Early beginnings of Scientology

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1 Scientology have in recent years gained influence with several highprofile individuals, among them some famous Hollywood actors, becoming followers and furthering its aims and teachings. Scientology Supporters claim that Scientology amounts to the application of scientific principles and methods to solve spiritual questions and problems, and that it is the first time in the history of mankind that this has be achieved. ABOVE: Scientologists often promote their church at info stands in public places where L. Ron Hubbard s books are sold and people are invited to discuss the principles of Dianetics. The founder of Scientology, L Ron Hubbard, first developed the doctrine of Dianetics, which is a method to alleviate unwanted sensations and emotions, irrational fears and psychosomatic illnesses. Dianetics is described as "what the soul is doing to the body through the mind". Both Dianetics and Scientology is said to help individuals achieve greater ability and causation, enabling them to better understand and handle their own lives. Through the application of these principles an individual can achieve what is known in Scientology as the Eighth Dynamic, a condition of infinity. Scientologists believe that man is a spiritual being who is by nature good, but that negative experiences in a person's life cause him or her to do bad or wrong things. The consequences of the negative experiences (called 'engrams'), also lead to people not being able to achieve their full potential as spiritual beings, and thus living an unhappy and unfulfilled life. Through a process of spiritual counselling called 'auditing' Scientology claims to help individuals to eliminate the engrams (consequences of negative experiences) so that they can become 'clear' to develop further spiritually without interference. The eventual objective is to achieve a condition of 'total freedom' in which the individual exists as 'soul' (thetan) in perfect infinity without the body.

2 Because Scientology is a relatively new religion, it will probably be better understood if we study it on the basis of its development. Early beginnings of Scientology L Ron Hubbard ABOVE: L Ron Hubbard auditing a tomato plant using a Scientology E-meter. In the 1950s the publication of Hubbard's book Dianetics caused a sensation in America. The Church of Scientology would be established later as a direct result of this book and its doctrines. Lafayette Ronald (L Ron) Hubbard was born in Tilden, Nebraska (USA) on 13 March 1911, and from an early age he showed an intense interest in the working of the human mind and thoughts. According to the Church of Scientology's official biography of him, he had the opportunity as a young man to make several journeys all over the world, and on these journeys he came into contact with, inter alia, Eastern religions and philosophies such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Taoism. He later studied, among other things, mathematics, engineering and nuclear physics at the George Washington University, and was also a naval officer during the Second World War. Hubbard was reputedly heavily wounded in the war, and he claimed to have formulated his doctrine of Dianetics during his long period of recovery. He also attributed his recovery to the application of elements of this doctrine to himself. Dianetics the first step In 1950 the publication of L Ron's (as Scientologists refer to him today) book, Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health, was greeted with scepticism by many members of the scientific community, but the public was ecstatic about it. At the end of the same year the Hubbard Dianetic

3 Research Foundation was established, and the principles of Dianetics were first applied in various places in America and then also in New Zealand, Australia and South Africa. Two components of the mind According to the doctrine of Dianetics, the mind consists of two components, namely the analytical and the reactive. The analytical is the conscious part of the mind that you use all the time. However, when a person is exposed to negative emotional experiences, shock or physical pain, the analytical mind automatically closes down and the reactive mind takes over its functions. Engrams restrict development During these periods the reactive mind takes note of everything that happens, but when the analytical mind takes control again later, the person cannot necessarily remember the details. The 'recordings' of the reactive mind are called 'engrams' and, if they are not removed or erased, they may cause unevaluated, unknowing and unwanted fears, emotions, pains and psychosomatic illnesses. Cleared through 'auditing' During spiritual counseling sessions called 'auditing', the person is allegedly helped to trace engrams, work through them and eliminate them. The aim of these sessions, led by an 'auditor', is to help individuals to 'clear' their reactive minds so that their analytical minds can function without the negative effects the reactive mind can cause.

4 Scientology becomes a religion In 1954 Dianetics made the transition from human science to religion with the establishment of the Church of Scientology in Los Angeles (USA). It was the direct result of a conviction reached by L Ron during several auditing sessions, namely that man is not essentially a body or mind, but a soul. He first asked himself exactly who looks at the picture if, for example, a person thinks of a dog and sees the dog's image in front of him. His conclusion: not the body or the mind, but the person self - the soul - a spiritual being. Scientology, combined from the Latin word Scio (knowing in the fullest sense of the word) and the Greek word logos (study of expressed thoughts) would in future mainly concern itself with this spiritual being. Man is an eternal being, a thetan Although L Ron's concept of 'soul' to a certain extent is similar to that of the Christian doctrine, he called it a 'thetan' (derived from the Greek letter È, symbol for 'think' or 'live') to distinguish it from other religions. All people have a body and mind, but they are thetans. ABOVE: An Artist s impression of a soul or thetan. The thetan is an immortal being with virtually unlimited powers and, according to L Ron, the basis of "everything that is good and creative", including of "creation and life". The thetan uses the mind to solve problems in order to survive (see Eight dynamics of life), and the mind keeps a record of everything the individual experiences (see The beginning: Dianetics). These records can be events from the individual's present life, or even from previous lives that the thetan lived in other bodies. It therefore means that Scientologists believe in a form of reincarnation, where the thetan can be consecutively born in different bodies.

5 Eight dynamics of life As in various other religions, Scientology regards 'living forever' as the main objective in man's life. In order to reach full spiritual freedom, the individual (thetan) must not only become clear, but must attain the state of 'operating thetan' (OT). The qualities of OT are personal and also include distinguishing immortality and freedom from the cycle of birth and death. If man's main purpose is to live forever, L Ron concluded that the urge to survive (in the short term and into infinity) is man's strongest urge or desire. He divided the urge to survive into eight compartments or levels to better examine and understand "every aspect of life" so that the individual can achieve his or her objective of perfect infinity. These levels are called the eight dynamics of life. First dynamic self. This is the urge to survive as individual, as 'self' and includes the individual's body and mind, as well as his or her closest possessions. It does not include other people. Second dynamic creativity. This is the urge to create something for the future. It includes the family and children, where sex is regarded as the 'mechanism' to ensure future survival. Third dynamic - group survival. This is the desire to survive as a group of individuals, or with the help of a group of individuals. The group can, for example, be a circle of friends, a club, community, organisation, state, nation or race and the group can be of any size. Fourth dynamic species. This is the urge to survive through all mankind and as all mankind. Fifth dynamic - life forms. This is the urge to survive as a form of life, together with other life forms and with the aid of other life forms (which include all animals, birds, fish, insects and plants). Sixth dynamic - physical universe. The physical universe has four components - matter, energy, space and time. The sixth dynamic is the physical universe's urge to survive, with the aid of each of its components. Seventh dynamic spiritual. This is the urge to survive as spiritual being, also seen as the urge of life itself to survive. Eighth dynamic infinity. The eighth dynamic is the desire to survive in infinity. This dynamic is sometimes called God, Supreme Being or Creator, but is better defined as 'infinity' or 'eternity'. Perfect freedom

6 The thetan's ultimate purpose is to exist in infinity in a state of total freedom without a body and a mind (but still 'aware'). An individual who progresses through auditing along the "bridge to freedom" up to levels "on the other side" of clear can achieve this state of total freedom, separated from the restrictions of their mortal bodies and the physical universe. The thetan has then achieved the full eighth dynamic. Nature and being of God Scientologists state unequivocally that they believe in God, but their concept of God does not necessarily correspond with the Judaist-Christian or Islamic concepts of God. In his explanation of the eighth dynamic L Ron Hubbard said that "when the seventh dynamic is reached in its entirety, one will only then discover the true eighth dynamic". Scientology does not expect anyone to accept anything 'in faith', and therefore it has no fixed doctrine on the nature and being of God or the Supreme Being, except that it involves 'infinity' and 'everything'. Holy writings The book published in 1950 by L Ron Hubbard, founder of Scientology, is today still regarded as the basic holy writing in Scientology. Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health (which, incidentally, has made L Ron Hubbard a multi millionaire) is reprinted regularly. ABOVE: L. Ron Hubbard, founder of Scientology which made him a millionaire.. The church also regards as holy and authoritative an additional pages of Hubbard s written material, which includes several books and about lectures on audio cassettes. In principle this material is available to anyone interested in Scientology.

7 The most holy writings in the Church of Scientology are merely known as Operating Thetan, or OT-Doctrines, which are shrouded in the greatest secrecy. In recent years the church has been involved in various lawsuits in order to ensure the secrecy of the contents of these writings and to exercise sole control over it (see Scientology in controversy). According to the church, the content of the doctrines is of such nature that it may be revealed only to advanced Scientologists who are spiritually and ethically thoroughly prepared. The spiritual development of anyone else who may otherwise be exposed to it prematurely, may be adversely affected. Emblems The emblem of Scientology, which consists of the letter S on top of two triangles, was first used in The triangle at the top is called the KRC-triangle, because its three angles represent knowledge (K), responsibility (R), and control (C). The triangle at the bottom is the ARC-triangle and its angles symbolise affinity (A), reality (R), and communication (C). All these angles are regarded as important and related concepts in Scientology. The symbol for Dianetics resembles the Greek word delta, with yellow lines symbolising life and green lines symbolising the first four sections of man s instinct for survival as summarised in the Eight Dynamics for Life. Sometimes Scientologists also use an eight-pointed cross to symbolise the Eight Dynamics of Life. Special days Scientologists regard L Ron Hubbard as no more than an ordinary man, but do celebrate his birthday (13 March) annually as a red-letter day. Other special days that are celebrated include the first publication of Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health (9 May); Auditors Day (the second Sunday of September) in honour of all Scientology auditors; and the founding of the International Society of Scientologists on 7 October. Scientologists in different countries or geographical regions may also celebrate individually days of particular importance to them, e.g. the founding of the local Church of Scientology in their area. Members of the church may also celebrate other traditional religious holidays such as Christmas. ================================================================== Glossary Engrams: 'Recordings' of negative events by the reactive mind that hamper man's development. Auditor: A Scientologist who is 'clear' and helps others to become clear too through auditing. Auditing: Therapeutic process in which negative engrams are worked through and eliminated. Reactive recordings: See engrams. Clear: State of a soul that has eliminated all negative engrams through auditing.

8 Thetan: Soul of man. Immortal, essentially good. Article by Manie Bosman (

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