Perestroika Began in Prague

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Perestroika Began in Prague"

Transcription

1 Perestroika Began in Prague Interview with Yevgeny Ambartsumov Part I Y evgeny Ambartsumov served as an adviser to Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev on issues of reforming foreign relations. He lived in Czechoslovakia ( ), where he was an editor of the journal Problems of Peace and Socialism, working alongside several other figures who were to later impact Soviet reforms in the 1980s. After returning to Moscow, he held positions at various Soviet institutions, including the Institute of World Economy and International Relations (IMEMO) and the Institute of Sociology. Ambartsumov already had some notoriety inside the Soviet system for critical thinking on ideology when he was invited to help write the first drafts of Gorbachev s book Perestroika: New Thinking for Our Country and the World (first published in 1987). Among those in Gorbachev s inner circle, he was one of the first to openly declare an end to the Brezhnev Doctrine, shortly before the collapse of the Eastern European allied regimes in He was elected to the Congress of People s Deputies of the Russian Federation in 1990, and served as chairman of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the Supreme Soviet. He also served in the Presidential Council of President Boris Yeltsin. Ambartsumov then served as Russian ambassador to Mexico ( ), where he now lives in retirement. His wife, Nina Ambartsumova, also participated in this interview. The interview was conducted in Russian and Spanish on March 19, 2006 by Fredo Arias-King in Tepozotlán, Mexico. English translation by Viktoria Stepanyuk. Ambartsumov: I kept my Russian citizenship and my Mexican one as well. Demokratizatsiya: I believe there is a way to keep both citizenships, unlike before. Though there is a danger that if [leftist presidential candidate Andrés Manuel López] Obrador wins, many of these small liberties will be cancelled. [Editor s note: Felipe Calderón, of the National Action Party, won Mexico s July 2, 2006 presidential election. He is still in office.] Ambartsumov: I like that he is from the left, because I was always even though I left the Communist Party in my time I always considered myself as a leftist, a social democrat. Demokratizatsiya: But is [López Obrador] a social democrat, or he is just part of the illiberal left? Ambartsumov: He is not social democratic, but he is on the left, and the main difference is that he is, in contrast to [former Mexican president Carlos] Salinas, for example, a man of the people. 373

2 374 Demokratizatsiya Demokratizatsiya: But he was actually one of Salinas s people before. Ambartsumov: Once, maybe. Demokratizatsiya: Yes, he was. I was reading recently how he praised Salinas, in that adulating style common in these regimes. Almost how Leonid Brezhnev would praise [Nikita] Khrushchev before stabbing him in the back. Ambartsumova: Like [Eduard] Shevardnadze talked about [Leonid] Brezhnev. He sang praises to Brezhnev, wrote poems, even in Georgian. Demokratizatsiya: Enough about Mexico. Let s talk about Prague and Soviet politics. You and your interesting circle helped create a new way of thinking in Moscow during Perestroika. Many in this circle coincided in Prague a few years earlier, and maybe the brewing situation there influenced the thinking of those people around the journal Problems of Peace and Socialism. What experiences can you share with us? Why did your circle in Prague later have such an influence on Perestroika? Ambartsumov: Firstly, from the beginning, it was just a personal story. The thing is that practically everybody who worked on the magazine Problems of Peace and Socialism in Prague went on to take part in Perestroika later. Ambartsumova: [Aleksei] Rumyantsev was the first, he brought all those people together. Ambartsumov: Rumyantsev was the main editor of the journal... Ambartsumova: Fredo is interested in why such a group was brought together for Problems of Peace and Socialism. Ambartsumov: Rumyantsev s personality was quite important, of course. First, he was a very open person. Second, his relationship with Stalin was quite negative. And third, he organized the people who were close to him spiritually. It was an environment that was very honest, and even though there were different types of people, the vast majority were progressive thinkers. Everybody was writing articles, conducting interviews. In the context of the then-soviet press, the journal Problems of Peace and Socialism was somewhat of a black sheep. It was very progressive and published articles by people who did not have access to the publishing apparatus in Moscow. I can give you one example. Ambartsumova: They were going to Prague to make a clean break, since the journal was different than publications in Moscow. Demokratizatsiya: Interesting. This was during Prague Spring? Ambartsumova: No, before. Ambartsumov: I came to Prague at the end of 1959 and left in 1963, and later regretted leaving too early. There was a progressive atmosphere in Prague. When I was back in Moscow [for] the Institute of World Economy and International Relations in 1963, where I had worked before, it was worse there. Firstly, Rumyantsev could gather the progressive people, they were all looking up to him, as he was a very strong leader and progressive and open, as I have already said. We felt free ourselves, even in a material sense. We had good salaries compared to Moscow. We had nice living accommodations; everybody had their own flat. And practically everybody who worked on Problems of Peace and Socialism

3 Perestroika Began in Prague 375 consequentially became very famous: [Georgy] Arbatov, [Gennady] Gerasimov, Bovin, [Fyodor] Burlatsky. Demokratizatsiya: You were there with them at the same time? Ambartsumov: Partially. Ambartsumova: [Yuri] Karyakin was there with him. He invited Karyakin. Ambartsumov: I saw him not so long ago. I personally invited Karyakin to Problems of Peace and Socialism. And besides him, there was an exceptional person named [Eduard] Arab-Ogly. He died few years ago. Ambartsumova: In reality, the last name is a normal Armenian surname, but his father was a Bolshevik and Arab-Ogly was his party nickname. Ambartsumov: He was a very talented sociologist.... And he was without question the most erudite sociologist that time in the USSR. Ambartsumova: He was a liberal, not so much a democrat, but real liberal. One hundred percent liberal. Ambartsumov: Liberal-technocrat. Unfortunately he died, but he was my friend. I was there at his funeral. Ambartsumova: He was writing a lot of the foreign articles, critiques. He was interested in futurism. He was teaching a lot of foreign languages he spoke many languages he was such an intellectual. Ambartsumov: He was very educated. He was the most erudite from whole of our circle. Let s continue. When we got together, it was in 1960, I came at the end 1959, and was there in 1960, 1961, and Then in 1963, I came back to Moscow. Demokratizatsiya: You were in Prague this whole time? Ambartsumov: We returned to Moscow two or three times a year, but we were liv ing there permanently. We got there together before Prague Spring, but we already had developed ideas that later became the Prague Spring. It is enough to name Zdenĕk Mlynár. He was one of the main architects of the Prague Spring. Demokratizatsiya: You knew him? Ambartsumova: Yes, he visited our home. Ambartsumov: Very closely. Demokratizatsiya: He was close to [Mikhail] Gorbachev, too. Ambartsumova: When Perestroika started, he came to our home twice. We did not have such a big flat and our parents were living with us, and we asked if he did not mind staying in the kitchen. And he said: Always, when I am in Russia, I am in the kitchen. Demokratizatsiya: Who were the other architects of the Prague Spring? Who else were you meeting besides Mlynár? Did you meet [Alexander] Dubc ek? Ambartsumov: Of course. He was in Slovakia. We met each other, but at the time, we were not friends. We had a closer friendship with Mlynár. Demokratizatsiya: How about Jir í Hájek? He was later the foreign minister of Czechoslovakia during Dubc ek.

4 376 Demokratizatsiya Ambartsumov: Yes, I knew him, but not too well. I knew some of the leaders of Prague Spring, who were at Literární listy. This Jew I forgot his last name he was the main editor of Literární listy. Prague Spring was later, but we were preparing for it without knowing it. And I regretted, as I said before, that I left Prague too early, as interesting activities took place later. It s interesting that our group of Russians at the journal Problems of Peace and Socialism was more progressive than other writers of other nationalities. The journal was an international collaboration, with Italians, French. But the most progressive were the Soviet colleagues. Ambartsumova: Who were nevertheless orthodox Communists. Demokratizatsiya: I believe that at the same time, Euro-Communism was appearing in Western European capitals. Ambartsumov: In practice we were already Euro-Communists, although this term did not yet exist. This was around the time I befriended Santiago Carrillo, who wrote the first book about Euro-Communism. He was the secretary general of the Spanish Communist Party. I think he may have died. Ambartsumova: He is forgotten. Ambartsumov: He did quite a lot, we were friends. Ambartsumova: We were interested in Euro-Communism at that time. Demokratizatsiya: This Spanish Communist was talking about Euro-Communism in your publication, Problems of Peace and Socialism, first? Ambartsumov: No, he edited a book. Demokratizatsiya: What other Soviets were in that circle? Gerasimov told me that [Merab] Mamardashvili was there as well. Ambartsumov: He was a writer, philosopher. Demokratizatsiya: Merab was a close friend of Gorbachev; Gorbachev talks about him at times. Ambartsumov: They were living together in the student dormitory. Demokratizatsiya: And Zdenĕk Mlynár, as well, in Moscow State University. Please talk about Merab. Ambartsumov: About Merab with pleasure. I remember, when he arrived [in] Prague, I was waiting for him at the railway station, he arrived by train. He was a very erudite person, he spoke a few languages, not only English, but also French and Italian especially well. He was friends with a lot of foreigners, and on top of that, he was a very talented philosopher. I remember that his first article was co-written with Ivan Frolov. Demokratizatsiya: Frolov later became the editor of Pravda. He was in Prague with you as well? Ambartsumov: Yes, he also was in Prague. Although Frolov became an academician and Mamardashvili did not, Mamardashvili was much brighter that Frolov. Ambartsumova: Frolov didn t seem like anything special. Ambartsumov: Frolov became an adviser of Devichev, who was the secretary of ide-

5 Perestroika Began in Prague 377 ology, a candidate-member of the Politburo. And Frolov became his adviser. And this pushed him upwards, obviously. And later, the chief editor of Pravda. But that was later. Mamardashvili was a very talented and erudite person; he became a deputy to the main editor of Questions of Philosophy [Voprosy Filosofii]. He was teaching at the institutes in Moscow. I remember, he was even teaching in the Institute of Cinematography. And later he was persecuted and forced to move to Tbilisi. He died there. Ambartsumova: There was a good philosophy school at the university in Tbilisi. He was happy there; he felt at home. And there was quite a liberal philosophy-psychology school, more psychological. He was happy there and, as they were not in the center, they had more freedom in their publications. Demokratizatsiya: It is like before Perestroika, in Novosibirsk, far away from Moscow, there was more freedom, which explains why the academicians there produced more relevant studies. Ambartsumov: In 1950s, there was a novel, Far Away from Moscow, a Russian novel, and it was a symbolic phrase. Being far away from Moscow, it is possible to feel more freedom. It was something like a symbolic name far away from Moscow, you can feel freer. Ambartsumova: Who was the author? Ambartsumov: It was a novel by [Vasili] Azhaev. Although he was writing his work while in prison, but he never mentioned it in the novel. What else? Demokratizatsiya: What else do you remember about Frolov and Bovin? Ambartsumov: Bovin did a lot, of course. He died, right? Two years ago. Rumyantsev did a lot for the free word. Quite a lot. Not because he wrote very well but because he was uniting people and he had an article in Pravda, which provoked indignation among the top leaders. An article was about the importance of the intelligentsia, which highlighted how the intelligentsia had a leading role in the spiritual development of society. Ambartsumova: The thing was that Rumyantsev was uniting people, and he was protecting them. When his people were chastised for being much too free, Rumyantsev protected them, always on his own terms, and when he had the power to do so. Demokratizatsiya: Was Rumyantsev a friend of Yuri Andropov, when they were both in the Central Committee? Ambartsumov: Andropov s relationship toward Rumyantsev was very good. And Khrushchev acted especially well toward him. When the chief editor had to be selected for Problems of Peace and Socialism there were various candidates. Andropov crossed them all out and wrote Rumyantsev. And Rumyantsev became the chief editor under Khrushchev. That is a fact. And later, when Khrushchev was recalled, as Rumyantsev was a person connected with Khrushchev, nobody even invited him to participate in the general assembly of the Central Committee, even though he was a member. The plenum of the Central Committee took place the same day when Rumyantsev was going back to Prague from Moscow. He was not even informed. It was a violation of all laws, all rules in the Soviet Union. Demokratizatsiya: Who was doing this? Brezhnev or Kosygin? Ambartsumov: Brezhnev, but not even him, the party apparat had obviously made the

6 378 Demokratizatsiya decision. What else? In general, it s important that there was a very liberal atmosphere in Prague. And even though it was many years before Prague Spring, and moreover before the democratization, the basis for Prague Spring and democratization was present even then. We did not know Gorbachev at that time. He was the secretary of Stavropol s provincial raykom [regional committee]. But he was up-and-coming. Moreover, he was a friend of Mlynár and, thus, they were meeting in Moscow as the former students of Moscow State University. Demokratizatsiya: What do you remember about Gerasimov and Arbatov? Ambartsumov: First, Arbatov. We were approximately at the same working level. I was officially the magazine s deputy editor the editor was a foreigner, an Italian from the Communist movement. Arbatov was a consulting editor. Sitkovsky was an editor; he died a long time ago. Arab-Ogly was a deputy editor, as we were talking about, and Arbatov was a consulting editor. Ambartsumova: The Italian s last name was Druppi, but you don t know him. He was a member of the Central Committee of the Italian Communist Party. Druppi was one. Another was Rossi, also an Italian. But the editorial board [redkolegii] decided matters at the journal. Its chairman, Rumyantsev, was Russian, and the deputy was Russian as well. At the time, it was Sobolev, a descendant of Aleksandr Ivanovich Sobolev, and the rest were foreigners. Not all the foreigners were members of the editorial board or could vote. The members of the editorial board were French, Italian, German a certain Berta Argentine and [from] other places. Fredo was asking you what you remember about Gerasimov and Arbatov. Ambartsumov: Well, Gerasimov and Arbatov were not the highest ranking members at the time, but later as they stayed longer after I left, they especially Arbatov were transferred to work at the apparat of the Central Committee. They had the same opinions as me, they were as liberal. Demokratizatsiya: Do you remember occasions or events which reflected their opinions? Ambartsumov: There were articles and publications reflecting their opinions. They were quite progressive. I remember one case that was connected to me. Roy Medvedev sent a response to some article. We didn t know Medvedev, I don t think he had become famous at that point. We published it. It came, as we say in Russian, spontaneously. Nobody had solicited the article, but it was written very well, and we published it. After that, the name Roy Medvedev became famous. I had a close friend and colleagues, such Yuri Ostrovityanov he was the son of the vice-chairman of the Academy of Sciences department of economics, the author of a book about socialist political economics. There is even a street named after Ostrovityanov s father; he was a cobelligerent of Lenin s. I liked him very much, he was a bright person. He died early, unfortunately. Well, I can t say that Arbatov or Gerasimov were somehow special. They were in our circle, and we all had approximately the same beliefs. It is interesting that Rumyantsev s deputy, who was administering practically everything, shaking with everybody in redaction, was the embodiment of a reactionary, a certain Vinogradov, Ivan Tikhonovich, who had been a deputy of the director of department of the socialistic parties at the Central Committee of Communist Party of the Soviet Union. He would fall asleep during meetings. He fell

7 Perestroika Began in Prague 379 asleep in front of Khrushchev and started to snore. His colleagues were poking him: Ivan Tikhonovich, get up! He woke up and Khrushchev said, He sleeps and sleeps, but he hears everything. Nevertheless, he was immediately sent to Prague. And it s interesting that although he was very reactionary, his son Igor Vinogradov is now a progressive literary critic, and a very good one too. I have a book of his about [Aleksandr] Solzhenitsyn. His son became a progressive critic. But this is all about Prague. Demokratizatsiya: Interesting. Who else? Please tell me about [Anatoly] Chernyaev. Ambartsumov: We now have a friendly relationship. Demokratizatsiya: I know, I actually brought his book [Shest let s Gorbachovym, or My Six Years with Gorbachev] here, because he wrote about you. Ambartsumov: Can I have a look? Demokratizatsiya: You said you were ghost-writing Gorbachev s book Perestroika? Ambartsumov: It was a group led by Chernyaev; they got together in his dacha and were writing this book. Demokratizatsiya: It mentions here some of the other people: Aleksandr Weber, Andrei Yermonsky, Aleksei Kozlov. Ambartsumov: Right. Demokratizatsiya: How did you meet Chernyaev? In Prague? Ambartsumov: Yes, in Prague, yes. We had bad relationship at the beginning. Demokratizatsiya: Why? Ambartsumov: Because... I will try to explain. From the beginning, we didn t have a very good relationship, as Chernyaev was close to the Central Committee and I was not. I was more or less an oppositionist. But we later made up, and Chernyaev started inviting me to some groups that were created at the Central Committee, always in his dacha. From what I remember, we were writing not only together with Andropov and Arbatov during the two weeks... we spent two weeks writing some anti-chinese letter together with Andropov. It was in 1960, as I remember, I came back to Moscow, and Andropov invited me to write this letter. I remember very clearly that Andropov was very well prepared to work on this letter. He quoted Confucius and Rousseau, and I was very surprised, as I was not used to such finesse from top workers of the Central Committee. Demokratizatsiya: You mean Andropov. Ambartsumov: Yes. This was very rare. I heard from the person who was close to his family that Andropov liked me very much. And he really appreciated me. What he didn t like was that when I came to write this letter, I was wearing a striped light informal shirt. I didn t dress up, like it was customary at the Central Committee wearing a tie but later he told his son that I like this one. And later, Andropov was transferred to the KGB. Demokratizatsiya: Before that, he was not at the KGB, but at the Central Committee apparat.

8 380 Demokratizatsiya Ambartsumov: He was a secretary of the Central Committee, in the department of socialist parties. The Politburo members selected him, and he was transferred to the KGB. He was a very strong person. He was working at the KGB for about fifteen years. He was too strong when compared to all the old people at the time. Demokratizatsiya: Tell me about Yegor Yakovlev. Ambartsumova: He did not work on Problems of Peace and Socialism. He was the main editor of the magazine Zhurnalist. In Prague, he was working as a reporter for Izvestiya, during Prague Spring, right? And later he worked as a main editor of Perestroika s newspaper, Moskovskiye Novosti [Moscow News], when it was influential. Ambartsumov: And another friend of ours became the main editor of Moscow News Vitaliy Tretyakov. Demokratizatsiya: I didn t know he was there. He was the founding editor of Nezavisimaya gazeta? Ambartsumova: He was taken from Nezevasimaya gazeta by [Boris] Berezovsky, and became the chief editor of the magazine Politicheskii klass [Political Class], and he has his own program on TV. He was selected as the chief editor of Moscow News in January. Demokratizatsiya: Interesting, did you know that two weeks ago, Gorbachev was in the headlines of Moscow News, under the caption On dal nam shans He gave us a chance. Lilia Shevtsova wrote it. What else? Tell us of your work in this group that was meeting in the dacha during Perestroika. Ambartsumov: We had a very good text prepared for Gorbachev, but he made it worse. He deleted all the piquant parts. He did not want to be very compromised as he was already a leader of the party at that time. Ambartsumova: He was scared. Ambartsumov: He made it softer. So, it was a good time, as Chernyaev and I were working on this project very freely. There was a person named Aleksei Kozlov. He was at the Central Committee. He was writing poems. I remember a piece, Seven Gold Penfeathers by which he meant the people writing this book about Perestroika. I was one of those seven pen-feathers that he mentioned in the poem. I still have his poems at home in Moscow. Ambartsumova: Kozlov wrote poems, and he talked about them: Seven Golden Pen-feathers. He wrote good poems and was writing poems when they were sitting in the dacha. Ambartsumov: He was very gifted person, Kozlov, very bright. Demokratizatsiya: How did you get into the group, how did you start to participate in the book Perestroika? Through Chernyaev? Ambartsumova: Through Moscow News. Ambartsumov: No, through Chernyaev. I was working for Gorbachev and Perestroika through Chernyaev. Ambartsumova: No, through Moscow News. Who knew what you wrote for Gorbachev? There is a book, History of Marxism, which Chernyaev wrote, and you were writing prologues.

9 Perestroika Began in Prague 381 Ambartsumov: The thing is, it started as a multivolume book edited in Italy. The multivolume work came from an international group of authors, it began in Italy, later went to France, or may be vise-versa; it started in France and later went to Italy. Then these volumes were translated, but it was one of those so-called private or closed translations. Ambartsumova: You know, there were private or closed editions, which could not be bought. Demokratizatsiya: Could not be bought? Ambartsumova: Yes, they were just in a library and you had to have a certain permit. And so, History of Marxism was written and it was in a closed or private edition, not for everybody. But it was important, as it was connected to Perestroika, because in the beginning, Perestroika was seen as a return to real Marxism. Ambartsumov: Yes, that s right. Ambartsumova: So, History of Marxism was written already from the liberal, free point of view, not from the Stalinist one. It had great importance for cleaning minds, because people were reading it and seeing that Marxism could be something different than what we had in Russia. And we had to adjust based on that realization, we had to understand Marxism from a different point of view. Ambartsumov: The feeling had already started to change. And the thing is that History of Marxism, the voluminous work, in that closed edition, was published by limited print in the Progress publishing house. Demokratizatsiya: You met each other there? Ambartsumova: No, at another publishing house. Ambartsumov: We met each other at the publishing house Molodaya Gvardiya. Ambartsumova: But that s not important. Ambartsumov: That is important! She was editing my book, which was published by Molodaya Gvardiya. Demokratizatsiya: Interesting. Ambartsumova: For History of Marxism, there were editions with white covers, like paper, all white, and were called white editions because they needed and ID and they were in a secret department in a library. Yuu needed a permit to read them. Ambartsumov: It was called the special fund. Demokratizatsiya: And you were translating Western books for the Politburo, as well? Ambartsumova: Of course. Ambartsumov: I would like to say that those translations of the multivolume History of Marxism from the Progress publishing house were published in limited edition. I wrote the prologues for all the editions. Ambartsumova: For every book, for every volume, he wrote the prologue. His prologues were drawing a line under... the authors were Communists, but they were of course much more free that our Communists were. And prologues were freer than the rest of the text. The prologue was interesting to read, because oh, this is important because the situation as it was during the Brezhnev era made it impossible. And we wanted to go somewhere, you understand?

10 382 Demokratizatsiya Ambartsumov: Gorbachev told me he was reading those editions, where I wrote the prologues. And, as he was a graduate from the university s law school, he was more educated that other leaders were, and he marked those books with my prologue. Demokratizatsiya: You mean Gorbachev was tainted with some of those ideas from you? Ambartsumova: Yes, of course, but Gorbachev was not that intelligent, even though he graduated from the university. Ambartsumov: He s an attorney, let s say. Ambartsumova: Not even an attorney, but he was open. Demokratizatsiya: Gorbachev always searched for ideas. He likes to argue. Ambartsumov: In any case, we now see that he turned out to be better that Yeltsin was. Demokratizatsiya: Absolutely. You know, I had a meeting with Ivan Polozkov, who founded the Russian Communist Party back in He did say something interesting, that if the general secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union had been Yeltsin instead of Gorbachev back in 1985, there would have been no such thing as glasnost, no Perestroika, no democratization. Ambartsumov: I agree. Ambartsumova: It was a big mistake for Gorbachev to endorse Polozkov, who was a nobody, instead of Yeltsin, who was a charismatic figure. Ambartsumov: He was a nobody. Ambartsumova: If only he had come out and said, I cannot trust Yeltsin. Gorbachev never says anything openly. If he stood up at the tribune I remember, we were watching TV at the time. During that period, you remember, everybody was watching TV, listening to the radio. I was driving my car and was listening to the radio. And I remember how Gorbachev stood up at that time and said, instead of Yeltsin, I endorse Polozkov. And he didn t say anything else. If he had said, you know, Yeltsin is such-and-such a person, you cannot trust him... believe me, you can t trust Yeltsin. He changes his mind; who knows what he ll be. Let s elect, I don t know, another one. [Vadim] Bakatin, for example. Demokratizatsiya: Bakatin. Yes, absolutely. Ambartsumova: Or [Nikolai] Ryzhkov though he wasn t very sharp either. No, you had to elect a very bright person, at least in comparison. Yes, Bakatin would have been nice. And he would have been comparable to Yeltsin. But as for Polozkov, compared to Yeltsin, he didn t offer anything. At the time, my reaction was, why Polozkov? I was for Yeltsin then. If Gorbachev told the truth about Yeltsin... he knew the truth about him. But the people did not know, because Yeltsin is nice and he can talk well. Ambartsumov: And he captivates people. Ambartsumova: At the time he was not a drunk, by the way. When he was elected he was nice, he was talking about Afghanistan, where kids were dying, saying I am sorry. I did not kill your children. And Polozkov didn t do anything. If Gorbachev were a smart person, he would not have done it, he would not have supported Polozkov. Ambartsumov: He was smart and decisive, he just hesitated. Ambartsumova: He was not just hesitating! He did not want to tell the truth until it was too late! Gorbachev, you understand, was going with him to France. At the beginning of

11 Perestroika Began in Prague 383 Perestroika, he was in contact with him quite a lot. I was in very close contact; we were together during New Year s Eve. We were with our friends, journalists. They invited him to celebrate New Year s Eve and he came with his wife, Raisa. The Italian journalist Giulietto Chiesa was there. His wife and he are our very close friends. Demokratizatsiya: He wrote a book about the USSR Congress of People s Deputies. Ambartsumova: Yes, he was writing about the Afghan war, and not just about that. He wrote Goodbye, Russia, a wonderful book. His books are just wonderful! Ambartsumov: Arrivederci Russia. But it was written in Russian. He wrote all his books in Russian. And Russian Roulette was another good book, edited not too long ago. Demokratizatsiya: He s in Italy now? Ambartsumova: Yes, he is in Italy. He was elected a member of the European Parliament. And Gorbachev, I would like to say, we have one more observation. During New Year s Eve, Chiesa invited Gorbachev, and he came. It was a holiday. Demokratizatsiya: When was it? Ambartsumova: Maybe it was around Demokratizatsiya: When you were a deputy in the Russian parliament? Ambartsumova: Somewhere around that time, yes. But I have the impression that at that time, Gorbachev... [Grigory] Yavlinsky was also a guest, Tretyakov and other friends, too. It was such a group. Gorbachev s behavior caught our eyes. You understand, he talks, but he wants to hide something. He does not want to speak directly, he always sidesteps. Maybe it was earlier, before the presidential elections. Yavlinsky was balloting that time. Demokratizatsiya: That would be the 1996 presidential elections. Ambartsumova: That means it was 1996, and you were there then? That means you were already ambassador. Ambartsumov: I was ambassador. Ambartsumova: That means maybe you came. And at the time everybody was talking and Tretyakov told Gorbachev: You have no chance. You do not speak openly, and you do not talk about your positions. What are you going to do? Gorbachev had already been a head of state, and to reelect him without knowing what he was going to do... Tretyakov told him he was a very honest person. And Gorbachev answered him: All right. I can take back my candidacy. Raisa was still alive, and she said, You can t imagine, we are so welcomed in the provinces. They came to a province, and everybody said: Ah, Gorbachev! At that time we did not have the political exhaustion that we have now. And she added: We are so welcomed at the universities by youth. The youth are young. They do not think too much. And Gorbachev told Yavlinsky, If I had known you were also running, I would withdraw my candidacy. As before, Tretyakov said something like: Mikhail Sergeevich, why do you need to do this? You won t be elected anyway. Something like that. And they started to ask Gorbachev, and it was interesting: Gorbachev always avoids things he is not open on some things. He could have said something. He criticized Yeltsin quite a bit, of course; that was his sore: How could you? I know everything about Yeltsin, you will cry because of him. He said all this. The thing was to tell who Yeltsin really was,

12 384 Demokratizatsiya as it was not clear at the time. But he avoided the subject, and this manner of his is regrettable. Wait a minute [to Ambartsumov], you were not there at all, you were in Mexico. And I came to that party alone. He was in Mexico, it means it was in I remember it very well and he was not there. I was introduced to Gorbachev, I had not know him personally: This is Ambartsumov s wife. And he answered: I remember him very well, he speaks all these languages. But he did not speak Spanish at that time. Demokratizatsiya: And do you speak Czech? Rozumíte cesky? Ambartsumov: I already forgot it all. Ambartsumova: I read quite a few of [Václav] Havel s works. Do you remember his dissident work? Not his plays, I was reading his mostly social works. His more philosophical works. I was fascinated by him, I liked him very much. But later, when he became president, he became very pro-american. You know what his brother said when he became president? It s very funny: Now whole the world will watch my brother s play. Demokratizatsiya: After you returned to Moscow in 1963, did you at that time keep in touch with your Russian colleagues from Prague? Say, Arbatov, Burlatsky, Bovin? Ambartsumov: I wasn t in especially close contact. After Gorbachev came to power, I renewed some of those contacts. Ambartsumova: It had nothing to do with Gorbachev. The thing is that during the period of stagnation, you had contact with Bulatsky and [Len] Karpinsky. Ambartsumov: At the time, I was writing for Moscow News quite often. Ambartsumova: All those years you worked at the Academy of Sciences. You were writing some prologues. Later, we were meeting in the kitchen, as they say, which means that we were reading literature. Later, he was very interested in Euro-Communism. We were going to Italy. At the time there was an Italian, who was the founder of Euro-Communism. At the time, that kind thinking was not official. For example, some books came in through the contracts for writing the prologues. He was lecturing in foreign languages for the foreigners at the Institute of Social Sciences. Then, in Czechoslovakia, things were happening. I still have the manuscripts, a large amount of material about the Prague Spring written on a typewriter. How Dubc ek was accomplishing, I tried to read all about that. Demokratizatsiya: Who else was reading? This is very important, as the Prague Spring infected the thinking in Russia. Ambartsumova: Of course. Demokratizatsiya: What were the channels? Ambartsumova: What were the channels? First, everybody was listening to the radio. Demokratizatsiya: In Czech? Ambartsumova: No, Voice of America, the BBC, and Radio Free Europe from Munich. Everybody was listening to this, sitting in the evening and listening to what was happening in Prague. It was in Russian. Later there were translations. I have it in Russian, I don t speak Czech. And the material about how Dubc ek was performing. It would have been a pity to throw it away before this. I got it from Karpinsky. He was a very close friend of ours. We were in very close contact with him regularly. People were meeting in his house

13 Perestroika Began in Prague 385 and talking about interesting things. Karpinsky died. He was editor of Moscow News. It was Yegor Yakovlev, Timur Gaidar Yegor Gaidar s father, Medvedev. First, Roy Medvedev was the source of reading material. Mostly books. And who else was meeting there? Yuri Chernichenko, his colleague from institute Lisichkin. Another one was a correspondent for Izvestiya. He worked in Czechoslovakia, Krivosheev or something. He was deported from Prague after writing about the Prague events without condemning them, and even writing with some admiration. Yegor was doing the same thing as the Izvestiya correspondent. He refused condemn the events in Czechoslovakia, he also was deported. And so we were meeting in Len Karpinsky s house and looking at who was reading what. And Roy Medvedev was always bringing some literature. Roy Medvedev was bringing Havel s books and Western editions, small books with the thin paper. And he was the source of the literature. In general, he was in touch with Len Karpinsky, as Karpinsky was a real philosopher-thinker. And Roy Medvedev was always consulting with him about everything, and Karpinsky sometimes participated in our sessions. During this time, everybody was working at the Academy of Sciences. [Oleg] Bogomolov was harboring a lot of them who were sent from all kind of institutes. And from the beginning, he was a close friend. Bogomolov was an economist and the director of the institute. And, by the way, in the beginning, Karpinsky and Burlatsky were friends. They later wrote an article together and Burlatsky was fired from the Central Committee. They wrote an article against censorship in the theater. And when he was attacked for this, Karpinsky took the responsibility on himself and he was told to say: No, I have not written this article. He didn t behave very well. He said: It s his fault. But he was fired as well anyway. They were always getting fired from one job, then moving on to another position. Demokratizatsiya: It was like in Prague after the invasion of the Soviet tanks. This socalled normalization was in the Soviet Union as well. Ambartsumov: No, that was much later. Ambartsumova: No, not so much later. In Czechoslovakia it was in The stagnation was here in the seventies. Ambartsumov: The thing is, the Prague Spring was a cold shower for the atmosphere in Russia. It scared Brezhnev, and the stagnation had started. Ambartsumova: Yes, they already knew that it is possible to have socialism with a human face. The whole idea that socialism was human was popular. Demokratizatsiya: Why didn t the Hungarian insurrection in 1956 capture the minds of the Soviets the way the Prague Spring did? Ambartsumova: It was a totally different story. And I don t remember the details now, but we have a friend, a specialist on Hungary, and says that Hungary was another situation. It was not liberalization, but strictly a provocation by Imre Nagy. No, [Mátyás] Rákosi. Do not confuse Czechoslovakia and Hungary. They were different situations. Of course, it was horrible that Hungary was invaded by tanks. It was Andropov who participated in it. Demokratizatsiya: So when the Prague Spring was taking place, your Soviet colleagues from Prague were meeting in Moscow? Ambartsumova: Of course, but not everybody. We were not friends with Arbatov. Demokratizatsiya: Why?

14 386 Demokratizatsiya Ambartsumov: It was just like that. Ambartsumova: You know, not just like that. They were the people whose goal was to get in the government. And our group was sitting in the academy... Demokratizatsiya: Interesting, so there was somewhat of a split between the academic types, and those who wanted to get in the government the so-called careerists, right? Ambartsumova: Arbatov for sure. Maybe Gerasimov, too. Ambartsumov: No, Gerasimov, not so much, but Arbatov especially. That s why he made a career of it. Ambartsumova: Burlatsky really wanted to be in the government, but he was not selected. And he was a little bit scared. He was even scared to participate in our circle when Len Karpinsky, who was later excluded from the party from because he wanted to edit a magazine, was there. This is how everything got accomplished. People wanted to write and wanted to make this samizdat magazine. They started to edit this magazine, and Karpinsky was immediately fired from his job. Ambartsumov: And from the party. Ambartsumova: He was working as a manager at Progress at the time. I was not yet working there, but he was working there as a manager. Progress was a huge publishing house for foreign languages. After serial unpleasantness, Len Karpinsky was accepted as a director of the philosophy division in Progress. They started to edit the magazine and after that, they were fired constantly. They were not working anymore. But we were meeting at his residence anyway, and we were helping him. I was working at another publishing house, and he wrote very well. Maybe you have read something he s written. And it was possible to edit some things. We were editing him under a pseudonym, and we were paying him. Demokratizatsiya: And after the Warsaw Pact invaded in 1968, what happened? What was the mood among your colleagues? Ambartsumov: Well, there was stagnation after the attack, during the Brezhnev era. And nothing was happening, practically until Gorbachev was selected. Ambartsumova: No, they continued writing. The kind of things that were written for [Boris] Ponomarev, for Brezhnev a little bit. And you know what? Burlatsky joked about this. He was always talking, and he was thrown out. And Arbatov was thrown out. And all this, like Kozlov, they were were forced to become censors themselves, because they wanted to sit in the Central Committee. Kozlov was sitting in the Central Committee, Chernyaev was sitting in the Central Committee, Bovin also wanted to be in the government. Demokratizatsiya: And you were in the Academy of Sciences, not in the Central Committee, all those years? Ambartsumova: He worked in different institutes of academy for twenty-seven years. Demokratizatsiya: Did you meet with other future figures of Perestroika there, such as Tatyana Zaslavskaya and Abel Agabengyan? Ambartsumova: Yes. Ambartsumov: They were economists. This interview will continue in an upcoming issue of Demokratizatsiya.

15 387 Correction In Kimitaka Matsuzato s piece The Five-Day War and Transnational Politics, featured in the Summer 2009 issue of Demokratizatsiya, we incorrectly cited the title of Ilia II, Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia and the leader of the Georgian Orthodox Church, in that article s Notes section. Demokratizatsiya regrets the error.

16

Final Version POLITICAL SCIENCE 75. Spring Professor William Taubman Clark

Final Version POLITICAL SCIENCE 75. Spring Professor William Taubman Clark Final Version POLITICAL SCIENCE 75 Problems of International Politics: Gorbachev, the End of the Cold War and the Collapse of the Soviet Union ABOUT THE COURSE Spring 2011 Professor William Taubman Clark

More information

Office: 2139 Humanities Hall Phone: Office Hours: M 2-3:00; W 9-10:00; Th 9:45-10:45 and by appointment

Office: 2139 Humanities Hall Phone: Office Hours: M 2-3:00; W 9-10:00; Th 9:45-10:45 and by appointment Fall 2013 History 378-01 2:00-3:15 TR BRYN 121 Russian History Since 1900 (www.uncg.edu/~jwjones/russia) Instructor: Jeff Jones jwjones@uncg.edu Office: 2139 Humanities Hall Phone: 334-4068 Office Hours:

More information

Document No. 9: Record of Conversation between Mikhail. Gorbachev and Egon Krenz. November 1, 1989

Document No. 9: Record of Conversation between Mikhail. Gorbachev and Egon Krenz. November 1, 1989 Document No. 9: Record of Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and Egon Krenz November 1, 1989 Gorbachev: The Soviet people are very interested in everything that is going on now in the GDR. We hope

More information

The Collapse of the Soviet Union. The statue of Lenin falling down in Kiev

The Collapse of the Soviet Union. The statue of Lenin falling down in Kiev The Collapse of the Soviet Union INTERVIEWER: NAME INTERVIEWEE: NAME WEAVER PERIOD 4 The statue of Lenin falling down in Kiev The Soviet Union 1985-1990 A map of the Soviet Union before it s dissolution

More information

Minutes of the Meeting between Nicolae Ceausescu, and Mikhail S. Gorbachev, Moscow, 4 December 1989

Minutes of the Meeting between Nicolae Ceausescu, and Mikhail S. Gorbachev, Moscow, 4 December 1989 Minutes of the Meeting between Nicolae Ceausescu, and Mikhail S. Gorbachev, Moscow, 4 December 1989 At the meeting were also present comrades Constantin Dascalescu, Prime Minister of the of the Government

More information

Testament of George Lukacs

Testament of George Lukacs Bernie Taft Testament of George Lukacs IT WAS ONLY SIX WEEKS A FTER the invasion of Czechoslovakia by the five Warsaw Pact countries. A second Preparatory meeting of communist and workers parties had been

More information

One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich

One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich Pre-reading: One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich Who was Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn? A leksandr Solzhenitsyn knew firsthand the power of the state to suppress writers. He risked imprisonment or worse punishments

More information

Mikhail Gorbachev : The Last Days of the Presidency

Mikhail Gorbachev : The Last Days of the Presidency Mikhail Gorbachev : The Last Days of the Presidency Yuri Shchekochíkhin November was tense and wet in Moscow and it seemed that anything that could happen, had already happened. In the lonely yard of the

More information

Document No. 12: Session of the CC CPSU Politburo. November 9, Gorbachev: I met before the holidays [of November 7,

Document No. 12: Session of the CC CPSU Politburo. November 9, Gorbachev: I met before the holidays [of November 7, Document No. 12: Session of the CC CPSU Politburo November 9, 1989 Gorbachev: I met before the holidays [of November 7, commemorating the Bolshevik revolution] with representatives of Estonia and Latvia.

More information

May 30, 1956 Report by N. T. Fedorenko on a Meeting with DPRK Ambassador to the USSR Ri Sang-jo

May 30, 1956 Report by N. T. Fedorenko on a Meeting with DPRK Ambassador to the USSR Ri Sang-jo Digital Archive International History Declassified digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org May 30, 1956 Report by N. T. Fedorenko on a Meeting with DPRK Ambassador to the USSR Ri Sang-jo Citation: Report by N.

More information

Relatives and Falsifying Death Certificates

Relatives and Falsifying Death Certificates Chapter Seven Relatives and Falsifying Death Certificates Background Ezhov s Operational Decree No. 00447, which initiated the Great Terror, kept sentences separate from case files to make it di"cult to

More information

Discussion Questions

Discussion Questions Discussion Questions for use with Thompson & Ward, Russia: A Historical Introduction from Kievan Rus to the Present, 8 th edition Chapter 1: Ancient Russia and Kievan Rus 1. How has geography impacted

More information

Leon Trotsky. Leon Trotsky led the revolution that brought the Bolsheviks (later Communists) to power in Russia in October 1917

Leon Trotsky. Leon Trotsky led the revolution that brought the Bolsheviks (later Communists) to power in Russia in October 1917 Leon Trotsky I INTRODUCTION Leon Trotsky Leon Trotsky led the revolution that brought the Bolsheviks (later Communists) to power in Russia in October 1917 and subsequently held powerful positions in Vladimir

More information

Document No. 3: Record of Conversation between Mikhail. Gorbachev and Margaret Thatcher. September 23, 1989

Document No. 3: Record of Conversation between Mikhail. Gorbachev and Margaret Thatcher. September 23, 1989 Document No. 3: Record of Conversation between Mikhail Gorbachev and Margaret Thatcher September 23, 1989 Thatcher: [...] I know that it is not easy to carry out political reform. You began to implement

More information

The Soviet Union Under Stalin Part II. Chapter 13 Section 4

The Soviet Union Under Stalin Part II. Chapter 13 Section 4 The Soviet Union Under Stalin Part II Chapter 13 Section 4 Stalin Controlled People s s Minds Issued propaganda Censored opposing ideas Imposed Russian culture on minorities Replaced Religion with communist

More information

Russian History II (HST 108): 1861 to 2014

Russian History II (HST 108): 1861 to 2014 Russian History II (HST 108): 1861 to 2014 Oberlin College, Spring 2015 M/W/F, 10:00-10:50am King 327 Instructor: Dr. Rebecca Mitchell Office Hours: M/W 11-12, or by appointment Office: Rice 208 E-mail:

More information

The Diary of Anatoly S. Chernyaev

The Diary of Anatoly S. Chernyaev The Diary of Anatoly S. Chernyaev 1989 Donated by A.S. Chernyaev to The National Security Archive Translated by Anna Melyakova Edited by Svetlana Savranskaya Translation The National Security Archive,

More information

HISTORY 38: RUSSIA IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY SPRING Bob Weinberg Trotter 218 Office Hours: T/TH W: 1-3 rweinbe1

HISTORY 38: RUSSIA IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY SPRING Bob Weinberg Trotter 218 Office Hours: T/TH W: 1-3 rweinbe1 HISTORY 38: RUSSIA IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY SPRING 2010 Bob Weinberg Trotter 218 Office Hours: T/TH 1-2 328-8133 W: 1-3 rweinbe1 This course focuses on the major trends and events in Russian history during

More information

KGB FILES NOW OPEN by Donald N. Miller

KGB FILES NOW OPEN by Donald N. Miller KGB FILES NOW OPEN by Donald N. Miller You can now find out what happened to your loved ones who were arrested by the KGB (technically GPU and NKVD, Secret Service) in the 1930s For many years my cousin,

More information

Teacher Overview Objectives: Joseph Stalin s Totalitarian Rule

Teacher Overview Objectives: Joseph Stalin s Totalitarian Rule Teacher Overview Objectives: Joseph Stalin s Totalitarian Rule NYS Social Studies Framework Alignment: Key Idea Conceptual Understanding Content Specification Objectives 10.5 UNRESOLVED GLOBAL CONFLICT

More information

June, 2007 The KGB vs. Vatican City. Folder 29. The Chekist Anthology.

June, 2007 The KGB vs. Vatican City. Folder 29. The Chekist Anthology. Digital Archive International History Declassified digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org June, 2007 The KGB vs. Vatican City. Folder 29. The Chekist Anthology. Citation: The KGB vs. Vatican City. Folder 29.

More information

International History Declassified

International History Declassified Digital Archive International History Declassified digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org December 31, 1959 Memorandum of Conversation with the Deputy Chairmen of the People s Committee of the City of Shanghai,

More information

[Orwell s] greatest accomplishment was to remind people that they could think for themselves at a time in this century when humanity seemed to prefer

[Orwell s] greatest accomplishment was to remind people that they could think for themselves at a time in this century when humanity seemed to prefer [Orwell s] greatest accomplishment was to remind people that they could think for themselves at a time in this century when humanity seemed to prefer taking marching orders His work endures, as lucid and

More information

Emergence of Josef Stalin. By Mr. Baker

Emergence of Josef Stalin. By Mr. Baker Emergence of Josef Stalin By Mr. Baker Upbringing Stalin was born the son of a poor shoe repairer and a washer-woman He learned Russian while attending a church school and attended Tiflis Theological Seminary

More information

ANDREW MARR SHOW VLADIMIR CHIZHOV

ANDREW MARR SHOW VLADIMIR CHIZHOV 1 ANDREW MARR SHOW RUSSIAN AMBASSADOR TO THE EU VLADIMIR CHIZHOV AM: Theresa May, the British Prime Minister, and other NATO allies have all said that Russia was responsible for the nerve attack in Salisbury.

More information

MELBER: Mikhail Khodorkovsky, thank you for joining me. What did you learn about Vladimir Putin in your clash with him?

MELBER: Mikhail Khodorkovsky, thank you for joining me. What did you learn about Vladimir Putin in your clash with him? MELBER: Mikhail Khodorkovsky, thank you for joining me. What did you learn about Vladimir Putin in your clash with him? KHODORKOVSKY: I learned that this is a man with a very particular view of life. A

More information

From The Prague Spring '68 Copyright 1998 The Prague Spring Foundation

From The Prague Spring '68 Copyright 1998 The Prague Spring Foundation From The Prague Spring '68 Copyright 1998 The Prague Spring Foundation DOCUMENT No. 81: Transcript of Leonid Brezhnev's Telephone Conversation with Alexander Dubček, August 13, 1968 Source: APRF, Prot.

More information

UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS LOWELL CENTER FOR LOWELL HISTORY ORAL HISTORY COLLECTION

UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS LOWELL CENTER FOR LOWELL HISTORY ORAL HISTORY COLLECTION UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS LOWELL CENTER FOR LOWELL HISTORY ORAL HISTORY COLLECTION LOWELL NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS LOWELL ETHNOGRAPHIC STUDY OF LOWELL, MA: MAKING, REMAKING,

More information

Essay: To what. extent had Lenin created a socialist society in Russia by the time of his death in 1924?

Essay: To what. extent had Lenin created a socialist society in Russia by the time of his death in 1924? Essay: To what extent had Lenin created a socialist society in Russia by the time of his death in 1924? Economic attempts at creating a socialist Russia In 1918, the Bolsheviks established workers control

More information

BFU: Communism and the Masses

BFU: Communism and the Masses BFU: Communism and the Masses Misconceptions: Life got way better for everyone during the Industrial Revolution. People discovered farming 12,000 years ago. Farming made it possible for people to stop

More information

December 11, Documents Concerning Conversations in Moscow between Cuban Communist Official Carlos Rafael

December 11, Documents Concerning Conversations in Moscow between Cuban Communist Official Carlos Rafael Digital Archive International History Declassified digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org December 11, 1962 Documents Concerning Conversations in Moscow between Cuban Communist Official Carlos Rafael Rodriguez

More information

International History Declassified

International History Declassified Digital Archive International History Declassified digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org October 09, 1971 Stenographic Transcript of the Meeting of the Executive Committee of the Central Committee of the Romanian

More information

Appendix 1: Chronology of Yemeni-Soviet relations 1920s 1980s. South Yemen

Appendix 1: Chronology of Yemeni-Soviet relations 1920s 1980s. South Yemen Appendix 1: Chronology of Yemeni-Soviet relations 1920s 1980s North Yemen South Yemen 1928 The Soviet-Yemeni Friendship and Trade Treaty is signed in Sana a, establishing relations between the Mutawakkil

More information

Karl Marx. Karl Marx ( ), German political philosopher and revolutionary, the most important of all

Karl Marx. Karl Marx ( ), German political philosopher and revolutionary, the most important of all Karl Marx I INTRODUCTION Karl Marx (1818-1883), German political philosopher and revolutionary, the most important of all socialist thinkers and the creator of a system of thought called Marxism. With

More information

The Diary of Anatoly S. Chernyaev

The Diary of Anatoly S. Chernyaev The Diary of Anatoly S. Chernyaev 1976 Donated by A.S. Chernyaev to The National Security Archive Translated by Anna Melyakova 1976 January 1, 1976 I ve been busy at work for the last three days. B.N.

More information

What words or phrases did Stalin use that contributed to the inflammatory nature of his speech?

What words or phrases did Stalin use that contributed to the inflammatory nature of his speech? Worksheet 2: Stalin s Election Speech part I Context: On February 9, 1946, Stalin delivered an election speech to an assembly of voters in Moscow. In the USSR, elections were not designed to provide voters

More information

Interviewing an Earthbound Spirit 18 November 2017

Interviewing an Earthbound Spirit 18 November 2017 Interviewing an Earthbound Spirit 18 November 2017 A reader mentions a spirit believed to be George Michael. Since Mr. Michael is no longer and his soul was already interviewed, I won't ask "him" back

More information

Bolshevik Discourse. Chapter Eleven. Before and After. Background

Bolshevik Discourse. Chapter Eleven. Before and After. Background Chapter Eleven Bolshevik Discourse Before and After Background Until Lenin s death in January of 1924, the highest ruling body, the Politburo, operated on the principle of democratic centralism. The key

More information

"El Mercurio" (p. D8-D9), 12 April 1981, Santiago de Chile

El Mercurio (p. D8-D9), 12 April 1981, Santiago de Chile Extracts from an Interview Friedrich von Hayek "El Mercurio" (p. D8-D9), 12 April 1981, Santiago de Chile Reagan said: "Let us begin an era of National Renewal." How do you understand that this will be

More information

Former Ambassador to USSR Matlock Lambastes U.S. Policy on Russia

Former Ambassador to USSR Matlock Lambastes U.S. Policy on Russia Former Ambassador to USSR Matlock Lambastes U.S. Policy on Russia Jack Matlock, who served as U.S. ambassador to the Soviet Union, 1987-91, was the featured speaker at an event sponsored by the Committee

More information

But I Say unto You: Forgive Richmond s First Baptist Church, September 17, 2017 The Fifteenth Sunday after Pentecost Matthew 18:21-35

But I Say unto You: Forgive Richmond s First Baptist Church, September 17, 2017 The Fifteenth Sunday after Pentecost Matthew 18:21-35 But I Say unto You: Forgive Richmond s First Baptist Church, September 17, 2017 The Fifteenth Sunday after Pentecost Matthew 18:21-35 Then Peter came and said to him, Lord, if another member of the church

More information

September 18, 1956 Conversation records between Chairman Mao Zedong and the Soviet Communist Party Delegation, 18 September 1956

September 18, 1956 Conversation records between Chairman Mao Zedong and the Soviet Communist Party Delegation, 18 September 1956 Digital Archive International History Declassified digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org September 18, 1956 Conversation records between Chairman Mao Zedong and the Soviet Communist Party Delegation, 18 September

More information

Graduate Certificate in Narrative Therapy. Final written assignment

Graduate Certificate in Narrative Therapy. Final written assignment Graduate Certificate in Narrative Therapy Dulwich Centre, Australia E- Learning program 2016-2017 Final written assignment Co-operation between therapist and consultant against sexual abuse and its effects:

More information

February 02, Third African Department, Soviet Foreign Ministry, Information Report on Somali-Ethiopian Territorial. Disputes

February 02, Third African Department, Soviet Foreign Ministry, Information Report on Somali-Ethiopian Territorial. Disputes Digital Archive International History Declassified digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org February 02, 1977 Third African Department, Soviet Foreign Ministry, Information Report on Somali-Ethiopian Territorial

More information

Dana: 63 years. Wow. So what made you decide to become a member of Vineville?

Dana: 63 years. Wow. So what made you decide to become a member of Vineville? Interview with Mrs. Cris Williamson April 23, 2010 Interviewers: Dacia Collins, Drew Haynes, and Dana Ziglar Dana: So how long have you been in Vineville Baptist Church? Mrs. Williamson: 63 years. Dana:

More information

What differs and what unites the worship and liturgy style of the Eurasian UMC which is placed in seven countries of the former USSR s territory?

What differs and what unites the worship and liturgy style of the Eurasian UMC which is placed in seven countries of the former USSR s territory? What differs and what unites the worship and liturgy style of the Eurasian UMC which is placed in seven countries of the former USSR s territory? Some words from historical background In the 20 th century,

More information

Units 3 & 4 History: Revolutions

Units 3 & 4 History: Revolutions Units 3 & 4 History: Revolutions Lecture 9 The Bolshevik Revolution Link to the Videos https://edrolo.com.au/vce/subjects/history/vce-history-revolutions/russian-revolution/bolshevikrevolution/bolshevik-majority-in-soviets/

More information

Russian adventurism under Putin: Lessons from Ukraine and Syria

Russian adventurism under Putin: Lessons from Ukraine and Syria Title: Russian adventurism under Putin: Lessons from Ukraine and Syria Date: 20 November 2015 (11:00-12:00) Duration: 53.24 mins Speakers: S1 - Professor Wheeler - Jack Matlock **** S1 Well good morning

More information

13. Address by Adolf Hitler 1 SEPTEMBER (Address by Adolf Hitler, Chancellor of the Reich, before the Reichstag, September 1, 1939)

13. Address by Adolf Hitler 1 SEPTEMBER (Address by Adolf Hitler, Chancellor of the Reich, before the Reichstag, September 1, 1939) THE ORGANISATION OF COLLECTIVE SELF-DEFENCE 58 13. Address by Adolf Hitler 1 SEPTEMBER 1939 (Address by Adolf Hitler, Chancellor of the Reich, before the Reichstag, September 1, 1939) For months we have

More information

Pre-War Stalinism. Life under the Totalitarian Dictator

Pre-War Stalinism. Life under the Totalitarian Dictator Pre-War Stalinism Life under the Totalitarian Dictator Totalitarianism Defined Form of rule where Gov. has total control over society including all aspects of the public and private life of its citizens

More information

Animal Farm. Teaching Unit. Advanced Placement in English Literature and Composition. Individual Learning Packet. by George Orwell

Animal Farm. Teaching Unit. Advanced Placement in English Literature and Composition. Individual Learning Packet. by George Orwell Advanced Placement in English Literature and Composition Individual Learning Packet Teaching Unit Animal Farm by George Orwell Written by Eva Richardson Copyright 2007 by Prestwick House Inc., P.O. Box

More information

EUR1 What did Lenin and Stalin contribute to communism in Russia?

EUR1 What did Lenin and Stalin contribute to communism in Russia? EUR1 What did Lenin and Stalin contribute to communism in Russia? Communism is a political ideology that would seek to establish a classless, stateless society. Pure Communism, the ultimate form of Communism

More information

Document No. 4 Memorandum of Conversation of George H.W. Bush, John Sununu, Brent Scowcroft, and Helmut Kohl. December 3, 1989

Document No. 4 Memorandum of Conversation of George H.W. Bush, John Sununu, Brent Scowcroft, and Helmut Kohl. December 3, 1989 Document No. 4 Memorandum of Conversation of George H.W. Bush, John Sununu, Brent Scowcroft, and Helmut Kohl December 3, 1989 The President: We had no particular agenda for our meeting in Malta, and President

More information

Contact for further information about this collection

Contact for further information about this collection NAME: WILLIAM G. BATES INTERVIEWER: ED SHEEHEE DATE: NOVEMBER 7, 1978 CAMP: DACHAU A:: My name is William G. Bates. I live at 2569 Windwood Court, Atlanta, Georgia 30360. I was born September 29, 1922.

More information

Putin s Playbook. Angela Stent Russian and Foreign Policy Expert. A speech for the Los Angeles World Affairs Council March 12 th, 2014

Putin s Playbook. Angela Stent Russian and Foreign Policy Expert. A speech for the Los Angeles World Affairs Council March 12 th, 2014 1 Putin s Playbook A speech for the Los Angeles World Affairs Council March 12 th, 2014 Angela Stent Russian and Foreign Policy Expert Terry: Our speaker who maybe has become familiar to some of you in

More information

THE ECUMENICAL MOVEMENT IN EASTERN EUROPE

THE ECUMENICAL MOVEMENT IN EASTERN EUROPE 46 THE ECUMENICAL MOVEMENT IN EASTERN EUROPE David Russell is a Scot and a Baptist. Of both these important facts he is himself very sure. To most of those who have come into contact with him he has quickly

More information

April 07, 1952 Conversation between Joseph V. Stalin and SED leadership

April 07, 1952 Conversation between Joseph V. Stalin and SED leadership Digital Archive International History Declassified digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org April 07, 1952 Conversation between Joseph V. Stalin and SED leadership Citation: Conversation between Joseph V. Stalin

More information

Sir Alec Douglas-Home Oral History Statement 3/17/1965 Administrative Information

Sir Alec Douglas-Home Oral History Statement 3/17/1965 Administrative Information Sir Alec Douglas-Home Oral History Statement 3/17/1965 Administrative Information Creator: Sir Alec Douglas-Home Date of Statement: March 17, 1965 Place of Interview: London, England Length: 7 pages Biographical

More information

Transcript by James G. Hershberg (George Washington University) with assistance from David Coleman and Marc Selverstone (University of Virginia).

Transcript by James G. Hershberg (George Washington University) with assistance from David Coleman and Marc Selverstone (University of Virginia). Transcript by James G. Hershberg (George Washington University) with assistance from David Coleman and Marc Selverstone (University of Virginia). Excerpts from John F. Kennedy's conversation regarding

More information

THE. Attribution:: Shutterstock NEWS& VIEWS

THE. Attribution:: Shutterstock NEWS& VIEWS Carter Report Attribution:: Shutterstock THE NEWS& VIEWS F e b r u a r y 2 0 1 7 LETTERS FROM AROUND THE WORLD O. Clarke, Brooklyn, NY Willie J., Los Angeles, CA Pastor John Carter, Thanks to God for the

More information

RUSSIAN REVOLUTION KEY ECONOMIC INFLUENCES

RUSSIAN REVOLUTION KEY ECONOMIC INFLUENCES KEY ECONOMIC INFLUENCES CAPITALISM INDIVIDUALS & BUSINESSES INDIVIDUAL S SELF-INTEREST COMSUMER COMPETITION German Journalist Changes Economic Ideals in Europe German Journalist s Radical Ideas for Socialism

More information

TwiceAround Podcast Episode 7: What Are Our Biases Costing Us? Transcript

TwiceAround Podcast Episode 7: What Are Our Biases Costing Us? Transcript TwiceAround Podcast Episode 7: What Are Our Biases Costing Us? Transcript Speaker 1: Speaker 2: Speaker 3: Speaker 4: [00:00:30] Speaker 5: Speaker 6: Speaker 7: Speaker 8: When I hear the word "bias,"

More information

Antisemitism and Orthodoxy in Russia Today: a sociologist's view*

Antisemitism and Orthodoxy in Russia Today: a sociologist's view* Religion, State and Society, Vo!. 23, No. 1, 1995 Antisemitism and Orthodoxy in Russia Today: a sociologist's view* VLADIMIR BORZENKO In response to the request to name Jews who have made an important

More information

P. O. Box , Tulsa, Oklahoma Annual Report RENNER Ministries 2017

P. O. Box , Tulsa, Oklahoma Annual Report RENNER Ministries 2017 P. O. Box 702040, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74170-2040 www.renner.org prayer@renner.org 1-800-742-5593 Annual Report RENNER Ministries 2017 A Word From Rick and Denise This past year was a great year for RENNER

More information

THE EVOLUTION OF COMMUNISM 1. Scott Masters Crestwood College

THE EVOLUTION OF COMMUNISM 1. Scott Masters Crestwood College THE EVOLUTION OF COMMUNISM 1 Scott Masters Crestwood College INFLUENCES ON MARX - G.W.F. HEGEL/HEGELIANISM history is the unfolding of reality itself, the ideas or mind of the universe; what happens in

More information

Ep #8: Owning Negative Emotion

Ep #8: Owning Negative Emotion Full Episode Transcript With Your Host Brooke Castillo Welcome to The Life Coach School podcast, where it s all about real clients, real problems and real coaching. And now your host, Master Coach Instructor,

More information

The Soviet Union vs. Human Nature

The Soviet Union vs. Human Nature Subjects: History / Philosophy The Soviet Union vs. Human Nature Aim / Essential Question How did the Soviet Union require changing the nature of people? Overview Many people regard human beings as having

More information

Photo courtesy Marco Lui

Photo courtesy Marco Lui Photo courtesy Marco Lui 46 Issue 15 APR/MAY 2011 Marco Lui INTERVIEW BY KATHERINE MORRIS & MEAGAN BRADY TRANSLATION BY UGO PEREGO WEB: YOUTUBE.COM/USER/THEBOOKOFLIFEMOVIE You are, of course, quite famous

More information

Fathers and Sons ESSAI. Jessica Lee College of DuPage. Volume 14 Article 24. Spring Follow this and additional works at:

Fathers and Sons ESSAI. Jessica Lee College of DuPage. Volume 14 Article 24. Spring Follow this and additional works at: ESSAI Volume 14 Article 24 Spring 2016 Fathers and Sons Jessica Lee College of DuPage Follow this and additional works at: http://dc.cod.edu/essai Recommended Citation Lee, Jessica (2016) "Fathers and

More information

STOP THE SUN. Gary Paulsen

STOP THE SUN. Gary Paulsen STOP THE SUN Gary Paulsen Terry Erickson was a tall boy; 13, starting to fill out with muscle but still a little awkward. He was on the edge of being a good athlete, which meant a lot to him. He felt it

More information

Village Church September 30, 2012 Martin B. Copenhaver Luke 15: The Elder Brother

Village Church September 30, 2012 Martin B. Copenhaver Luke 15: The Elder Brother Village Church September 30, 2012 Martin B. Copenhaver Luke 15:11-32 The Elder Brother One of the classes I took in Divinity School was, Introduction to Pastoral Counseling. The professor in that class

More information

PADEREWSKI PRIVATE GRAMMAR SCHOOL PRE-DP ENTRANCE EXAM 2014 NAME:

PADEREWSKI PRIVATE GRAMMAR SCHOOL PRE-DP ENTRANCE EXAM 2014 NAME: PADEREWSKI PRIVATE GRAMMAR SCHOOL PRE-DP ENTRANCE EXAM 2014 NAME: Good luck! Test result: points out of 70 Examiner's signature: Date: Part I Grammar and Vocabulary Score: / 32 I. Choose the best answer.

More information

PEOPLE. Jaroslav Lacina

PEOPLE. Jaroslav Lacina Jaroslav Lacina On 6th March 2011 at ECAHO General Meeting the new President s election will take place. Unexpectedly and unlike the years before this year s voting is being preceded by the public actions

More information

RELIGION, STATE and SOCIETY

RELIGION, STATE and SOCIETY RELIGION, STATE and SOCIETY Volume 20 Number 1 1992 Editorial Notes on contributors Russophobia, Antisemitism and Christianity: Some Remarks on an Anti-Russian Idea ZOYA KRAKHMAL'NIKOVA The National Idea

More information

Kindergarten-2nd. March 16-17, Jesus Calms the Storm. Matthew 8:23-27 Adventure Bible for Early Readers, pg We can give our fears to God

Kindergarten-2nd. March 16-17, Jesus Calms the Storm. Matthew 8:23-27 Adventure Bible for Early Readers, pg We can give our fears to God Kindergarten-2nd March 16-17, 2013 Matthew 8:23-27 Adventure Bible for Early Readers, pg. 1131 Hang out with kids (10 minutes): Ask kids about their week. Get kids into groups and play games together.

More information

August 26, Record of Soviet-Somali Talks, Moscow (excerpts), with Somali aide-memoire, 10 August 1977

August 26, Record of Soviet-Somali Talks, Moscow (excerpts), with Somali aide-memoire, 10 August 1977 Digital Archive International History Declassified digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org August 26, 1977 Record of Soviet-Somali Talks, Moscow (excerpts), with Somali aide-memoire, 10 August 1977 Citation: Record

More information

Select EIGHT individuals associated with the Civil War to attend your party from the lists below.

Select EIGHT individuals associated with the Civil War to attend your party from the lists below. DIRECTIONS: Eureka it s party time! Have you ever wondered what it would be like to party with your favorite Civil War Era personalities? Well now is your chance to find out just how hip and how cool history

More information

A Conversation. Ai Weiwei, Ethan Cohen. Social Research: An International Quarterly, Volume 83, Number 1, Spring 2016, pp.

A Conversation. Ai Weiwei, Ethan Cohen. Social Research: An International Quarterly, Volume 83, Number 1, Spring 2016, pp. A Conversation Ai Weiwei, Ethan Cohen Social Research: An International Quarterly, Volume 83, Number 1, Spring 2016, pp. 155-163 (Article) Published by Johns Hopkins University Press For additional information

More information

THE SECOND SLAVIC BAPTIST CHURCH SACRAMENTO CITY

THE SECOND SLAVIC BAPTIST CHURCH SACRAMENTO CITY SHORT HISTORY OF THE SECOND SLAVIC BAPTIST CHURCH SACRAMENTO CITY MARCH 16 TH 1997 MARCH 26 TH 2017 Before 1997, the city of Sacramento had only one Slavic Baptist church, where the late F.P. Karpets served

More information

The Kornilov Affair: Fighting for a Lost Cause

The Kornilov Affair: Fighting for a Lost Cause The Kornilov Affair: Fighting for a Lost Cause By Lindsey M. Holland On the heels of one of the least successful Russian offenses of the First World War, General Lavr Kornilov attempted a coup d état to

More information

Easter Fools. Here is the scripture reading for this week:

Easter Fools. Here is the scripture reading for this week: Easter Fools April 1, 2018 Mark 16: 1-8 Rev. Kimberly Heath Wall Street United Church Here is the scripture reading for this week: Mark 16:1-8 New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) When the sabbath was over,

More information

The Murders in the Rue Morgue

The Murders in the Rue Morgue E d g a r A l l a n P o e The Murders in the Rue Morgue Part Three It Was in Paris that I met August Dupin. He was an unusually interesting young man with a busy, forceful mind. This mind could, it seemed,

More information

How the Relationship between Iran and America. Led to the Iranian Revolution

How the Relationship between Iran and America. Led to the Iranian Revolution Page 1 How the Relationship between Iran and America Led to the Iranian Revolution Writer s Name July 13, 2005 G(5) Advanced Academic Writing Page 2 Thesis This paper discusses U.S.-Iranian relationships

More information

January 2: Near the Mekong River, the Battle of Ap Bac begins. Even though South Vietnam has more men, air support and American advisors, they will

January 2: Near the Mekong River, the Battle of Ap Bac begins. Even though South Vietnam has more men, air support and American advisors, they will JFK at 100 presented by Kennedys and King May 2017 January 2: Near the Mekong River, the Battle of Ap Bac begins. Even though South Vietnam has more men, air support and American advisors, they will lose.

More information

Have You Burned a Boat Lately? You Probably Need to

Have You Burned a Boat Lately? You Probably Need to Podcast Episode 184 Unedited Transcript Listen here Have You Burned a Boat Lately? You Probably Need to David Loy: Hi and welcome to In the Loop with Andy Andrews, I m your host David Loy. Andy, thanks

More information

Interview with Kalle Könkkölä by Adolf Ratzka

Interview with Kalle Könkkölä by Adolf Ratzka Interview with Kalle Könkkölä by Adolf Ratzka November 2008 Kalle Könkkölä 1 of 4 Kalle, welcome. You've been doing so much in your life it's hard for me to remember, although I've known you for quite

More information

Interview with Florian Mühlfried

Interview with Florian Mühlfried East European Film Bulletin Interview with Florian Mühlfried We discussed the supra the Georgian table with German anthropologist Florian Mühlfried on the occasion of our special food-themed issue (October

More information

Master Double Degree Programme International Mechatronics Winter Semester 2013/2014 report by Martynovich Kirill

Master Double Degree Programme International Mechatronics Winter Semester 2013/2014 report by Martynovich Kirill Master Double Degree Programme International Mechatronics Winter Semester 2013/2014 report by Martynovich Kirill Introduction My name is Kirill and I am the student of Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University

More information

ntroduction to Socialist Humanism: An International Symposium by Eri...

ntroduction to Socialist Humanism: An International Symposium by Eri... ntroduction to Socialist Humanism: An International Symposium by Eri... 1 of 5 8/22/2015 2:38 PM Erich Fromm 1965 Introduction to Socialist Humanism: An International Symposium Written: 1965; Source: The

More information

BIBLE RADIO PRODUCTIONS

BIBLE RADIO PRODUCTIONS BIBLE RADIO PRODUCTIONS www.bibleradio.org.au BIBLE ADVENTURES SCRIPT: A1743 ~ Paul and Silas put in Prison. Welcome to Bible Adventures. Help for today. Hope for tomorrow. Jesus is Lord of all. In the

More information

Living A Balanced Life Ephesians 3:21-4:1 W

Living A Balanced Life Ephesians 3:21-4:1 W Living A Balanced Life Ephesians 3:21-4:1 W hen I say the words living a balanced life what thoughts come to mind? We might think it means that we divide our time and passions equally between various things,

More information

Quotations. Where annual elections end, there slavery begins. John Adams, Thoughts on Government, Student Handout 15A.1.

Quotations. Where annual elections end, there slavery begins. John Adams, Thoughts on Government, Student Handout 15A.1. Student Handout 15A.1 After weeks of study, this voter has made up her mind on the issues. She is now casting her ballot in favor of the party she believes best represents the values she holds dear. I

More information

St. Basil's Cathedral

St. Basil's Cathedral St. Basil's Cathedral Address: Moscow, Red Square 1/2 Metro: Okhotny Ryad, Teatralnaya Opening hours: Mon, Wed, Thu, Fri, Sat - 10.00 to 18.00 Last admission at 17.00 Sun - 11.00 to 20.00 Last admission

More information

Human Rights, Equality and the Judiciary: An Interview with Baroness Hale of Richmond

Human Rights, Equality and the Judiciary: An Interview with Baroness Hale of Richmond Human Rights, Equality and the Judiciary Human Rights, Equality and the Judiciary: An Interview with Baroness Hale of Richmond EDWARD CHIN A ND FRASER ALCORN An outspoken advocate for gender equality,

More information

November 13, 2016 I ve Got good news and Good News Rev. Dr. John Ross Jeremiah 31:31-34

November 13, 2016 I ve Got good news and Good News Rev. Dr. John Ross Jeremiah 31:31-34 November 13, 2016 I ve Got good news and Good News Rev. Dr. John Ross Jeremiah 31:31-34 Rachel s coming forward to read our scripture passage this morning. I want to tell you that no matter what Three

More information

China Foreign Relations of the United States, Volume XVII. Steven E. Phillips

China Foreign Relations of the United States, Volume XVII. Steven E. Phillips Foreign Relations of the United States, 1969-1972 Volume XVII China 1969-1972 Editor General Editor Steven E. Phillips Edward C. Keefer United States Government Printing Office Washington 2006 [P. 677

More information

Yalta and Potsdam: Start of the Cold War. Yalta Conference

Yalta and Potsdam: Start of the Cold War. Yalta Conference Yalta Conference In February 1945 Franklin Roosevelt of the USA, Joseph Stalin of the USSR and Winston Churchill met at Yalta in the Soviet Union. The war in Europe was nearing its end and decisions had

More information

Consequences of the War on Terror

Consequences of the War on Terror Consequences of the War on Terror An address given to the Los Angeles World Affairs Council on September 20, 2006 by George Soros Financier and Philanthropist Founder and Chairman, Open Society Institute;

More information

Enlightenment and Revolutions HW Packet #2 Honors (Ch. 6, 7, 8) Essay

Enlightenment and Revolutions HW Packet #2 Honors (Ch. 6, 7, 8) Essay Enlightenment and Revolutions HW Packet #2 Honors (Ch. 6, 7, 8) Name: Essay Explain how the Enlightenment caused the American, French, and Latin American Revolutions? Remember your essay should start with

More information