). An action is right if and only if one can (a) consistently conceive of everyone adopting and acting on the general policy of one s action, and also (b) consistently will that everyone act on that maxim (Timmons, 17).

24 Imperatives An imperative being a command of reason, holds for any rational being. Hypothetical imperatives depend on actual or possible desires (inclinations), while categorical imperatives do not (356). Hypothetical Imperative A maxim which assumes an end and commands an action as a means to that end. If you want x, then you ought to do y. E.g., If you want do to well on the Kant quiz this week, you should study very hard.

25 Imperatives An imperative being a command of reason, holds for any rational being. Hypothetical imperatives depend on actual or possible desires (inclinations), while categorical imperatives do not (356). Categorical Imperative A maxim demanding the performance of actions and the settings of ends without being conditional on any prior setting of an end. Don t do X, period! E.g., Don t torture puppies for fun, period!

26 Moral duties are imperative and apply to all rational beings as such. Therefore Moral principles are necessary. Moral principles are nonempirical / knowable a priori. Moral principles are universal: they must give the same kind of answer to each rational being placed in the same kind of situation. Categorical Imperative A maxim demanding the performance of actions and the settings of ends without being conditional on any prior setting of an end. Don t do X, period! E.g., Don t torture puppies for fun, period!

27 The Formulation An action is right if and only if one can (a) consistently conceive of everyone adopting and acting on the general policy of one s action, and also (b) consistently will that everyone act on that maxim (Timmons, 17). How does it work? Step-one: Take a maxim. Step-two: Universalize it. Step-three: Run a consistency test. Contradiction in Conception Can you conceive of a world in which this maxim is universally followed? Contradiction in Will Can you rationally will for this world to exist?

28

29 A universal law is a sentence that is always true or always followed by everyone. When you will your maxim to become universal law, formulate it is as rule or general principle, which is law-like such that any rational agent can act on it. Consistency test: you may not be able to will your maxim to become a universal law if it entails a formal contradiction A formal contradiction: holding P and not-p (e.g., a round-square). How does it work? Step-one: Take a maxim. Step-two: Universalize it. Step-three: Run a consistency test. Contradiction in Conception Can you conceive of a world in which this maxim is universally followed? Contradiction in Will Can you rationally will for this world to exist?

30 For my lie to work, I need other people to believe my lie. I thus need lies to be exceptional, and most people to tell the truth.

31 1. That most people keep their promises (so the institution of promise making exists). 2. That I don t have to keep my promise (so the institution of promise making does not exist).

32 1. You should only do those actions that conform to rules that you could will to be adopted universally. 2. If you were to make an insincere promise, you would be following the rule: when I believe myself to be in need of money, I shall borrow money and promise to repay it, even though I have no intention of repaying it. 3. This rule could not be adopted universally, because it would be self-contradicting. 4. Therefore, you ought not to make lying promises.

33 Group Exercise I eat a meal at a restaurant. After I finish, I wait until the waiter s attention is distracted, and leave without paying. I am not caught. What reasons would a Kantian give to explain why my action is morally wrong? In your answer, be sure to explain the maxim this action exemplifies, the universal law, and how the universal law entails a formal contradiction. How does it work? Step-one: Take a maxim. Step-two: Universalize it. Step-three: Run a consistency test. Contradiction in Conception Can you conceive of a world in which this maxim is universally followed? Contradiction in Will Can you rationally will for this world to exist?

34 Perfect Duties A perfect duty is one that strictly requires certain specific actions, with no choice or leeway (358). Determined by the contradiction in conception test. E.g., The lying promise Imperfect Duties an imperfect duty is one that can be fulfilled in several different ways, among which the agent may choose, and thus no one of which is strictly required (358). Determined by the contradiction in will test. E.g., The duty to render mutual aid.

35 1. You should only do those actions that conform to rules that you could will to be adopted universally. 2. If you were to refuse to aid others in need, you would be following the rule: when I believe others to be in need I will not aid them. 3. This rule could not be willed universally, because it would defeat the rational will s wider purposes. (A universal law would imply that others not help you when you are in need.) 4. Therefore, you should accept the (imperfect) duty to aid others in need.

36 The Formulation of Universal Law

37 The CI prescribes absolute moral duties and nothing else. Absolute Duty: a moral obligation that cannot be overridden. Prima Facie Duty: a moral obligation that can be overridden. Problem: You have Nazi s at your door asking, Do you know where any Jews are? Does Kant give us the right answer?

38 The Sneaky Maxim Maker Objection MacIntyre: the Categorical Imperative imposes restrictions only on those insufficiently equipped with ingenuity (A Short History of Ethics, 198). Is universalizability vacuous and conservative?

39 [Kant] fails, almost grotesquely, to show that there would be any contradiction, any logical (not to say physical) impossibility in the adoption by all rational beings of the most outrageously immoral rules of conduct All he shows is that the consequences of their universal adoption would be such as no one would choose to incur (Utilitarianism, Ch. 3). Is Kant guilty of covert consequentialism?

40 The Formulation of Humanity

41 Act so that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in that of another, always as an end and never as a means only (380). An action is right if and only if (and because) the action treats persons (including oneself) as an ends in themselves and not as a mere means (Timmons, 16).

42 Act so that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in that of another, always as an end and never as a means only (380). An action is right if and only if (and because) the action treats persons (including oneself) as an ends in themselves and not as a mere means (Timmons, 16). Clarifications mere means? Humanity = df Agency

43 Agents can choose what they will do; they are not amoebas pushed around by stimuli. They can make rules for themselves (maxims). This ability is known as autonomy.

44 HETERONOMY AUTONOMY

45 All other things in the world can be used as tools. They can be valued through their price. Agents are to be valued in a different way: they are not mere tools, and can t be valued by money. Dignity vs. Price

46

47

48 Act so that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in that of another, always as an end and never as a means only (380). Negative Aspect: never as a means Positive Aspect: always as an ends

49 Act so that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in that of another, always as an end and never as a means only (380). Negative Aspect: never as a means Standard violations: Deception Coercion Paternalism

50 Act so that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in that of another, always as an end and never as a means only (380). Positive Aspect: always as an ends Respect the ends of others!

51 Act so that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in that of another, always as an end and never as a means only (380). Interpretations: 1. Personal Tone 2. Actual Consent 3. Hypothetical Consent 4. Possible Consent *From Onora O Neil

52 Problems?

53 Problems?

54 Problems?

55 Problems?

56

57 The Happy Slave Question (about Autonomy) Is it morally permissible to (happily) consent to a life of slavery? (a)how would Kant answer this question? (b)how would Mill answer this question? (c)in your assessment, which answer is better and why?

Suppose... Kant. The Good Will. Kant Three Propositions

Suppose... Kant. The Good Will. Kant Three Propositions Suppose.... Kant You are a good swimmer and one day at the beach you notice someone who is drowning offshore. Consider the following three scenarios. Which one would Kant says exhibits a good will? Even

More information

Mill s Utilitarian Theory

Mill s Utilitarian Theory Normative Ethics Mill s Utilitarian Theory John Stuart Mill, Utilitarianism The Greatest Happiness Principle holds that actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they

More information

Kant s Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals

Kant s Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals Kant s Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals G. J. Mattey Spring, 2017/ Philosophy 1 The Division of Philosophical Labor Kant generally endorses the ancient Greek division of philosophy into

More information

Deontology: Duty-Based Ethics IMMANUEL KANT

Deontology: Duty-Based Ethics IMMANUEL KANT Deontology: Duty-Based Ethics IMMANUEL KANT KANT S OBJECTIONS TO UTILITARIANISM: 1. Utilitarianism takes no account of integrity - the accidental act or one done with evil intent if promoting good ends

More information

Duty and Categorical Rules. Immanuel Kant Introduction to Ethics, PHIL 118 Professor Douglas Olena

Duty and Categorical Rules. Immanuel Kant Introduction to Ethics, PHIL 118 Professor Douglas Olena Duty and Categorical Rules Immanuel Kant Introduction to Ethics, PHIL 118 Professor Douglas Olena Preview This selection from Kant includes: The description of the Good Will The concept of Duty An introduction

More information

Categorical Imperative by. Kant

Categorical Imperative by. Kant Categorical Imperative by Dr. Desh Raj Sirswal Assistant Professor (Philosophy), P.G.Govt. College for Girls, Sector-11, Chandigarh http://drsirswal.webs.com Kant Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant (1724 1804)

More information

Humanities 4: Lectures Kant s Ethics

Humanities 4: Lectures Kant s Ethics Humanities 4: Lectures 17-19 Kant s Ethics 1 Method & Questions Purpose and Method: Transition from Common Sense to Philosophical Understanding of Morality Analysis of everyday moral concepts Main Questions:

More information

Summary of Kant s Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals

Summary of Kant s Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals Summary of Kant s Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals Version 1.1 Richard Baron 2 October 2016 1 Contents 1 Introduction 3 1.1 Availability and licence............ 3 2 Definitions of key terms 4 3

More information

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF THE METAPHYSIC OF MORALS. by Immanuel Kant

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF THE METAPHYSIC OF MORALS. by Immanuel Kant FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF THE METAPHYSIC OF MORALS SECOND SECTION by Immanuel Kant TRANSITION FROM POPULAR MORAL PHILOSOPHY TO THE METAPHYSIC OF MORALS... This principle, that humanity and generally every

More information

Lecture 12 Deontology. Onora O Neill A Simplified Account of Kant s Ethics

Lecture 12 Deontology. Onora O Neill A Simplified Account of Kant s Ethics Lecture 12 Deontology Onora O Neill A Simplified Account of Kant s Ethics 1 Agenda 1. Immanuel Kant 2. Deontology 3. Hypothetical vs. Categorical Imperatives 4. Formula of the End in Itself 5. Maxims and

More information

Kant. Deontological Ethics

Kant. Deontological Ethics Kant 1 Deontological Ethics An action's moral value is determined by the nature of the action itself and the agent's motive DE contrasts with Utilitarianism which says that the goal or consequences of

More information

Deontological Ethics. Kant. Rules for Kant. Right Action

Deontological Ethics. Kant. Rules for Kant. Right Action Deontological Ethics Kant An action's moral value is determined by the nature of the action itself and the agent's motive DE contrasts with Utilitarianism which says that the goal or consequences of an

More information

KANT, MORAL DUTY AND THE DEMANDS OF PURE PRACTICAL REASON. The law is reason unaffected by desire.

KANT, MORAL DUTY AND THE DEMANDS OF PURE PRACTICAL REASON. The law is reason unaffected by desire. KANT, MORAL DUTY AND THE DEMANDS OF PURE PRACTICAL REASON The law is reason unaffected by desire. Aristotle, Politics Book III (1287a32) THE BIG IDEAS TO MASTER Kantian formalism Kantian constructivism

More information

Hello again. Today we re gonna continue our discussions of Kant s ethics.

Hello again. Today we re gonna continue our discussions of Kant s ethics. PHI 110 Lecture 29 1 Hello again. Today we re gonna continue our discussions of Kant s ethics. Last time we talked about the good will and Kant defined the good will as the free rational will which acts

More information

DEONTOLOGICAL ETHICS

DEONTOLOGICAL ETHICS DEONTOLOGICAL ETHICS In ethical theories, if we mainly focus on the action itself, then we use deontological ethics (also known as deontology or duty ethics). In duty ethics, an action is morally right

More information

Kantian Deontology - Part Two

Kantian Deontology - Part Two Kantian Deontology - Part Two Immanuel Kant s Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals Nathan Kellen University of Connecticut October 1st, 2015 Table of Contents Hypothetical Categorical The Universal

More information

Introduction to Philosophy Philosophy 110W Fall 2013 Russell Marcus

Introduction to Philosophy Philosophy 110W Fall 2013 Russell Marcus Introduction to Philosophy Philosophy 110W Fall 2013 Russell Marcus Class 28 -Kantian Ethics Marcus, Introduction to Philosophy, Slide 1 The Good Will P It is impossible to conceive anything at all in

More information

Kant's Moral Philosophy

Kant's Moral Philosophy Kant's Moral Philosophy I. Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals (178.5)- Immanuel Kant A. Aims I. '7o seek out and establish the supreme principle of morality." a. To provide a rational basis for morality.

More information

Lecture 6 Workable Ethical Theories I. Based on slides 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley

Lecture 6 Workable Ethical Theories I. Based on slides 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Lecture 6 Workable Ethical Theories I Participation Quiz Pick an answer between A E at random. What answer (A E) do you think will have been selected most frequently in the previous poll? Recap: Unworkable

More information

(naturalistic fallacy)

(naturalistic fallacy) 1 2 19 general questions about the nature of morality and about the meaning of moral concepts determining what the ethical principles of guiding the actions (truth and opinion) the metaphysical question

More information

[Forthcoming in The International Encyclopedia of Ethics, ed. Hugh LaFollette. (Oxford: Blackwell), 2012] Imperatives, Categorical and Hypothetical

[Forthcoming in The International Encyclopedia of Ethics, ed. Hugh LaFollette. (Oxford: Blackwell), 2012] Imperatives, Categorical and Hypothetical [Forthcoming in The International Encyclopedia of Ethics, ed. Hugh LaFollette. (Oxford: Blackwell), 2012] Imperatives, Categorical and Hypothetical Samuel J. Kerstein Ethicists distinguish between categorical

More information

Introduction to Philosophy Philosophy 110W Spring 2011 Russell Marcus

Introduction to Philosophy Philosophy 110W Spring 2011 Russell Marcus Introduction to Philosophy Philosophy 110W Spring 2011 Russell Marcus Class 26 - April 27 Kantian Ethics Marcus, Introduction to Philosophy, Slide 1 Mill s Defense of Utilitarianism P People desire happiness.

More information

Ethical Theories. A (Very) Brief Introduction

Ethical Theories. A (Very) Brief Introduction Ethical Theories A (Very) Brief Introduction Last time, a definition Ethics: The discipline that deals with right and wrong, good and bad, especially with respect to human conduct. Well, for one thing,

More information

KANTIAN ETHICS (Dan Gaskill)

KANTIAN ETHICS (Dan Gaskill) KANTIAN ETHICS (Dan Gaskill) German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) was an opponent of utilitarianism. Basic Summary: Kant, unlike Mill, believed that certain types of actions (including murder,

More information

Deontology. Immanuel Kant ( ) Founder of Deontology

Deontology. Immanuel Kant ( ) Founder of Deontology Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) Founder of Deontology The right act is that which is in accordance with the correct moral rule (GK. deon) or principle (Kant calls these maxims ) Rejects hedonism Rejects consequentialism

More information

Kant The Grounding of the Metaphysics of Morals (excerpts) 1 PHIL101 Prof. Oakes. Section IV: What is it worth? Reading IV.2.

Kant The Grounding of the Metaphysics of Morals (excerpts) 1 PHIL101 Prof. Oakes. Section IV: What is it worth? Reading IV.2. Kant The Grounding of the Metaphysics of Morals (excerpts) 1 PHIL101 Prof. Oakes Section IV: What is it worth? Reading IV.2 Kant s analysis of the good differs in scope from Aristotle s in two ways. In

More information

CMSI Handout 3 Courtesy of Marcello Antosh

CMSI Handout 3 Courtesy of Marcello Antosh CMSI Handout 3 Courtesy of Marcello Antosh 1 Terminology Maxims (again) General form: Agent will do action A in order to achieve purpose P (optional: because of reason R). Examples: Britney Spears will

More information

Deontology: Duty-Based Ethics IMMANUEL KANT

Deontology: Duty-Based Ethics IMMANUEL KANT Deontology: Duty-Based Ethics IMMANUEL KANT A NOTE ON READING KANT Lord Macaulay once recorded in his diary a memorable attempt his first and apparently his last to read Kant s Critique: I received today

More information

Backward Looking Theories, Kant and Deontology

Backward Looking Theories, Kant and Deontology Backward Looking Theories, Kant and Deontology Study Guide Forward v. Backward Looking Theories Kant Goodwill Duty Categorical Imperative For Next Time: Rawls, Selections from A Theory of Justice Study

More information

-- did you get a message welcoming you to the cours reflector? If not, please correct what s needed.

-- did you get a message welcoming you to the cours reflector? If not, please correct what s needed. 1 -- did you get a message welcoming you to the coursemail reflector? If not, please correct what s needed. 2 -- don t use secondary material from the web, as its quality is variable; cf. Wikipedia. Check

More information

Chapter 2 Normative Theories of Ethics

Chapter 2 Normative Theories of Ethics Chapter 2 Normative Theories of Ethics MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Consequentialism a. is best represented by Ross's theory of ethics. b. states that sometimes the consequences of our actions can be morally relevant.

More information

IMMANUEL KANT Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals [Edited and reduced by J. Bulger, Ph.D.]

IMMANUEL KANT Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals [Edited and reduced by J. Bulger, Ph.D.] IMMANUEL KANT Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals [Edited and reduced by J. Bulger, Ph.D.] PREFACE 1. Kant defines rational knowledge as being composed of two parts, the Material and Formal. 2. Formal

More information

24.02 Moral Problems and the Good Life

24.02 Moral Problems and the Good Life MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu 24.02 Moral Problems and the Good Life Fall 2008 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms. Three Moral Theories

More information

In-Class Kant Review Dialogue 1

In-Class Kant Review Dialogue 1 1 Kant Review Dialogue 1 Micah Tillman 05 April, 2010, slightly revised 18 March, 2011 Tedrick: Hey Kant! In-Class Kant Review Dialogue 1 Why, hello there Fredward. Tedrick: It s Tedrick. Fredward is my

More information

Peter Bornedal, General Lecture, 203. Copyright (C) by P. Bornedal

Peter Bornedal, General Lecture, 203. Copyright (C) by P. Bornedal Peter Bornedal, General Lecture, 203 Immanuel Kant Kant lived in the Prussian city Königsberg his entire life. He never traveled, and is famous for his methodic and rigorous lifestyle and high work ethics.

More information

Lecture 6 Kantianism. Based on slides 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley

Lecture 6 Kantianism. Based on slides 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Lecture 6 Kantianism Participation Quiz Pick an answer between A E at random. What answer (A E) do you think will have been selected most frequently in the previous poll? Recap: Unworkable Ethical Theories

More information

NOTE ON KANT'S GROUNDWORK, PP PHILOSOPHY 13 FALL, 2004 Dick Arneson

NOTE ON KANT'S GROUNDWORK, PP PHILOSOPHY 13 FALL, 2004 Dick Arneson 1 NOTE ON KANT'S GROUNDWORK, PP. 1-40 PHILOSOPHY 13 FALL, 2004 Dick Arneson SECTION I. Kant argues in this section to the conclusion that we believe that we are bound by the categorical imperative. That

More information

Kant, Deontology, & Respect for Persons

Kant, Deontology, & Respect for Persons Kant, Deontology, & Respect for Persons Some Possibly Helpful Terminology Normative moral theories can be categorized according to whether the theory is primarily focused on judgments of value or judgments

More information

Quiz 1. Criticisms of consequentialism and Kant. Consequentialism and Nonconsequentialism. Consequentialism in practice. Must Choose Best Possible Act

Quiz 1. Criticisms of consequentialism and Kant. Consequentialism and Nonconsequentialism. Consequentialism in practice. Must Choose Best Possible Act Quiz 1 (Out of 4 points; 5 points possible) Ethical Theory (continued) In one clear sentence, state one of the criticisms of consequentialism discussed in the course pack. (up to 2 bonus points): In one

More information

Philosophy 110W: Introduction to Philosophy Spring 2011 Class 26 - April 29 Kantian Ethics. Hamilton College Russell Marcus

Philosophy 110W: Introduction to Philosophy Spring 2011 Class 26 - April 29 Kantian Ethics. Hamilton College Russell Marcus Philosophy 110W: Introduction to Philosophy Spring 2011 Class 26 - April 29 Kantian Ethics Hamilton College Russell Marcus I. Good Will, Duty, and Inclination The core claim of utilitarianism is that the

More information

Lecture 6 Workable Ethical Theories I. Based on slides 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley

Lecture 6 Workable Ethical Theories I. Based on slides 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Lecture 6 Workable Ethical Theories I Participation Quiz Pick an answer between A E at random. (thanks to Rodrigo for suggesting this quiz) Ethical Egoism Achievement of your happiness is the only moral

More information

Ethical Theory. Ethical Theory. Consequentialism in practice. How do we get the numbers? Must Choose Best Possible Act

Ethical Theory. Ethical Theory. Consequentialism in practice. How do we get the numbers? Must Choose Best Possible Act Consequentialism and Nonconsequentialism Ethical Theory Utilitarianism (Consequentialism) in Practice Criticisms of Consequentialism Kant Consequentialism The only thing that determines the morality of

More information

Deontological Ethics

Deontological Ethics Deontological Ethics From Jane Eyre, the end of Chapter XXVII: (Mr. Rochester is the first speaker) And what a distortion in your judgment, what a perversity in your ideas, is proved by your conduct! Is

More information

FINAL EXAM SHORT-ANSWER QUESTIONS PHILOSOPHY 13 FALL, 2004

FINAL EXAM SHORT-ANSWER QUESTIONS PHILOSOPHY 13 FALL, 2004 1 FINAL EXAM SHORT-ANSWER QUESTIONS PHILOSOPHY 13 FALL, 2004 Your name Your TA s name Time allowed: one and one-half hours. This section of the exam counts for one-half of your exam grade. No use of books

More information

Socratic Ideas AUTHOR: JOHN WATERS

Socratic Ideas AUTHOR: JOHN WATERS KANTIAN ETHICS A DEFINITION OF KANTIAN ETHICS: A person who acts out of a sense of the good will, following reason, which is a priori (innate); doing duty for duty s sake and so acting according to the

More information

An Epistemological Assessment of Moral Worth in Kant s Moral Theory. Immanuel Kant s moral theory outlined in The Grounding for the Metaphysics of

An Epistemological Assessment of Moral Worth in Kant s Moral Theory. Immanuel Kant s moral theory outlined in The Grounding for the Metaphysics of An Epistemological Assessment of Moral Worth in Kant s Moral Theory Immanuel Kant s moral theory outlined in The Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals (hereafter Grounding) presents us with the metaphysical

More information

Download: Two clips from Star Trek. The needs of the many and The needs of the one found in Course Content Kant folder.

Download: Two clips from Star Trek. The needs of the many and The needs of the one found in Course Content Kant folder. TOPIC: Philosophy 1000 Lecture Introduction to Kant s deontology of Categorical Imperatives. KEY TERMS/ GOALS: Conformity with duty vs. motive from duty. Deontology. Kant s focus on agent s motives rather

More information

PHI 1700: Global Ethics

PHI 1700: Global Ethics PHI 1700: Global Ethics Session 13 March 22 nd, 2016 O Neill, A Simplified Account of Kant s Ethics So far in this unit, we ve seen many different ways of judging right/wrong actions: Aristotle s virtue

More information

Altruism. A selfless concern for other people purely for their own sake. Altruism is usually contrasted with selfishness or egoism in ethics.

Altruism. A selfless concern for other people purely for their own sake. Altruism is usually contrasted with selfishness or egoism in ethics. GLOSSARY OF ETHIC TERMS Absolutism. The belief that there is one and only one truth; those who espouse absolutism usually also believe that they know what this absolute truth is. In ethics, absolutism

More information

Some Ethical Theories

Some Ethical Theories Some Ethical Theories Some Distinctions Ethical principles can be categorized according to whether they take judgments of value or judgments of obligation to be primary 1 I. Species of Moral Judgment I.

More information

Computer Ethics. Normative Ethics Ethical Theories. Viola Schiaffonati October 4 th 2018

Computer Ethics. Normative Ethics Ethical Theories. Viola Schiaffonati October 4 th 2018 Normative Ethics Ethical Theories Viola Schiaffonati October 4 th 2018 Overview (van de Poel and Royakkers 2011) 2 Ethical theories Relativism and absolutism Consequentialist approaches: utilitarianism

More information

Chapter 2 Reasoning about Ethics

Chapter 2 Reasoning about Ethics Chapter 2 Reasoning about Ethics TRUE/FALSE 1. The statement "nearly all Americans believe that individual liberty should be respected" is a normative claim. F This is a statement about people's beliefs;

More information

To link to this article:

To link to this article: This article was downloaded by: [University of Chicago Library] On: 24 May 2013, At: 08:10 Publisher: Routledge Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office:

More information

Unifying the Categorical Imperative* Marcus Arvan University of Tampa

Unifying the Categorical Imperative* Marcus Arvan University of Tampa Unifying the Categorical Imperative* Marcus Arvan University of Tampa [T]he concept of freedom constitutes the keystone of the whole structure of a system of pure reason [and] this idea reveals itself

More information

Tuesday, September 2, Idealism

Tuesday, September 2, Idealism Idealism Enlightenment Puzzle How do these fit into a scientific picture of the world? Norms Necessity Universality Mind Idealism The dominant 19th-century response: often today called anti-realism Everything

More information

Kantianism: Objections and Replies Keith Burgess-Jackson 12 March 2017

Kantianism: Objections and Replies Keith Burgess-Jackson 12 March 2017 Kantianism: Objections and Replies Keith Burgess-Jackson 12 March 2017 Kantianism (K): 1 For all acts x, x is right iff (i) the maxim of x is universalizable (i.e., the agent can will that the maxim of

More information

GS SCORE ETHICS - A - Z. Notes

GS SCORE ETHICS - A - Z.   Notes ETHICS - A - Z Absolutism Act-utilitarianism Agent-centred consideration Agent-neutral considerations : This is the view, with regard to a moral principle or claim, that it holds everywhere and is never

More information

2 FREE CHOICE The heretical thesis of Hobbes is the orthodox position today. So much is this the case that most of the contemporary literature

2 FREE CHOICE The heretical thesis of Hobbes is the orthodox position today. So much is this the case that most of the contemporary literature Introduction The philosophical controversy about free will and determinism is perennial. Like many perennial controversies, this one involves a tangle of distinct but closely related issues. Thus, the

More information

SUMMARIES AND TEST QUESTIONS UNIT 6

SUMMARIES AND TEST QUESTIONS UNIT 6 SUMMARIES AND TEST QUESTIONS UNIT 6 Textbook: Louis P. Pojman, Editor. Philosophy: The quest for truth. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. ISBN-10: 0199697310; ISBN-13: 9780199697311 (6th Edition)

More information

Making Decisions on Behalf of Others: Who or What Do I Select as a Guide? A Dilemma: - My boss. - The shareholders. - Other stakeholders

Making Decisions on Behalf of Others: Who or What Do I Select as a Guide? A Dilemma: - My boss. - The shareholders. - Other stakeholders Making Decisions on Behalf of Others: Who or What Do I Select as a Guide? - My boss - The shareholders - Other stakeholders - Basic principles about conduct and its impacts - What is good for me - What

More information

PHIL%13:%Ethics;%Fall%2012% David%O.%Brink;%UCSD% Syllabus% Part%I:%Challenges%to%Moral%Theory 1.%Relativism%and%Tolerance.

PHIL%13:%Ethics;%Fall%2012% David%O.%Brink;%UCSD% Syllabus% Part%I:%Challenges%to%Moral%Theory 1.%Relativism%and%Tolerance. Draftof8)27)12 PHIL%13:%Ethics;%Fall%2012% David%O.%Brink;%UCSD% Syllabus% Hereisalistoftopicsandreadings.Withinatopic,dothereadingsintheorderinwhich theyarelisted.readingsaredrawnfromthethreemaintexts

More information

Kantian Deontology. A2 Ethics Revision Notes Page 1 of 7. Paul Nicholls 13P Religious Studies

Kantian Deontology. A2 Ethics Revision Notes Page 1 of 7. Paul Nicholls 13P Religious Studies A2 Ethics Revision Notes Page 1 of 7 Kantian Deontology Deontological (based on duty) ethical theory established by Emmanuel Kant in The Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals. Part of the enlightenment

More information

A Categorical Imperative. An Introduction to Deontological Ethics

A Categorical Imperative. An Introduction to Deontological Ethics A Categorical Imperative An Introduction to Deontological Ethics Better Consequences, Better Action? More specifically, the better the consequences the better the action from a moral point of view? Compare:

More information

From the Categorical Imperative to the Moral Law

From the Categorical Imperative to the Moral Law From the Categorical Imperative to the Moral Law Marianne Vahl Master Thesis in Philosophy Supervisor Olav Gjelsvik Department of Philosophy, Classics, History of Arts and Ideas UNIVERSITY OF OSLO May

More information

Sidgwick on Practical Reason

Sidgwick on Practical Reason Sidgwick on Practical Reason ONORA O NEILL 1. How many methods? IN THE METHODS OF ETHICS Henry Sidgwick distinguishes three methods of ethics but (he claims) only two conceptions of practical reason. This

More information

Do you have a self? Who (what) are you? PHL 221, York College Revised, Spring 2014

Do you have a self? Who (what) are you? PHL 221, York College Revised, Spring 2014 Do you have a self? Who (what) are you? PHL 221, York College Revised, Spring 2014 Origins of the concept of self What makes it move? Pneuma ( wind ) and Psyche ( breath ) life-force What is beyond-the-physical?

More information

Teleological: telos ( end, goal ) What is the telos of human action? What s wrong with living for pleasure? For power and public reputation?

Teleological: telos ( end, goal ) What is the telos of human action? What s wrong with living for pleasure? For power and public reputation? 1. Do you have a self? Who (what) are you? PHL 221, York College Revised, Spring 2014 2. Origins of the concept of self What makes it move? Pneuma ( wind ) and Psyche ( breath ) life-force What is beyond-the-physical?

More information

Autonomous Machines Are Ethical

Autonomous Machines Are Ethical Autonomous Machines Are Ethical John Hooker Carnegie Mellon University INFORMS 2017 1 Thesis Concepts of deontological ethics are ready-made for the age of AI. Philosophical concept of autonomy applies

More information

38 Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals. [Ak 4:422] [Ak4:421]

38 Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals. [Ak 4:422] [Ak4:421] 38 Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals [Ak 4:422] [Ak4:421] what one calls duty is an empty concept, we can at least indicate what we are thinking in the concept of duty and what this concept means.

More information

Chapter 2: Reasoning about ethics

Chapter 2: Reasoning about ethics Chapter 2: Reasoning about ethics 2012 Cengage Learning All Rights reserved Learning Outcomes LO 1 Explain how important moral reasoning is and how to apply it. LO 2 Explain the difference between facts

More information

Definitions: Values and Moral Values

Definitions: Values and Moral Values Definitions: Values and Moral Values 1. Values those things that we care about; those things that matter to us; those goals or ideals to which we aspire and by which we measure ourselves and others in

More information

Foundations of Bioethics

Foundations of Bioethics introductory lectures in bioethics Foundations of Bioethics Paul Menzel Pacific Lutheran University (philosophy, emeritus) Visiting Professor of Bioethics, CUHK 17 October 2015 Centre for Bioethics, CUHK

More information

Introduction to Ethics

Introduction to Ethics Introduction to Ethics Auburn University Department of Philosophy PHIL 1020 Fall Semester, 2015 Syllabus Instructor: Email: Version 1.0. The schedule of readings is subject to revision. Students are responsible

More information

THE NATURE OF NORMATIVITY IN KANT S PHILOSOPHY OF LOGIC REBECCA V. MILLSOP S

THE NATURE OF NORMATIVITY IN KANT S PHILOSOPHY OF LOGIC REBECCA V. MILLSOP S THE NATURE OF NORMATIVITY IN KANT S PHILOSOPHY OF LOGIC REBECCA V. MILLSOP S I. INTRODUCTION Immanuel Kant claims that logic is constitutive of thought: without [the laws of logic] we would not think at

More information

Groundwork for the Metaphysic of Morals

Groundwork for the Metaphysic of Morals Groundwork for the Metaphysic of Morals Immanuel Kant Copyright 2010 2015 All rights reserved. Jonathan Bennett [Brackets] enclose editorial explanations. Small dots enclose material that has been added,

More information

HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE GREATEST GOOD. Bill Rhodes, Ph.D. Christopher Wren Association

HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE GREATEST GOOD. Bill Rhodes, Ph.D. Christopher Wren Association HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE GREATEST GOOD Bill Rhodes, Ph.D. Christopher Wren Association Philosophy Love of wisdom One (rough) way to get located Natural what is (no praise or blame) Moral what ought to be (conscience)

More information

Happiness and Personal Growth: Dial.

Happiness and Personal Growth: Dial. TitleKant's Concept of Happiness: Within Author(s) Hirose, Yuzo Happiness and Personal Growth: Dial Citation Philosophy, Psychology, and Compara 43-49 Issue Date 2010-03-31 URL http://hdl.handle.net/2433/143022

More information

Dignity, Contractualism and Consequentialism

Dignity, Contractualism and Consequentialism Dignity, Contractualism and Consequentialism DAVID CUMMISKEY Bates College Kantian respect for persons is based on the special status and dignity of humanity. There are, however, at least three distinct

More information

Duty Based Ethics. Ethics unit 3

Duty Based Ethics. Ethics unit 3 Duty Based Ethics Ethics unit 3 Divine command as a source of duty Stems from the monotheistic (Judeo/Christian/ Islamic) tradition An act is good if it is commanded by God, bad if it is forbidden by God.

More information

Introduction to Cognitivism; Motivational Externalism; Naturalist Cognitivism

Introduction to Cognitivism; Motivational Externalism; Naturalist Cognitivism Introduction to Cognitivism; Motivational Externalism; Naturalist Cognitivism Felix Pinkert 103 Ethics: Metaethics, University of Oxford, Hilary Term 2015 Cognitivism, Non-cognitivism, and the Humean Argument

More information

Tools Andrew Black CS 305 1

Tools Andrew Black CS 305 1 Tools Andrew Black CS 305 1 Critical Thinking Everyone thinks, all the time Why Critical Thinking? Much of our thinking is biased, distorted, partial, uninformed, or down-right prejudiced. This costs us

More information

Ethics Prof. Vineet Sahu Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology-Kanpur

Ethics Prof. Vineet Sahu Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology-Kanpur Ethics Prof. Vineet Sahu Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology-Kanpur Module No. #01 Lecture No. #08 Deontological Theories Immanuel Kant Now, continuing to talk about,

More information

Computer Ethics. Normative Ethics and Normative Argumentation. Viola Schiaffonati October 10 th 2017

Computer Ethics. Normative Ethics and Normative Argumentation. Viola Schiaffonati October 10 th 2017 Normative Ethics and Normative Argumentation Viola Schiaffonati October 10 th 2017 Overview (van de Poel and Royakkers 2011) 2 Some essential concepts Ethical theories Relativism and absolutism Consequentialist

More information

Normative Ethical Theories

Normative Ethical Theories Normative Ethical Theories I. Normative Ethics A Normative Ethical Theory is a philosophical theory about the fundamental principles of morality. A fundamental principle of morality is a moral obligation

More information

A Review on What Is This Thing Called Ethics? by Christopher Bennett * ** 1

A Review on What Is This Thing Called Ethics? by Christopher Bennett * ** 1 310 Book Review Book Review ISSN (Print) 1225-4924, ISSN (Online) 2508-3104 Catholic Theology and Thought, Vol. 79, July 2017 http://dx.doi.org/10.21731/ctat.2017.79.310 A Review on What Is This Thing

More information

The Role of Love in the Thought of Kant and Kierkegaard

The Role of Love in the Thought of Kant and Kierkegaard Philosophy of Religion The Role of Love in the Thought of Kant and Kierkegaard Daryl J. Wennemann Fontbonne College dwennema@fontbonne.edu ABSTRACT: Following Ronald Green's suggestion concerning Kierkegaard's

More information

acting on principle onora o neill has written extensively on ethics and political philosophy

acting on principle onora o neill has written extensively on ethics and political philosophy acting on principle Two things, wrote Kant, fill the mind with ever new and increasing admiration and awe: the starry heavens above and the moral law within. Many would argue that since Kant s day the

More information

Moral Theory. What makes things right or wrong?

Moral Theory. What makes things right or wrong? Moral Theory What makes things right or wrong? Consider: Moral Disagreement We have disagreements about right and wrong, about how people ought or ought not act. When we do, we (sometimes!) reason with

More information

Is Morality Rational?

Is Morality Rational? PHILOSOPHY 431 Is Morality Rational? Topic #3 Betsy Spring 2010 Kant claims that violations of the categorical imperative are irrational acts. This paper discusses that claim. Page 2 of 6 In Groundwork

More information

PHIL1010: PHILOSOPHICAL ETHICS FORDHAM UNIVERSITY PROFESSOR ROBIN MULLER M/TH: 8:30 9:45AM OFFICE HOURS: BY APPOINTMENT

PHIL1010: PHILOSOPHICAL ETHICS FORDHAM UNIVERSITY PROFESSOR ROBIN MULLER M/TH: 8:30 9:45AM   OFFICE HOURS: BY APPOINTMENT PHIL1010: PHILOSOPHICAL ETHICS FORDHAM UNIVERSITY PROFESSOR ROBIN MULLER M/TH: 8:30 9:45AM EMAIL: ROBIN.MULLER@GMAIL.COM OFFICE HOURS: BY APPOINTMENT COURSE DESCRIPTION This class is an introduction to

More information

Evaluating actions The principle of utility Strengths Criticisms Act vs. rule

Evaluating actions The principle of utility Strengths Criticisms Act vs. rule UTILITARIAN ETHICS Evaluating actions The principle of utility Strengths Criticisms Act vs. rule A dilemma You are a lawyer. You have a client who is an old lady who owns a big house. She tells you that

More information

Short Answers: Answer the following questions in one paragraph (each is worth 5 points).

Short Answers: Answer the following questions in one paragraph (each is worth 5 points). HU2700 Spring 2008 Midterm Exam Answer Key There are two sections: a short answer section worth 25 points and an essay section worth 75 points. No materials (books, notes, outlines, fellow classmates,

More information

The Impossibility of Evil Qua Evil: Kantian Limitations on Human Immorality

The Impossibility of Evil Qua Evil: Kantian Limitations on Human Immorality Georgia State University ScholarWorks @ Georgia State University Philosophy Theses Department of Philosophy 7-31-2006 The Impossibility of Evil Qua Evil: Kantian Limitations on Human Immorality Timothy

More information

Many Faces of Virtue. University of Toronto. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research

Many Faces of Virtue. University of Toronto. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research Philosophy and Phenomenological Research Philosophy and Phenomenological Research Vol. LXXXIX No. 2, September 2014 doi: 10.1111/phpr.12140 2014 Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, LLC Many Faces

More information

7/31/2017. Kant and Our Ineradicable Desire to be God

7/31/2017. Kant and Our Ineradicable Desire to be God Radical Evil Kant and Our Ineradicable Desire to be God 1 Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) Kant indeed marks the end of the Enlightenment: he brought its most fundamental assumptions concerning the powers of

More information

LYING TEACHER S NOTES

LYING TEACHER S NOTES TEACHER S NOTES INTRO Each student has to choose one of the following topics. The other students have to ask questions on that topic. During the discussion, the student has to lie once. The other students

More information

Philosophical Review.

Philosophical Review. Philosophical Review Morality as a System of Hypothetical Imperatives Author(s): Philippa Foot Source: The Philosophical Review, Vol. 81, No. 3 (Jul., 1972), pp. 305-316 Published by: Duke University Press

More information

Chapter 3 PHILOSOPHICAL ETHICS AND BUSINESS CHAPTER OBJECTIVES. After exploring this chapter, you will be able to:

Chapter 3 PHILOSOPHICAL ETHICS AND BUSINESS CHAPTER OBJECTIVES. After exploring this chapter, you will be able to: Chapter 3 PHILOSOPHICAL ETHICS AND BUSINESS MGT604 CHAPTER OBJECTIVES After exploring this chapter, you will be able to: 1. Explain the ethical framework of utilitarianism. 2. Describe how utilitarian

More information

Modern Deontological Theory: Rawlsian Deontology

Modern Deontological Theory: Rawlsian Deontology Modern Deontological Theory: Rawlsian Deontology John Rawls A Theory of Justice Nathan Kellen University of Connecticut February 26th, 2015 Table of Contents Preliminary Notes Preliminaries Two Principles

More information

AUTONOMY, TAKING ONE S CHOICES TO BE GOOD, AND PRACTICAL LAW: REPLIES TO CRITICS

AUTONOMY, TAKING ONE S CHOICES TO BE GOOD, AND PRACTICAL LAW: REPLIES TO CRITICS Philosophical Books Vol. 49 No. 2 April 2008 pp. 125 137 AUTONOMY, TAKING ONE S CHOICES TO BE GOOD, AND PRACTICAL LAW: REPLIES TO CRITICS andrews reath The University of California, Riverside I Several

More information