2 Dualism vs. Materialism Dualism: There are two fundamental, distinct kinds of substance, Matter: the stuff the material world is composed of; and Mind: the stuff that that has mental awareness, the kind of thing that can be the subject of conscious experience. Materialism: There is one fundamental kind of substance: Matter: the stuff the material world is composed of. There is no other basic kind of stuff. Everything that exists is, in the final analysis, composed of matter (i.e., atoms, etc.)
3 Metaphysical, yet Personal Dualism and Materialism are different metaphysical positions. They make different claims about the fundamental nature of reality. But the debate arises from a highly personal question: What is it to be me? What kind of thing am I, as a conscious being?
4 Jackson is a Materialist In this essay, Jackson is a materialist-- Dualism isn t really a live option for him. But he rejects a popular version of materialism that he calls physicalism. Physicalism agrees with materialism that the only substance is matter. But it also says something stronger, namely that the world can in principle be explained using only the language of physics. Jackson s own view is known as epiphenomenalism.
5 The Qualia Problem Frank Jackson
6 The Question
7 I am what is sometimes known as a qualia freak. (OK, you re a freak! But ) What in the world are qualia?
8 Quale The felt quality of a conscious experience. Quale is singular, Qualia is plural. There is something that it s like to be conscious, to have a sensation, to see an after-image. Qualia is a word introduced to help us talk about what it s like to be conscious.
9 What are qualia? the hurtfulness of pains, the itchiness of itches, pangs of jealousy, the characteristic experience of tasting a lemon, smelling a rose, hearing a loud noise, or seeing the sky. The raw-feels of conscious experience: What it s (consciously) like to feel pain, see a color, smell a rose, hear a sound, etc.
10 Quale, Anyone? Conscious experience from the inside. Each person has their own awareness of what their own consciousness feels like (what a rose smells like to them, what green looks like to them, etc.), but no direct experience regarding anyone else. Qualia are necessarily subjective, and so, what they are like cannot be captured by any objective description.
11 The Position
12 Jackson s claim: 1) The existence of qualia is incompatible with the truth of physicalism. 2) But qualia exist. 3) So, physicalism must be false. Terminology: Jackson uses physicalism to describe a specific version of materialism.
13 What is physicalism? The theory that all information [truth] is ultimately physical information [truth] information [truth] about physical states and physical events, couched exclusively in physical terms. I.e., the view that 1) everything that exists is physical (material) (this is simply what materialism says), and that 2) everything can, in principle, be fully described and explained by physical (material) theories. I.e., a completed physics could explain everything. Jackson accepts this. His goal is to reject this.
14 Physicalism vs. Materialism As Jackson uses these terms: Materialism The metaphysical claim that the only fundamental substance is matter. Materialism involves a rejection of dualism. Physicalism The above plus the claim that everything can (in principle) be explained by the laws of physics. So, for Jackson, physicalism is a specific version of materialism.
15 Jackson s View The way Jackson uses these terms, physicalism says something more than materialism. Physicalism = Materialism + every fact is a physical fact; that is, every truth is a truth of physics. This is important because Jackson will accept materialism but reject physicalism.
16 The Argument
17 Jackson s Argument: 1) The existence of qualia is incompatible with the truth of physicalism. 2) But qualia exist. 3) So, physicalism must be false. Jackson thinks 2) is known by experience to be true. (We all know that there is something that it is like to be conscious.); but 1) must be argued for (which he is about to do), in which case, 3) will follow.
18 The knowledge argument for qualia: 1) Suppose that one knew everything there is to know about the make-up of the physical world and the physical theories explaining it. 2) One would still not (in virtue of this knowledge) know what it was like to feel pain, smell a rose, etc. 3) Therefore, knowing all this is not knowing everything. There is something that physicalism leaves out.
19 The Argument: An Illustration
20 Fred s color experience: Suppose that Fred sees two shades of red that no one else can differentiate (i.e., both shades look the same to everyone else). He can consistently discriminate the two different colors. He tells us that they look (to him) very different. Suppose we know everything there is to know about Fred s brain and eyes. Even so, this would not allow us to know what the other red looks like.
21 Fred s color experience (cont.) Suppose that we all have operations to make our brain and eyes work just like Fred s. After the operation, we will see the two shades of red, and know what the other shade looks like. So, we will then know something new, something that we didn t know before the operation, even though we knew everything there was to know about the operation of Fred s brain.
22 The Conclusion
23 Jackson s conclusion: one can have all the physical information without [thereby] having all the information there is to have (without, that is, knowing what it feels like to have a given experience). Physicalism says that everything can be explained in terms of physical explanations. But, we have just shown that we can know all the physical explanations there are to know without knowing everything, i.e., without knowing what qualia are like. So, the existence of qualia proves that physicalism must be false.
24 Qualia vs. Physicalism: Physicalism: 1) everything that exists is material (this is what materialism claims and dualism denies); and 2) everything can, in principle, be fully described and explained by physical theories. The existence of qualia, Jackson argues, conflicts with 2), but not with 1). That is, rejecting 2) doesn t necessarily force us to accept substance dualism.
26 Jackson: Dualism is not the only alternative to Physicalism Jackson thinks that physicalism is false but does not because of this infer that substance dualism must be true. That is, he rejects physicalism but does not reject materialism. So, what is the alternative? How can he accept materialism and deny physicalism?
28 The Bogey of Epiphenomenalism Epiphenomenalism: the idea that qualia are causally impotent with respect to the physical world. i.e., the view that even though qualia exist and are caused by events in the physical world (e.g., the way the world interacts with our sense organs and central nervous system), qualia do not themselves cause changes in the physical world (i.e., they are causally impotent with respect to it).
29 Definitions: Epiphenomenon: a phenomenon that occurs with and seems to result from another but has no reciprocal effect or subsequent influence; A causally inert byproduct. Applied to consciousness: regarded as a byproduct of the material activities of the brain and nerve-system. [Oxford English Dictionary]
30 Epiphenomenalism: Definitions: Epiphenomenalism is the view that mental events [such as having qualia] are caused by physical events in the brain, but have no effects upon any physical events. Behavior is caused by muscles that contract upon receiving neural impulses, and neural impulses are generated by input from other neurons or from sense organs. On the epiphenomenalist view, mental events [what it s like to be conscious] play no causal role in this process. [Stanford Encyclopedia of Phil.]
31 Epiphenomenalism There is something it s like to be conscious, to feel pleasure or pain; something that it feels like to be happy or sad, etc. But none of this has any causal impact on the world. That is, nothing would be any different if we were all zombies, if we had no inner life. So, yes, we have an inner life, but this has no effect on anything.
32 P h y s. S t I m u l i Dualism vs. Epiphenomenalism Mental State B e h a v. R e s p o n s e
33 Mental States and Causality
34 So, Epiphenomenalism says that qualia (e.g., what red looks like to us) are caused by events in the physical world; i.e., it s real (we really have such experiences), but do not themselves cause changes in the physical world; i.e., even though conscious states are caused by the material world, what it s like to be conscious doesn t have any effect whatsoever in the world.
35 An Objection Rebutted
36 Qualia are an excrescence*: They do nothing, they explain nothing This is perfectly true, but no objection to qualia. it rests on an overly optimistic view of what human beings can know. I.e., just because we can t explain them, this doesn t mean that they don t exist. *excrescence: 1. The action of growing out or forth. Also, immoderate growth, overflow, abnormal increase. [Oxford English Dictionary]
38 Qualia and Physicalism: Physicalism: 1) everything that exists is material, This is simply what materialism claims. 2) everything can, in principle, be fully described and explained by physical theories. This is what makes physicalism more than mere materialism. For Jackson, the existence of qualia is incompatible with 2), but not incompatible with 1). We don t really know what qualia are. So, epiphenomenalism does not imply substance dualism. For Jackson, the existence of qualia proves that there are facts that aren t facts about physics, but it doesn t prove that there is any substance other than material substance.
Introduction to Philosophy Fall 2015 Test 3--Answers 1. According to Descartes, a. what I really am is a body, but I also possess a mind. b. minds and bodies can t causally interact with one another, but
Lecture 8 Property Dualism Frank Jackson Epiphenomenal Qualia and What Mary Didn t Know 1 Agenda 1. Physicalism, Qualia, and Epiphenomenalism 2. Property Dualism 3. Thought Experiment 1: Fred 4. Thought
Introduction to Philosophy Fall 2018 Test 3: Answers 1. According to Descartes, a. what I really am is a body, but I also possess a mind. b. minds and bodies can t causally interact with one another, but
Jackson opens his essay with a definition: It is undeniable that the physical, chemical and biological sciences have provided a great deal of information about the world we live in and about ourselves.
Test 3 Minds and Bodies Review The Questions What am I? What sort of thing am I? Am I a mind that occupies a body? Are mind and matter different (sorts of) things? Is conscious awareness a physical event
Test 3 Minds and Bodies Review The issue: The Questions What am I? What sort of thing am I? Am I a mind that occupies a body? Are mind and matter different (sorts of) things? Is conscious awareness a physical
Michael Lacewing The knowledge argument PROPERTY DUALISM Property dualism is the view that, although there is just one kind of substance, physical substance, there are two fundamentally different kinds
24.09x Minds and Machines Frank Jackson, Epiphenomenal qualia Excerpts from Frank Jackson, Epiphenomenal qualia, Philosophical Quarterly 32: 127-136 (1982). Jackson begins by describing the popular doctrine
Do the ideas in our mind resemble the qualities in the objects that caused these ideas in our minds? Mind s Eye Idea Object Does this resemble this? In Locke s Terms Even if we accept that the ideas in
Frank Jackson Epiphenomenal Qualia The following is excerpted from Frank Jackson s article Epiphenomenal Qualia published in Philosophical Quarterly in 1982, and his article What Mary Didn t Know published
EPIPHENOMENALISM Keith Campbell and Nicholas J.J. Smith December 1993 Written for the Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Epiphenomenalism is a theory concerning the relation between the mental and physical
Mind and Body Is mental really material?" René Descartes (1596 1650) v 17th c. French philosopher and mathematician v Creator of the Cartesian co-ordinate system, and coinventor of algebra v Wrote Meditations
PHI 1500: Major Issues in Philosophy Session 15 March 26 th, 2015 Philosophy of Mind: Jackson 1 Recap: Descartes vs. Ryle Substance Dualism Mind & body exist in two different worlds (mental vs. physical),
PHILOSOPHY OF KNOWLEDGE & REALITY W E E K 4 : I M M A T E R I A L I S M, D U A L I S M, & T H E M I N D - B O D Y P R O B L E M AGENDA 1. Quick Review 2. Arguments Against Materialism/Physicalism (continued)
PHILOSOPHY OF KNOWLEDGE & REALITY W E E K 3 D A Y 2 : I M M A T E R I A L I S M, D U A L I S M, & T H E M I N D - B O D Y P R O B L E M AGENDA 1. Quick Review 2. Arguments Against Materialism/Physicalism
Francesca Hovagimian Philosophy of Psychology Professor Dinishak 5 March 2016 The Qualiafications (or Lack Thereof) of Epiphenomenal Qualia In his essay Epiphenomenal Qualia, Frank Jackson makes the case
Think by Simon Blackburn Chapter 2b Mind According to Blackburn, the argument from analogy to the existence of other minds: A. is only available to the Cartesian dualist. B. is not available to the Cartesian
Philosophy and Phenomenological Research Vol. LXVIII, No. 1, January 2004 Subjective Character and Reflexive Content DAVID M. ROSENTHAL City University of New York Graduate Center Philosophy and Cognitive
: What are some of the capacities that make humans unique? (p.389 k.4195) Biblical anthropology explains these unique and distinguishing abilities in terms of the human person being an embodied or. (p.389
General Philosophy Dr Peter Millican,, Hertford College Lecture 4: Two Cartesian Topics Scepticism, and the Mind 2 Last Time we looked at scepticism about INDUCTION. This Lecture will move on to SCEPTICISM
24.09 Minds and Machines Fall 11 HASS-D CI free will again summary final exam info Image by MIT OpenCourseWare. 24.09 F11 1 the first part of the incompatibilist argument Image removed due to copyright
George Berkeley The Principles of Human Knowledge Review To be is to be perceived Obvious to the Mind all those bodies which compose the earth have no subsistence without a mind, their being is to be perceived
Epiphenomenal Qualia Frank Jackson The Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 32, No. 127. (Apr., 1982), pp. 127-136. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0031-8094%28198204%2932%3a127%3c127%3aeq%3e2.0.co%3b2-5 The
John Locke An Essay Concerning Human Understanding From Rationalism to Empiricism Empiricism vs. Rationalism Empiricism: All knowledge ultimately rests upon sense experience. All justification (our reasons
Metaphysics & Consciousness A talk by Larry Muhlstein A brief note on philosophy It is about thinking So think about what I am saying and ask me questions And go home and think some more For self improvement
Philosophy 110W: Introduction to Philosophy Fall 2013 Hamilton College Russell Marcus I. Functionalism, Liberals and Chauvinists Class #23 - Epiphenomenalism Jackson, Epiphenomenal Qualia We have looked
Is Property Dualism Better Off than Substance Dualism? William G. Lycan University of North Carolina During the last quarter-century, mind-body dualism has been doing surprisingly well: Campbell (1984),
On The Issue of Mind and Body Course: Minds and Machines (PHL342) UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO By: Arzoo Zaheer 1 Dualism is the thesis that contrasts mind and body as ontologically independent substances with
Minds and Machines spring 2003 Hill and Nagel on the appearance of contingency, contd. 1 can the physicalist credibly deny (1)? 1. If I can clearly and distinctly conceive a proposition p to be true, then
24.09 Minds and Machines Fall 11 HASS-D CI more on the knowledge argument Nagel on bats 1 resisting the knowledge argument 1. imprisoned Mary knows all the physical facts, hence: 2. if physicalism is true,
GENERAL PHILOSOPHY WEEK 5: MIND & BODY JONNY MCINTOSH INTRODUCTION Last week: The Mind-Body Problem(s) Introduced Descartes's Argument from Doubt This week: Descartes's Epistemological Argument Frank Jackson's
Examining the nature of mind Michael Daniels A review of Understanding Consciousness by Max Velmans (Routledge, 2000). Max Velmans is Reader in Psychology at Goldsmiths College, University of London. Over
NOĒSIS XVII Spring 2016 Rejecting Jackson s Knowledge Argument with an Account of a priori Physicalism Reggie Mills I. Introduction In 1982 Frank Jackson presented the Knowledge Argument against physicalism:
AS A COURTESY TO OUR SPEAKER AND AUDIENCE MEMBERS, PLEASE SILENCE ALL PAGERS AND CELL PHONES Please remember to sign-in by scanning your badge Department of Psychiatry Grand Rounds James M. Stedman, PhD.
From Transcendental Logic to Transcendental Deduction Let me see if I can say a few things to re-cap our first discussion of the Transcendental Logic, and help you get a foothold for what follows. Kant
170 Great Problems in Philosophy and Physics - Solved? 15 The Self and Other Minds This chapter on the web informationphilosopher.com/mind/ego The Self 171 The Self and Other Minds Celebrating René Descartes,
Department of Philosophy TCD Great Philosophers Dennett Tom Farrell Department of Philosophy TCD Department of Surgical Anatomy RCSI Department of Clinical Medicine RCSI 1. Socrates 2. Plotinus 3. Augustine
Dualism: What s at stake? Dualists posit that reality is comprised of two fundamental, irreducible types of stuff : Material and non-material Material Stuff: Includes all the familiar elements of the physical
Zombie-Mary and the Blue Banana On the Compatibility of the 'Knowledge Argument' with the Argument from Modality Tillmann Vierkant Max Planck Institute for Psychological Research Amalienstr.33 80799 Munich
Bertrand Russell and the Problem of Consciousness The Problem of Consciousness People often talk about consciousness as a mystery. But there isn t anything mysterious about consciousness itself; nothing
The Mind/Body Problem This book briefly explains the problem of explaining consciousness and three proposals for how to do it. Site: HCC Eagle Online Course: 6143-PHIL-1301-Introduction to Philosophy-S8B-13971
Purple Haze: The Puzzle of Consciousness The MIT Faculty has made this article openly available. Please share how this access benefits you. Your story matters. Citation As Published Publisher Levine, Joseph.
Hume on Ideas, Impressions, and Knowledge in class. Let my try one more time to make clear the ideas we discussed today Ideas and Impressions First off, Hume, like Descartes, Locke, and Berkeley, believes
Debate on the mind and scientific method (continued) on http://forums.philosophyforums.com. Quotations are in red and the responses by Death Monkey (Kevin Dolan) are in black. Note that sometimes a quote
Philosophy of Mind PHIL 255 Chris Eliasmith T/Th 4-5:20p AL 208 The Traditional View: Dualism A healthy body is a guest chamber for the soul: a sick body is a prison. (Francis Bacon) We are bound to our
Physicalism and Conceptual Analysis * Esa Díaz-León email@example.com Physicalism is a widely held claim about the nature of the world. But, as it happens, it also has its detractors. The first step
Minds and Machines spring 2003 The explanatory gap and Kripke s argument revisited 1 preliminaries handouts on the knowledge argument and qualia on the website 2 Materialism and qualia: the explanatory
Philosophy and Phenomenological Research Vol. LIX, No.2, June 1999 On David Chalmers's The Conscious Mind SYDNEY SHOEMAKER Cornell University One does not have to agree with the main conclusions of David
Could Anyone Justiably Believe Epiphenomenalism? Richard Swinburne [Swinburne, Richard, 2011, Could Anyone Justiably Believe Epiphenomenalism?, Journal of Consciousness Studies, vol 18, no 3-4, 2011, pp.196-216.]
Churchland and Adams, et al. at an Impasse: A Way Forward? Patricia Churchland has established a reputation for her staunchly reductionist theory of consciousness. But unlike other notable physicalists
Philosophy Compass 1/1 (2006): 58 64, 10.1111/j.1747-9991.2006.00008.x Consciousness, Theories of Uriah Kriegel University of Arizona/University of Sydney Abstract Phenomenal consciousness is the property
Kant s Copernican Revolution While the thoughts are still fresh in my mind, let me try to pick up from where we left off in class today, and say a little bit more about Kant s claim that reason has insight
Russell s Problems of Philosophy KNOWLEDGE: A CQUAINTANCE & DESCRIPTION J a n u a r y 2 4 Today : 1. Review Russell s against Idealism 2. Knowledge by Acquaintance & Description 3. What are we acquianted
David Chalmers on Mind and Consciousness Richard Brown Forthcoming in Andrew Bailey (ed) Philosophy of Mind: The Key Thinkers. Continuum Press David Chalmers is perhaps best known for his argument against
Intentionality, Information and Consciousness: A Naturalistic Perspective A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of
PHILOSOPHY OF KNOWLEDGE & REALITY W E E K 3 : N A T U R E O F R E A L I T Y AGENDA 1. Review of Personal Identity 2. The Stuff of Reality 3. Materialistic/Physicalism 4. Immaterial/Idealism PERSONAL IDENTITY
Tony Chadwick Essay Prize 2006 Winner Can we Save Qualia? (Thomas Nagel and the Psychophysical Nexus ) By Eileen Walker 1. Introduction: The problem of causal exclusion If our minds are part of the physical
Chalmers says Too Hard ; Dennett says Too Easy DENNETT DENIES these alleged troublesome features of conscious experience: DIRECT/RELIABLE/INTRINSIC/UNANALYZABLE/INEFFABLE/PRIVATE QUALIA, RICH, IMAGISTIC,
Stephen Lenhart Primary and Secondary Qualities John Locke s distinction between primary and secondary qualities of bodies has been a widely discussed feature of his work. Locke makes several assertions
Consciousness Without Awareness Eric Saidel Department of Philosophy Box 43770 University of Southwestern Louisiana Lafayette, LA 70504-3770 USA firstname.lastname@example.org Copyright (c) Eric Saidel 1999 PSYCHE, 5(16),
What I am is what I am, Are you what you are, Or what? Minds and Bodies What am I, anyway? Can collections of atoms be the subjects of conscious mental states? The Big Question Mind and/or Matter? What
Cartesian Dualism I am not my body Dualism = two-ism Concerning human beings, a (substance) dualist says that the mind and body are two different substances (things). The brain is made of matter, and part
That Thing-I-Know-Not-What by [Perm #7903685] The philosopher George Berkeley, in part of his general thesis against materialism as laid out in his Three Dialogues and Principles of Human Knowledge, gives
Leuenberger, S. (2012) Review of David Chalmers, The Character of Consciousness. Australasian Journal of Philosophy, 90 (4). pp. 803-806. ISSN 0004-8402 Copyright 2013 Taylor & Francis A copy can be downloaded
The Zombies Among Us Eric T. Olson To appear in Nous. abstract Philosophers disagree about whether there could be zombies : beings physically identical to normal human people but lacking consciousness.
Intro to Philosophy Review for Exam 2 Epistemology Theory of Knowledge What is knowledge? What is the structure of knowledge? What particular things can I know? What particular things do I know? Do I know
Debate on the mind and scientific method (continued again) on http://forums.philosophyforums.com. Quotations are in red and the responses by Death Monkey (Kevin Dolan) are in black. Note that sometimes
Purple Haze, The Puzzle of Consciousness Levine, Joseph Professor of Philosophy, Ohio State University Abstract Consciousness presents a problem. There are excellent reasons for believing that materialism,
Property Dualism and the Knowledge Argument: Are Qualia Really a Problem for Physicalism? Ronald Planer Rutgers Univerity Abstract: Where does the mind fit into the physical world? Not surprisingly, philosophers
PHI 1500: Major Issues in Philosophy Session 13 March 17 th, 2015 Philosophy of Mind: Descartes 1 Philosophy of Mind OBen concerned with explaining the relafonship between our minds and our physical bodies,
17. Tying it up: thoughts and intentionality Martín Abreu Zavaleta June 23, 2014 1 Frege on thoughts Frege is concerned with separating logic from psychology. In addressing such separations, he coins a
What am I? An immaterial thing: the case for dualism Today we turn to our third big question: What are you? We can focus this question a little bit by introducing the idea of a physical or material thing.
WHY I AM NOT A DUALIST 1 Karen Bennett Princeton University not very successful early draft, March 2005 Dualists think that not all the facts are physical facts. They think that there are facts about phenomenal
There are two explanatory gaps Dr Tom McClelland University of Glasgow 1 THERE ARE TWO EXPLANATORY GAPS ABSTRACT The explanatory gap between the physical and the phenomenal is at the heart of the Problem
Philosophy Science Scientific Philosophy Proceedings of GAP.5, Bielefeld 22. 26.09.2003 1. Introduction On the Prospects of Confined and Catholic Physicalism Andreas Hüttemann In this paper I want to distinguish
Biophysics of Consciousness: A Foundational Approach R. R. Poznanski, J. A. Tuszynski and T. E. Feinberg Copyright 2017 World Scientific, Singapore. FOREWORD: ADDRESSING THE HARD PROBLEM OF CONSCIOUSNESS
01-Weiskrantz-Chap01 7/8/08 11:17 AM Page 1 Chapter 1 Consciousness and explanation Martin Davies 1.1 Two questions about consciousness: what? and why? Many aspects of our mental lives are conscious an
ZOMBIES, EPIPHENOMENALISM, AND PERSONAL EXPLANATIONS: A TENSION IN MORELAND S ARGUMENT FROM CONSCIOUSNESS University of Cambridge Abstract. In his so-called Argument from Consciousness (AC), J.P. Moreland
From Descartes to Locke Consciousness Knowledge Science Reality Brains in Vats What is the point? The point of the brain in a vat story is not to convince us that we might actually be brains in vats, But
CR14-746 The importance of the 110th Psalm is attested by the remarkable prominence given to it in the New Testament. (1) It affirms the Deity of Jesus, thus answering those who deny the full divine meaning
Kant Lecture 4 Review Synthetic a priori knowledge Statements involving necessity or strict universality could never be known on the basis of sense experience, and are thus known (if known at all) a priori.
Warren 1 Koby Warren PHIL 400 Dr. Alfino 10/30/2010 Annotated Bibliography Chalmers, David John. The conscious mind: in search of a fundamental theory.! New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. Print.!
On the Conceivability of Zombies By BRENT SILBY Department Of Philosophy, University of Canterbury, New Zealand Copyright (c) Brent Silby 1998 www.def-logic.com/articles Introduction Consciousness lies