2 What is an argument from authority? We should believe P because an expert or We should believe P because an expert, or authority, believes P.
3 In our textbook, p. 96: This fallacy aacys is committed whenever e e we ague argue for some point, not because it is well grounded in fact or logic but because of the authority of the person who presented it. The standing or prestige of a recognised authority is said to guarantee the truth of the claim, and anyone who doubts it is made to feel presumptuous or egotistical. The thrust of the argument is, Who are you to challenge the judgment of this authority or the experience of that expert?
4 p. 97: In a sense, this seems reasonable because we do accept ideas on authority all the time. No one can check the evidence of everything that is claimed, so we must depend on the information provided by authorities. We accept the laws of gravity and of motion because Sir Isaac Newton formulated them. Really? (poor example)
5 However, an idea does not become true simply because an authority says so; the person must have a good reason to say so. When we cite an authority in an argument we must show why the person s opinion should be accepted, what definitive proof he or she has to offer....
6 ...If we accept people as authorities it is because we have confidence that they support their insights with good thinking and good evidence. Furthermore, the evidence should be publicly verifiable, whether in the form of reproducible experiments or rational reasons that anyone can consider. consider
7 What is Porter saying? When we cite an authority in an argument we must show why the person s opinion should be accepted, what definitive proof he or she has to offer. You can appeal to authority only if you check the original data and arguments? Then you re not appealing to authority at all, or only marginally.
8 Partial trust? Or perhaps you just check that they have some substantial argument? Or perhaps you take a quick look at their arguments, to see if they seem solid?
9 Secret Arguments, Secret Data It seems right that we should be very wary of experts who keep their arguments, or data/premises secret. Although h sometimes there might plausibly be a need for secrecy ( the data are proprietary, for reasons of national security, etc.) i it s still hard to trust experts in these cases.
10 FINDING REGARDING PUBLIC SAFETY INFORMATION Pursuant to Section 7(d) of the National Construction Safety Team Act, AtI hereby find that t the disclosure of the information described below, received by the National Institute of Standards and Technology ("NIST"), in connection with its investigation of the technical causes of the collapse of the World Trade Center Towers and World Trade Center Building 7 on September 11,2001, mightjeopardize publicsafety. Therefore, NIST shall not release the following information: [all input data from their computer model of WTC 7] Patrick Gallagher, Director, National Institute of Standards and Technology, JUL
11 What if the authorities disagree? Believe the highest authority? Maybe, as a general policy. How do you judge which authority is higher? Ph.D. beats M.A.? Number of publications? Professors beat those working in industry?
12 What if top authorities disagree? They cancel out, and you can t conclude anything? Or do you count how many there are on each side? Some scientists i are sceptical of global l warming, but the vast majority of experts, a strong international i consensus, bli believe that it is a fact.
13 Mammals and the Nature of Continents, by George Gaylord Simpson. American Journal of Science 241 (1943): on his particular subject [continental drift] the verdict of paleontologists is practically unanimous: almost all agree in opposing his views For instance in canvassing opinions at some length, Du Toit (1937, Chapter II) was able to cite no paleontologists as active protagonists of continental drift and only one as sympathetic with it this one, Seward, is a specialist on the anatomy of primitive plants and as regards the drift theory he disagrees with a clear consensus of the paleobotanists t more immediately concerned with phytogeography (e.g., Berry, 1928; Chaney, 1940).
14 The fact that almost allpaleontologists say that paleontological data oppose the various theories of continental drift should, perhaps, p obviate further discussion of this point and would do so were it not that the adherents of these theories all agree that paleontological data do support them. It must be almost unique in scientific history for a group of students admittedly without special competence in a given field thus to reject the all but unanimous verdict of those who do have such competence.
15 Authority and Peer Review One of the main symbols of authority in academic communities, including science, is thepeer reviewed reviewed journal article. Work that hasn t been published in a proper peer reviewed journal isn t worth taking seriously. But peer reviewed work has an aura of invincibility.
16 My work on the ecology of slime moulds has been published in the journal Nature. Read as: My work on the ecology of slime moulds has been published in the journal NATURE
17 Criticisms of Peer review "There seems to be no study too fragmented, no hypothesis too trivial, no literature too biased or too egotistical, no design too warped, no methodology too bungled, no presentation of results too inaccurate, too obscure, and too contradictory, no analysis too selfserving, no argument too circular, no conclusions too trifling or too unjustified, and no grammar and syntax too offensive for a paper to end up in print. Drummond Rennie, deputy editor of Journal of the American Medical Association (quoted from Wikipedia)
18 Richard Horton, editor of the British medical journal The Lancet: "The mistake, of course, is to have thought that peer review was any more than a crude means of discovering the acceptability not the validity of a new finding. Editors and scientists alike insist on the pivotal importance of peer review. We portray peer review to the public as a quasi sacred sacred process that helps to make science our most objective truth teller. But we know that the system of peer review is biased, unjust, unaccountable, incomplete, easily fixed, often insulting, usually ignorant, occasionally foolish, and frequently wrong."
19 This reminds me of a paper that was being reviewed by the boss of the lab I was in. He passed it around to see what people thought. I told him that I thought it was pretty poor. He said, Yeah I know. They cite us really well so I am going to accept it anyway. (a scientist writing on a private list)
20 Petitions of Experts If a few hundred experts in a certain field sign a petition about something in that field, what does that mean? Should it be taken seriously?
21 Dissent from Darwin petition (2001) "We are skeptical of claims for the ability of random mutation and natural selection to account for the complexity of life. Careful examination of the evidence for Darwinian theory should be encouraged." More than 700 scientists signed this (must either hold a Ph.D. in a scientific field such as biology, chemistry, mathematics, engineering, computer science, or one of the other natural sciences, or be a professor of medicine).
22 Project Steve petition Evolution is a vital, well supported, unifying principle of the biological sciences, and the scientific evidence is overwhelmingly in favor of the idea that all living things share a common ancestry. Although there are legitimate debates about the patterns and processes of evolution, there is no serious scientific doubt that evolution occurred or that natural selection is a major mechanism in its occurrence (More than 1100 scientists signed this. Need a Ph.D. in biology, geology, paleontology, or a related scientific field, and be called Steven, Stephanie, Esteban, Stefano, etc.)
23 Yet, the book s contention that natural selection s importance for evolution has been hugely overstated represents a point of view that has a growing set of adherents. (A few months ago, I was amazed to hear it expressed, in the strongest terms, from another highly eminent microbiologist.) My impression is that evolutionary biology is increasingly separating into two camps, divided id d over just tthis question. On the one hand are the population geneticists and evolutionary biologists who continue to believe that selection has a creative and crucial role in evolution and, on the other, there is a growing body of scientists (largely those who have come into evolution from molecularbiology, developmental biologyordevelopmental or genetics, and microbiology) who reject it. Adam S. Wilkins, Genome Biology and Evolution, January 2012.
24 1600 Architects and Engineers We believe there is sufficient doubt about the official story to justify re opening the 9/11 investigation. Thenew investigation must include a full inquiry into the possible use of explosives that might have been theactual cause of the destruction of the World Trade Center Twin Towers and Building 7. (Th t b t l t illi li d i (There must be at least a million licensed engineers in the US alone. Do we pay attention to 1600?)
25 Universally though has theforegoing explanation of collapse [due to aircraft impacts and fire] been accepted by the communities of structural engineers and structural mechanics researchers, some outside critics have nevertheless exploited various unexplained observations to disseminate allegations of controlled demolition. (Zdenek Bazant et al, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, October 2008.)
26 Bias Regardless of academic credentials, it seems that authority can be destroyed by bias. Bias isn t the same as having an opinion. It all depends on why one has an opinion. A bias is dfi defined das a non epistemic i source of belief. In other words, one s belief is caused by something other than the proper reasons for belief, such as evidence and argument.
27 Bias and conflict of interest Let s say a public official is supposed to decide which of 3 bids for a construction project to accept. She s supposed to choose the one that will best serve the public interest. But what if her brother works for one of the bidding companies, and badly needs the work? (Also, that company s bid isn t the strongest.) What will she do?
28 Bias and conflict of interest A bias is a kind of conflict of interest, where one s proper interest (to believe the truth) conflicts with some non epistemic interest, such as keeping one s job, making money, etc. It is difficult to get a man to understand something, when his salary depends d upon his not understanding it! (Upton Sinclair)
29 Examples of Biased Beliefs A mother cannot believe that her son, her baby boy, has committed the crime he is accused of. A professor is sure that his pet theory, the one his entire career is based on, is true. A tobacco industry executive is sure that smoking cannot be harmful.
30 Bias in medicine The United States Preventive Services Task Force, appointed by the Dept. of Health and Human Services, has released (Oct. 2011) an update for the invasive and fear provoking male screening test, theps P.S.A. blood test and manual exam for prostate cancer.
31 Bias in medicine (T)he test does not save lives over all and often leads to more tests and treatments that needlessly cause pain, impotence and incontinence in many, Treating men with high P.S.A. levels has become a lucrative business.
32 From 1986 through 2005, one million men received surgery, radiation therapy or both who would not have been treated without a P.S.A. test... Among them, at least 5,000 died soon after surgery and 10, to 70, suffered serious complications. Half had persistent blood in their semen, and 200, to 300,000 suffered impotence, incontinence or both.
33 Doctors also acknowledged that financial incentives from the fee for service payment model encouraged them to do moreratherrather than less. Thirty nine percent said other primary care doctors would order fewer diagnostic tests if those tests didn t generate extra revenue for them, and 62% said medical subspecialists would cut back if the tests didn t come with financial incentives.
35 Cases of bias Pharmaceutical companies hire ghost writers to place product friendly articles in prestigious scientific journals, under the name of a recognised scientist. Oil companies have supported the research of scientists who cast doubt on the view that global warming is caused by use of fossil fuels. Have scientists exaggerated the risk of gloom and doom global lwarming scenarios, in order to get continued (government) research funding?
36 Dr. Harrison "Jack" Schmitt, a former United States Senator, astronaut and geologist Policy makers at the head of government in the United States and elsewhere apparently want to believe, and to have others believe, that human use of fossil fuels accelerates global warming. They pursue this quest in order to impose ever greater and clearly unconstitutional control on the economy and personal liberty in the name of a hypothetically omnipotent government. a poorly concealed, ideologically driven attempt to use conjured up threats of catastrophic consequences as a lever to gain authoritarian control of society.
37 Ad hominem An ad hominem argument, one that attacks a person, is usually improper. But it can be ok when used against an argument from authority.
42 7. Read thefollowing passage, and then list three factors that possibly weaken the authority of Grant Fredericks in this testimony. (N.B. Do not criticize Fredericks argument.)
43 VANCOUVER An inquiry probing the death of Robert Dziekanski at Vancouver's airport in 2007 watched a three second video clip just before he was Tasered. An expert forensic video analyst, Grant Fredericks, testified the video showed Dziekanski took three steps toward four RCMP officers before he was hit with the first of five Taser shots. He appeared to be moving away from the camera, Fredericks told inquiry commissioner Thomas Braidwood, a retired judge.
44 Fredericks is a former TV reporter who became a Vancouver police officer in 1988, lft left policing i in 2000 to become a video analysis consultant and teacher. He said he used an amateur video taken of the incident at the airport and measured the computer pixels between Dziekanski and fixed objects such as an overhead sign and an airport counter during the criticalthree three seconds. The video shows Dziekanski methodically moving toward police before he was shot with the Taser, he said. Cross examined by Don Rosenbloom, the lawyer representing the Polish government at the inquiry, Fredericks couldn t give an exact estimateof the distance Dziekanski movedtoward the four Mounties whether it was one inch or one foot.
45 The witness also admitted he was no expert in biomechanics or the study of human motion. Two other experts Duane MacInnis, a Vancouver professional engineer, and Mark Hird Rutter, a certified photogammetrist who teaches at BCIT produced reports that found Fredericks used flawed methodology. Hird Rutter concluded that, using Fredericks measurements, it is not possible to determine if Mr. Dziekanski moved forwards or backwards.
Argument from Authority Sez who? What is an argument from authority? We should believe P because an expert, or authority, believes P. This fallacy is committed whenever we argue for some point, not because
Appeal to Authority (Ad Verecundiam) An Appeal to Authority is a fallacy with the following form: 1) Person A is (claimed to be) an authority on subject S. 2) Person A makes claim C about subject S. 3)
Your Paper The assignment is really about logic and the evaluation of information, not purely about writing You are to write a paper on the general topic of global warming. The first challenge is to keep
Tuning Up Your Baloney Detector Critical thinking skills are necessary for thinking biblically and in a way that glorifies God. Sue Bohlin explores some of the ways to develop those skills. This article
Since humans began studying the world around them, they have wondered how the biodiversity we see around us came to be. There have been many ideas posed throughout history, but not enough observable facts
and Science Understanding the conflict (WAR)? Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed, is a documentary which looks at how scientists who have discussed or written about Intelligent Design (and along the way
SCIENTIFIC THEORIES ABOUT THE ORIGINS OF THE WORLD AND HUMANITY Key ideas: Cosmology is about the origins of the universe which most scientists believe is caused by the Big Bang. Evolution concerns the
Does God Exist? Genesis 1:1 By David Dann Does God Exist? --Introduction Does God Exist? --Introduction One of the most important questions ever asked is there a God? Does God Exist? --Introduction One
The scientific worldview is supremely influential because science has been so successful. It touches all our lives through technology and through modern medicine. Our intellectual world has been transformed
Quantum Home Trainer is Fraud How Does the Quantum Home Trainer Work? Answer: It does NOT Work, it is Fraudulent, Unregistered, Unverified, and Unsubstantiated WHPRS rating -2 because it is actually based
MÈTODE Science Studies Journal, 5 (2015): 195-199. University of Valencia. DOI: 10.7203/metode.84.3883 ISSN: 2174-3487. Article received: 10/07/2014, accepted: 18/09/2014. IS THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD A MYTH?
New people and a new type of communication Lyudmila A. Markova, Russian Academy of Sciences Steve Fuller considers the important topic of the origin of a new type of people. He calls them intellectuals,
BIO 221 Invertebrate Zoology I Spring 2010 Stephen M. Shuster Northern Arizona University http://www4.nau.edu/isopod Lecture 1 Course Information Stephen M. Shuster Professor of Invertebrate Zoology Office:
Asbury Theological Seminary eplace: preserving, learning, and creative exchange Syllabi ecommons 1-1-2006 CS 682 Bioethics: Creation and the Environment James R. Thobaben Follow this and additional works
An Introduction to Science Scientific Thinking and the Scientific Method by Steven D. Schafersman Department of Geology Miami University January, 1997 http://www.muohio.edu/~schafesd/documents/intro-to-sci.htmlx
. What is the purpose of argumentation? Argumentation 2. What should we consider when making (or testing) an argument? According to Toulmin (964), the checking list can be outlined as follows: () The Claim
SHARPENING THINKING SKILLS Case study: Science and religion (* especially relevant to Chapters 3, 8 & 10) Case study 1: Teaching truth claims When approaching truth claims about the world it is important
AICE Thinking kills Review How to Master Paper 2 Important Things to Remember You are given 1 hour and 45 minutes for Paper 2 You should spend approximately 30 minutes on each question Write neatly! Read
Bias, Humans Perception, and the Internet What are your favorite conspiracy theories? Moon landing hoax Vaccines cause autism Climate change is a hoax Chemtrails are a thing Politicians are all Reptilian
Chapter 10 Consciousness and Evolution If being alive is being conscious, then our study of the evolution of life must include the story of consciousness. In this chapter, I will suggest that consciousness
Constitutional Rights Foundation Bill of Rights in Action 22:2 The Scopes Trial: Who Decides What Gets Taught in the Classroom? One of the most famous trials in American history took place in a small town
Mètode Science Studies Journal ISSN: 2174-3487 email@example.com Universitat de València España Sober, Elliott IS THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD A MYTH? PERSPECTIVES FROM THE HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE Mètode
Chance, Chaos and the Principle of Sufficient Reason Alexander R. Pruss Department of Philosophy Baylor University October 8, 2015 Contents The Principle of Sufficient Reason Against the PSR Chance Fundamental
Annual Reviews Audio Presents An Interview with Susan Gottesman Annual Reviews Audio. 2009 First published online on August 28, 2009 Annual Reviews Audio interviews are online at www.annualreviews.org/page/audio
Page 1 of 10 Published on The New Republic (http://www.tnr.com/) TNR Q&A: Dr. Stephen Schneider One of the world's leading climatologists discusses the line between science and activism. Marilyn Berlin
AN OUTLINE OF CRITICAL THINKING LEVELS OF INQUIRY 1. Information: correct understanding of basic information. 2. Understanding basic ideas: correct understanding of the basic meaning of key ideas. 3. Probing:
Religious and Scientific Affliations As found on the IDEA Center website at http://www.ideacenter.org Introduction When discussing the subject of "origins" (i.e. the question "How did we get here?", people
How To Recognize and Avoid Them Joseph M Conlon Technical Advisor, AMCA Fallacies are logical errors that weaken arguments Commonplace Can be persuasive to the uninformed Can be driven by agendas or strong
Darwinism as Religion: What Literature Tells us about evolution By Michael Ruse. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016 jennifer komorowski In his book Darwinism as Religion: What Literature Tells Us About
The Clock without a Maker There are a many great questions in life in which people have asked themselves. Who are we? What is the meaning of life? Where do come from? This paper will be undertaking the
Christian Discernment We are confronted with ethical choices and moral complexity. We must apply biblical principles to these social and political issues. And we must avoid the pitfalls and logical fallacies
Argument Writing Whooohoo!! Argument instruction is necessary * Argument comprehension is required in school assignments, standardized testing, job promotion as well as political and personal decision-making
INTELLIGENCE UNDER THE LAW James B. Comey M Y TOPIC TODAY is Intelligence Under the Law. I want to divide my remarks into two parts: First, I d like to start with a plug for lawyers, in a way you may not
What is belief, such that first person authority can exist? Jimmy Rising December 12, 2002 In First Person Authority, Davidson asks why first person authority exists. First person authority is the peculiar
Revelation: God revealing himself to religious believers. Nature of God - What God s character is like. Atheist a person who believes that there is no god. Agnostic A person who believes that we cannot
Handout 1: Arguments -- the basics It is useful to think of an argument as a list of sentences. The last sentence is the conclusion, and the other sentences are the premises. Thus: (1) No professors
Demarcation of Science from other academic disciplines -Demarcation of natural sciences from other academic disciplines -Demarcation of science from technology, pure and applied science -Demarcation of
OUR FORENSICS TEAM IS GETTING NEW UNICORNS By Bradley Walton Copyright MMXV by Bradley Walton, All Rights Reserved. Heuer Publishing LLC in association with Brooklyn Publishers, LLC ISBN: 978-1-60003-815-0
INDUCTIVE AND DEDUCTIVE Péter Érdi Henry R. Luce Professor Center for Complex Systems Studies Kalamazoo College, Michigan and Dept. Biophysics KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics of
Characteristics of Science: Understanding Scientists and their Work (adapted from the work of Prof. Michael Clough) What is science? How does science work? What are scientists like? Most people have given
FOCUS ON THE FAMILY'S t elpyoect Th~ Outline Lesson 5 -Science: What is True? I. Introduction A. Psalm 19:1-4- "The heavens declare the Glory of God" -General Revelation B. Romans 1:18-20 - "God has made
1 ANTICIPATING OBJECTIONS IN ARGUMENTATION It has rightly been emphasized in the literature on argumentation that a well developed capacity to recognize and counter argumentative objections is an important
What Do You Believe? Matthew 28:1-10 ~ April 16, 2017 (Easter Sunday) ~ Heritage Lutheran Church What do you believe? Did OJ do it? On October 3, 1995 a jury in Los Angeles Superior Court ruled that OJ
The Renaissance The Rebirth of European Progress The Collapse of Rome and the Middle Ages When the western portion of the Roman Empire collapsed, much of the European continent entered a period of disunity
Why Ethics? Part 1 of a Video Tutorial on Business Ethics Available on YouTube and itunes University Recorded 2012 by John Hooker Professor, Tepper School of Business, Carnegie Mellon University Lightly
BERT VOGELSTEIN, M.D. '74 22 December 1999 Mame Warren, interviewer Warren: This is Mame Warren. Today is December 22, 1999. I'm in Baltimore, Maryland, with Bert Vogelstein. I've got to start with a silly
Inductive Reasoning http://toknow-11.wikispaces.com/file/view/snowflake_logic.png/291213597/snowflake_logic.png Inductive reasoning is which we reason from particular, observed phenomena to generalizations.
Stem Cell Research on Embryonic Persons is Just Abstract: I argue that embryonic stem cell research is fair to the embryo even on the assumption that the embryo has attained full personhood and an attendant
About the author: A Stroke of Genius: Striving for Greatness in All You Do by R. W. Hamming Dr. Richard Hamming is best known for the Hamming code, Hamming distance and the Hamming spectral window along
Intro to Philosophy Phil 110 Lecture 6: 1-25 Daniel Kelly I. Mechanics A. Upcoming Readings 1. Today we ll discuss a. Dennett, Show Me the Science b. Hume, Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion (10) c.
Lesson 2 The Existence of God Cause & Effect Apologetics Press Introductory Christian Evidences Correspondence Course THE EXISTENCE OF GOD CAUSE & EFFECT One of the most basic issues that the human mind
Global Warming: The Scientific View As a scientist I have been asked to elaborate a bit on my position regarding the Global Warming proposition and how it relates to wind energy. These are very legitimate
Join the national conversation! SHOULD INTELLIGENT DESIGN BE TAUGHT IN SCHOOL? Focus Words design creationism concept evolve perspective Weekly Passage Bethany Collchay s parents want Bethany to believe
Human Nature & Human Diversity: Sex, Love & Parenting; Morality, Religion & Race Course Description Human Nature & Human Diversity is listed as both a Philosophy course (PHIL 253) and a Cognitive Science
Ten questions about teaching evolution in the classroom Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution Teaching evolution in the classroom can pose pitfalls for a teacher. What follows
When does human life begin? by Dr Brigid Vout The question of when human life begins has occupied the minds of people throughout human history, and perhaps today more so than ever. Fortunately, developments
Philosophy (PHIL) 1 PHILOSOPHY (PHIL) PHIL 2. Ethics. 3 Units Examination of the concepts of morality, obligation, human rights and the good life. Competing theories about the foundations of morality will
Genesis Rewritten: A History of Natural History and the Life Sciences Spring, 2017 Instructor Robert Kiely firstname.lastname@example.org Office: A 120 Office Hours: Tuesdays 1-3:30; Wednesdays 1-3:30; special office
Roger Morneau (1925 1999) Early Years Roger Morneau was born in 1925, in New Brunswick Canada to devout Catholic parents. He had two aunts who were nuns, and an uncle who was a priest. In my his teen years
Senator Fielding on ABC TV "Is Global Warming a Myth?" Australian Broadcasting Corporation Broadcast: 14/06/2009 Reporter: Barrie Cassidy Family First Senator, Stephen Fielding, joins Insiders to discuss
Abyev` point) (turning (Diderot) (Baron d Holbach)- ; ; (theory of evolution)?) (mechanism)? ; ; (Durkheim) ; (Patrick Glynn) The Reconciliation of Faith and Reason in a Post-secular World - God: The Evidence
Practice Test Three Spring 2015 True or False True = A, False = B 1. A sound argument is a valid deductive argument with true premisses. 2. A conclusion is a statement of support. 3. An easy way to determine
The Complete Encyclopaedia of the Evidence for God (Unabridged) THE DEVASTATINGLY COMPREHENSIVE REBUTTAL TO THE NEW ATHEISTS S. D. Minhinnick The Complete Encyclopaedia of the Evidence for God (Unabridged)
A Climate of Controversy The Danger of Scientific Illiteracy in a Changing World Presented by Prof. James Wysong, Jr. West Central Florida AMS Local Chapter Hillsborough Community College Don t Believe
Fallacies in academic writing Chad Nilep There are many possible sources of fallacy an idea that is mistakenly thought to be true, even though it may be untrue in academic writing. The phrase logical fallacy
Introduction to Evolution DANILO V. ROGAYAN JR. Faculty, Department of Natural Sciences Only a theory? Basic premises for this discussion Evolution is not a belief system. It is a scientific concept. It
Contradictory Information Can Be Better than Nothing The Example of the Two Firemen J. Michael Dunn School of Informatics and Computing, and Department of Philosophy Indiana University-Bloomington Workshop
Ethical Relativism 1. Ethical Relativism: In this lecture, we will discuss a moral theory called ethical relativism (sometimes called cultural relativism ). Ethical Relativism: An action is morally wrong
1 Van Fraassen s Appreciated Anti-Realism Lane DesAutels I. Introduction In his seminal work, The Scientific Image (1980), Bas van Fraassen formulates a distinct view of what science is - one that has,
Did God Use Evolution? Observations From A Scientist Of Faith By Dr. Werner Gitt If you are searched for the book Did God Use Evolution? Observations from a Scientist of Faith by Dr. Werner Gitt in pdf
FOUR WAYS OF KNOWING (Justifiable True Belief) 1. Sensory input; 2. Authoritative knowledge; 3. Logic and reason; 4. Faith and intuition Argumentative Fallacies The Logic of Writing and Debate from http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/fallacies.html
Aporia vol. 24 no. 1 2014 Incoherence in Epistemic Relativism I. Introduction In Epistemic Relativism, Mark Kalderon defends a view that has become increasingly popular across various academic disciplines.
Our Ultimate Reality Newsletter 07 March 2010 Welcome to your Newsletter. I do hope that you have enjoyed a Wonderful, Joyful and Healthy "week". First of all, as always, I have the greatest pleasure in
Utilitarianism 1. What is Utilitarianism?: This is the theory of morality which says that the right action is always the one that best promotes the total amount of happiness in the world. Utilitarianism
E-LOGOS/2006 ISSN 1121-0442 Identity of Human Clones Marc Holt This question of identity is connected with one of the oldest areas of thought in philosophy, which go back to the origins of humanity. It
SECTION I: PART A The Uncertainty of Science, by Richard Feynman Question 1 (3 pts): Identify the author s argument, main idea, or thesis. The author s argument is that we should not fear doubt; we should
What is an argument? PHIL 110 Lecture on Chapter 3 of How to think about weird things An argument is a collection of two or more claims, one of which is the conclusion and the rest of which are the premises.
A Christian Perspective on Origins: A Plea for Civility Dr. John Robert Schutt Taylor University Fort Wayne A Few Background Statements 1. A Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed in this presentation
1 What is rationality? (Paper presented by Tim Harding at Mordi Skeptics meetup, 1 February 2011) What do we skeptics mean when we say that a belief is irrational? How do we define rationality and irrationality?
BYU Studies Quarterly Volume 45 Issue 1 Article 8 1-1-2006 Evolution: The Remarkable History of a Scientific Theory by Edward J. Larson; Evolution and Mormonism: A Quest for Understanding by Trent D. Stephens